On October 21:
1096 People’s Crusade: The Turkish army annihilated the People’s Army of the West.
1520 Ferdinand Magellan discoversed the strait which was named after him.
1600 Tokugawa Ieyasu defeatedthe leaders of rival Japanese clans in the Battle of Sekigahara, which marked the beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate that ruled Japan until the mid-nineteenth century.
1772 Samuel Taylor Coleridge, British poet, was born (d. 1834).
1797 In Boston Harbor, the 44-gun United States Navy frigate USS Constitution was launched.
1805 Battle of Trafalgar: A British fleet led by Vice Admiral Lord Nelson defeatd a combined French and Spanish fleet off the coast of Spain under Admiral Villeneuve.
1805 Austrian General Mack surrendered his army to the Grand Army of Napoleon at the Battle of Ulm.
1816 The Penang Free School was founded in George Town, Penang, by the Rev Hutchings. It is the oldest English-language school in Southeast Asia.
1824 Joseph Aspdin patented Portland cement.
1833 Alfred Nobel, Swedish inventor and founder of the Nobel Prize, was born(d. 1896).
1854 Florence Nightingale and a staff of 38 nurses were sent to the Crimean War.
1861 American Civil War: Battle of Ball’s Bluff – Union forces under Colonel Edward Baker were defeated by Confederate troops.
1867 Manifest Destiny: Medicine Lodge Treaty – Near Medicine Lodge, Kansas a landmark treaty was signed by southern Great Plains Indian leaders. The treaty required Native American Plains tribes to relocate a reservation in western Oklahoma.
1892 Opening ceremonies for the World’s Columbian Exposition were held in Chicago, though because construction was behind schedule, the exposition did not open until May 1, 1893.
1895 The Republic of Formosa collapsed as Japanese forces invaded.
1902 In the United States, a five month strike by United Mine Workers ended.
1917 Dizzy Gillespie, American musician, was born (d. 1993).
1921 Sir Malcolm Arnold, British composer, was born (d. 2006).
1921 President Warren G. Harding delivered the first speech by a sitting President against lynching in the deep south.
1921 George Melford’s silent film, The Sheik, starring Rudolph Valentino, premiered.
1929 Ursula K. Le Guin, American author was born.
1940 Geoff Boycott, English cricketer, was born.
1940 Manfred Mann, English musician, was born.
1942 Judy Sheindlin, American judge (“Judge Judy”), was born.
1945 Women’s suffrage: Women were allowed to vote in France for the first time.
1952 Trevor Chappell, Australian cricketer, was born.
1953 Peter Mandelson, British politician, was born.
1956 Carrie Fisher, American actress and writer, was born.
1959 The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, opened to the public.
1964 Peter Snell won a second gold at the Toky Olympics.
1965 Comet Ikeya-Seki approached perihelion, passing 450,000 kilometers from the sun.
1966 Aberfan disaster: A slag heap collapsed on the village of Aberfan, killing 144 people, mostly schoolchildren.
1967 Vietnam War: More than 100,000 war protesters gathered in Washington, D.C.. Similar demonstrations occurred simultaneously in Japan and Western Europe.
1969 A coup d’état in Somalia brought Siad Barre to power.
1973 John Paul Getty III‘s ear was cut off by his kidnappers and sent to a newspaper in Rome.
1978 Australian pilot Frederick Valentich vanished in a Cessna 182 over the Bass Strait, after reporting contact with an unidentified aircraft.
1979 Moshe Dayan resigned from the Israeli government because of strong disagreements with Prime Minister Menachem Begin over policy towards the Arabs.
1986 In Lebanon, pro-Iranian kidnappers claimed to have abducted American writer Edward Tracy.
1987 Jaffna hospital massacre by Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka killing 70.
1994 North Korea and the United States signed an agreement that requires North Korea to stop its nuclear weapons program and agree to inspections.
1994 In Seoul, 32 people were killed when the Seongsu Bridge collapsed.
2003 Images of the dwarf planet Eris were taken and subsequently used in its discovery by the team of Michael E. Brown, Chad Trujillo, and David L. Rabinowitz.
Sourced from NZ History Online & WIkipeda