1293 Robert Winchelsey left England for Rome, to be consecrated as Archbishop of Canterbury.
1318 Berwick-upon-Tweed was captured by the Scottish from the English.
1340 Niels Ebbesen killed Gerhard III of Holstein in his bedroom, ending the 1332-1340 interregnum in Denmark.
1572 In the Eighty Years’ War, the Watergeuzen captured Brielle from the Spaniards, gaining the first foothold on land for what would become the Dutch Republic.
1815 Otto von Bismarck, 1st Chancellor of Germany, was born (d. 1898).
1867 Singapore became a British crown colony.
1873 The British steamer RMS Atlantic sank off Nova Scotia, killing 547.
1875 Edgar Wallace, English writer, was born (d. 1932).
1887 Mumbai Fire Brigade was established.
1891 The Wrigley Company was founded in Chicago.
1908 The Territorial Force (renamed Territorial Army in 1920) was formed as a volunteer reserve component of the British Army.
1912 The Greek athlete Konstantinos Tsiklitiras broke the world record in the standing long jump jumping 3.47 meters.
1918 The Royal Air Force was created by the merger of the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service.
1924 – The Royal Canadian Air Force was formed.
1932 Debbie Reynolds, American actress, was born.
1933 The recently elected Nazis under Julius Streicher organised a one-day boycott of all Jewish-owned businesses in Germany.
1937 Aden became a British crown colony.
1938 – Ali MacGraw, American actress, was born.
1939 Generalísimo Francisco Franco announced the end of the Spanish Civil War, when the last of the Republican forces surrendered.
1944 Navigation errors lead to an accidental American bombing of the Swiss city of Schaffhausen.
1945 World War II: Operation Iceberg – United States troops land on Okinawa in the last campaign of the war.
1946 Aleutian Island earthquake: A 7.8 magnitude earthquake near the Aleutian Islands created a tsunami that struck the Hawaiian Islands killing 159.
1946 – Formation of the Malayan Union.
1948 Cold War: Berlin Airlift – Military forces, under direction of the Soviet-controlled government in East Germany, set-up a land blockade of West Berlin.
1948 Faroe Islands received autonomy from Denmark.
1949 Chinese Civil War: The Communist Party of China held unsuccessful peace talks with the Kuomintang in Beijing, after three years of fighting.
1949 The Canadian government repealed Japanese Canadian internment after seven years.
1954 President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorised the creation of the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado.
1957 BBC Spaghetti tree hoax broadcast on current affairs programme Panorama.
1961 Susan Boyle, Scottish singer, was born.
1969 The Hawker Siddeley Harrier entered service with the RAF.
1970 President Richard Nixon signed the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act into law, requiring the Surgeon General’s warnings on tobacco products and banning cigarette advertisements on television and radio.
1973 Stephen Fleming, New Zealand cricketer, was born.
1973 Project Tiger, a tiger conservation project, was launched in the Corbett National Park, India.
1974 – ACC began operating.
1976 Apple Computer was formed by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak.
1979 Iran became an Islamic Republic by a 98% vote, officially overthrowing the Shah.
1980 New York City’s Transit Worker Union 100 began a strike lasting 11 days.
1981 – The New Zealand Film Archive was launched.
1987 State Owned Enterprises came into existence.
1989 Margaret Thatcher’s new local government tax, the Community Charge (commonly known as the ‘poll tax’), was introduced in Scotland.
1992 Start of the Bosnian war.
1997 Comet Hale-Bopp is seen passing over perihelion.
2001 An EP-3E United States Navy surveillance aircraft collided with a Chinese People’s Liberation Army Shenyang J-8 fighter jet. The crew made an emergency landing in Hainan, China and was detained.
2001 – Former President of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Slobodan Milošević surrendered to police special forces to be tried on charges of war crimes.
2001 – Same-sex marriage became legal in the Netherlands, the first country to allow it.
2002 The Netherlands legalised euthanasia, becoming the first nation in the world to do so.
2004 Google introduced Gmail – a launch met with scepticism on account of the date.
2006 The Serious Organised Crime Agency, dubbed the ‘British FBI’, was created in the United Kingdom.
2009 – Croatia and Albania joined NATO
2011 – After protests against the burning of the Quran turn violent, a mob attacks a United Nations compound in Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan, resulting in the deaths of thirteen people, including eight foreign workers.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia