Educe – bring out, develop or draw forth something latent or potential; infer from data; elicit.
New research from a major study looking at resilience in New Zealand rural communities has highlighted a disconnect between urban and rural areas.
Heartland Strong is anchored by a ten-year study led by AgResearch senior social scientist Dr Margaret Brown and involving a team from PricewaterhouseCoopers New Zealand.
It looked at levels of resilience in rural communities, and what that meant for their future.
The book’s team of 14 writers found great examples of resilience and ways in which it was built by different communities.
However the research also found that New Zealand has a disconnect between urban and rural. . .
Is reducing cow numbers the answer? – Peter Burke:
he argument over whether New Zealand has too many cows is a regional issue, not a national issue, according to Ministry of Primary Industries’ chief science advisor, John Roche.
Speaking to Dairy News at the recent Agricultural Climate Change conference in Palmerston North, Roche stated that it’s too emotive to talk in general terms of there being too many cows in NZ. He says all regions are different and it’s a case of decisions being made at that level rather than taking the blanket view that NZ has more cows than it can effectively run.
But Roche says that he has concern about the cost of marginal milk. . .
Scary things are coming down the road for New Zealand’s food industry. Like Glyph “molecular” whiskey.
Raymond McCauley, chair of biotechnology at Silicon Valley’s Singularity University, already has his audience at Grow 2019 – a ministry-backed futurist conference – gripped by what is brewing elsewhere.
World agriculture is about to be remade, he warns. It is the Green Revolution 2.0 – cracking the problem of how to feed a planet that is going to be home to about 10 billion people by 2050 without completely trashing it in the process. . .
Doing more with our milk – Hugh Stringleman:
In the never-ending debate about Fonterra’s follies and future, adding value is the constant theme.
The co-operative claims it now adds value (over the prices of standard dairy commodities) to 45% of external sales by volume, thus earning more than half of total revenue from such goods.
The added-value split is about one quarter each in consumer-ready products and food service products and half in advanced ingredients, which have added functionalities.
The external sales volume is more than 22 billion litres . .
Still on the go with harness horses at 87 – Sally Rae:
Myrtle McCarthy describes herself as “a tiny cog” in the harness racing industry.
Yet the 87-year-old North Otago standardbred breeder is nothing short of remarkable as she continues a multi-generational family involvement.
Today, Mrs McCarthy will offer two yearling fillies at the All Aged Sale in Christchurch.
She has been breeding horses for about 40 years, since her father gave her a mare called Gypsys Chance.
The Dalgety name is synonymous with harness racing; her late father James (Jim) Dalgety operated the Belmedia stud near Kakanui and had many good horses. . .
Honorary doctorates for Synlait co-founder John Penno and naturalist Hugh Wilson will be among nearly 600 awards presented at the 2019 Lincoln University Graduation on May 3.
The ceremonies will also feature posthumous awards to two victims of the Christchurch terror attacks, as well as a student who died in an accident last year.
Acting Vice-Chancellor, Professor Bruce McKenzie said the graduation was a celebration of students’ hard work and achievements, and that included the posthumous awards.
“This occasion, while recognising the tragic circumstances surrounding the loss of those graduates is also about acknowledging their efforts and their time here, as well as the students who were their peers.” . .
I think that the romantic impulse is in all of us and that sometimes we live it for a short time, but it’s not part of a sensible way of living. It’s a heroic path and it generally ends dangerously. I treasure it in the sense that I believe it’s a path of great courage. It can also be the path of the foolhardy and the compulsive. Jane Campion who celebrates her 65th birthday today.
313 Roman emperor Licinius unified the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule.
1006 Supernova SN 1006, the brightest supernova in recorded history, appeared in the constellation Lupus.
1315 Enguerrand de Marigny was hanged on the public gallows at Montfaucon.
1492 Spain gave Christopher Columbus his commission of exploration.
1513 Edmund de la Pole, Yorkist pretender to the English throne, was executed on the orders of Henry VIII.
1651 Jean-Baptiste de la Salle, French educational reformer, Catholic saint, was born (d. 1719).
1671 Petar Zrinski, the Croatian Ban from the Zrinski family, was executed.
1789 George Washington took the oath of office to become the first elected President of the United States.
1794 The Battle of Boulou was fought, in which French forces defeated the Spanish under General Union.
1803 Louisiana Purchase: The United States purchased the Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million, more than doubling the size of the young nation.
1838 Nicaragua declared independence from the Central American Federation.
1864 Pai Marire warriors were defeated at Sentry Hill.
1865 ex-Governor Robert Fitzroy committed suicide.
1871 The Camp Grant Massacre took place in Arizona Territory.
1900 Hawaii became a territory of the United States, with Sanford B. Doleas governor.
1900 – Cecily Lefort, English World War II heroine, spy for the SOE was born (d. 1945).
1900 Casey Jones died in a train wreck in Vaughn, Mississippi, while trying to make up time on the Cannonball Express.
1904 The Louisiana Purchase Exposition World’s Fair opened in St. Louis, Missouri.
1907 Honolulu, Hawaii became an independent city.
1908 – Bjarni Benediktsson, Icelandic journalist and politician, 13th Prime Minister of Iceland was born (d. 1970).
1909 Queen Juliana of the Netherlands, was born (d. 2004).
1921 – Roger L. Easton, American scientist, co-invented the GPS was born (d. 2014).
1925 Dodge Brothers, Inc was sold to Dillon, Read & Company for $146 million plus $50 million for charity.
1927 The Federal Industrial Institute for Women, opened in Alderson, West Virginia, as the first women’s federal prison in the United States.
1933 Willie Nelson, American musician, was born.
1937 The Philippines held a plebiscite for Filipino women on whether they should be extended the right to suffrage; more than 90% voted in the affirmative.
1938 The animated cartoon short Porky’s Hare Hunt debuted in movie theatres, introducing Happy Rabbit.
1938 The first televised FA Cup Final took place between Huddersfield Town and Preston North End.
1939 The 1939-40 New York World’s Fair opened
1941 – Max Merritt, New Zealand-Australian singer-songwriter was born.
1943 World War II: Operation Mincemeat: The submarine HMS Seraph surfaced in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Spain to deposit a dead man planted with false invasion plans and dressed as a British military intelligence officer.
1945 World War II: Fuehrerbunker: Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun committed suicide after being married for one day. Soviet soldiers raised the Victory Banner over the Reichstag building.
1946 King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, was born.
1947 The Boulder Dam was renamed Hoover Dam a second time.
1948 The Organization of American States was established.
1949 António Guterres, former Prime Minister of Portugal, was born.
1953 In Warner Robins, Georgia, an F4 tornado killed 18 people.
1953 Merrill Osmond, American musician (The Osmonds), was born.
1954 Jane Campion, New Zealand film director, was born.
1956 Former Vice President and Senator Alben Barkley died during a speech in Virginia. He collapsed after proclaiming “I would rather be a servant in the house of the lord than sit in the seats of the mighty.”
1959 Stephen Harper, Prime Minister of Canada, was born.
1973 Watergate Scandal: U.S. President Richard Nixon announced that top White House aids H.R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman and others had resigned.
1980 Accession of Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands.
1988 Queen Elizabeth II officially opened World Expo ’88 in Brisbane, Australia.
1993 Virgin Radio broadcast for the first time in the United Kingdom.
1995 U.S. President Bill Clinton became the first President to visit Northern Ireland.
1999 Cambodia joined the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)bringing the number of members to 10.
2004 U.S. media release graphic photos of American soldiers abusing and sexually humiliating Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison.
2008 Two skeletal remains found near Ekaterinburg, Russia were confirmed by Russian scientists to be the remains of Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia and one of his sisters Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna.
2009 Chrysler filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.
2009 – Seven people were killed and 17 injured at a Queen’s Day parade in Apeldoorn, Netherlands in an attempted assassination on Queen Beatrix.
2010 – Hailed as the largest World’s Fair in history, Expo 2010 opened in Shangai.
2013 – A powerful explosion occurred in an office building in Prague, Czech Republic, believed to have been caused by natural gas, injures 43 people.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia
Inanition – exhaustion caused by lack of nourishment; starvation; the quality or state of being empty; the exhausted condition that results from lack of food and water; the absence or loss of social, moral, or intellectual enthusiasm, vitality or vigour.
Leading women fill many roles – Annette Scott:
Women on farms are not just farmers’ wives and that is highlighted by the four finalists in the 2019 Dairy Woman of the Year award.
“They all juggle multiple roles from being a vet and mechanic to a financial planner and strategic thinker,” Dairy Women’s Network trustee and awards judge Alison Gibb said.
“There’s no doubt the role women play in dairy farming now completely breaks the old-fashioned mould of public perception about what a farmer’s wife is.
“They’re all farming partners, farming in their own right, playing a major role in running a million-dollar business,” Gibb said. . .
Too many farmers are hurting – Annette Scott:
Mycoplasma bovis hotspot farmers are angry at news an unprecedented number of farms will go under movement control before winter.
The Ministry for Primary Industries said last week the M bovis response programme will ramp up over the next six weeks.
M bovis programme director Geoff Gwyn said it will give farmers as much certainty as possible heading into winter.
“Well, what sort of certainty is that,” Mid Canterbury dairy farmer Frank Peters said. . .
Primary sector facing staff shortages – Yvonne O’Hara:
Many industries within the primary sector are facing staffing issues.
Alliance Group general manager people and safety Chris Selbie said the company employed more than 2500 people in Southland during the peak processing season and continued to face ongoing shortages of people for its Mataura and Lorneville plants.
”Alliance runs regular recruitment programmes to attract local people to take up roles with the co-operative and we work closely with Work and Income, the Ministry of Social Development and local development agencies on solutions to address the shortages,” he said. . .
A New Zealander has broken the world record for the most merino ewes shorn in eight hours at a farm in Western Australia.
The 497 sheep shorn by New Zealand born shearer Lou Brown was 31 more than the record of 466 set by his coach and mentor, fellow-Kiwi Cartwright Terry.
Few jobs rival the physical demands of shearing, and Mr Brown’s gruelling effort is attributable to years of practice and months of physical training and meditation. . .
Tougher times lead to better food waste behaviour – John Ellicott:
The average Australian household wasted about $890 worth of food last year, an improved figure on previous years, but still a staggering degree of wastage.
The 2019 Rabobank food waste report found we are doing better as potential wasters but there is till a huge way to go, and awareness is the key. Men and women are both equal in food wastage.
It found farmers are wising up to food wastage and becoming increasingly more innovative in making sure their products were used properly throughout the food chain. It also found regional Australians were less wasteful than city consumers, mainly because they appreciated the value of food more. . .
New Zealand has been better than Australia at capitalising on the market for boutique foods, according to a top Australian scientist.
Dr Stefan Hajkowicz told the Rabobank Farm2Fork seminar, in Sydney, this was being done through the High Value Nutrition Programme – a joint government-industry initiative.
The CSIRO senior principal scientist – strategy and foresight, was giving a perspective on the next 20 years of food production. . .
Professor Elizabeth Rata warns about the retreat from reason:
‘Critical times as a species’. These are extreme words, made more powerful recently by their author, Sir Peter Gluckman. Such language is usually, and rightly, used for climate matters so given the strength of his words we need to ask what on earth is going on with our social world.
A surge in an ongoing spat with academic colleagues provides a perfect example of the subversion of knowledge and its replacement by the ideological isms that Gluckman spoke of. These are the ideologies that strengthen in-groups, that draw on the culture of folk knowledges to justify their claims to truth.
Modern society had found another way to understand what it is to be human. We have, in only a few hundred years, developed a new language of reason, one replacing in-group beliefs, one enabling us to communicate across historical and cultural differences, one which has made democracy possible.
Reasoned communication is the way across the divide of difference. It requires leaving the past and its animosities behind. But this is very difficult. The past gives us a sense of security and belonging. The institutions of modern society which unite us don’t have the same pulling power as the rallying cries of the isms. No wonder ethnic nationalisms, nativisms, and populisms with their ‘us not you’ and ‘our culture not yours’ are winning out. Unexamined belief is more satisfying than reason – and its easier.
Those isms might unite people who fit the label, but they divide groups from the whole by focusing on differences rather than our common humanity.
But back to the spat. The names aren’t important although I must confess to being one of the parties. It’s a spat that would be of no interest whatsoever if it didn’t neatly capture the anti-knowledge movement of our times. What’s more, it shows how the ‘isms’ are now in the university, the very institution that should give us trust in knowledge. So what’s going on? In May, the Waikato Journal of Education will publish a superb example of anti-knowledge. It’s not very kind to me but that’s OK. I happily accepted the invitation to respond to the article using it as an opportunity to write about what has happened to knowledge. Surely this is the conversation that Gluckman wants – using reason as the conduit for engagement across difference. Unfortunately the conversation can’t happen. Why not?
For reasoned conversation to occur there needs to be agreement about reason itself. The premise informing all modern knowledge is that there is a reality which exists independently of us, the ‘knowers’. What’s more, we can know this reality.
Our intellectual activity is how we seek the truth of the natural and social worlds. Belief isn’t enough. But what happens when the premise of objective knowledge is rejected, when we say that the world is not independent of the person who knows it, and that we can’t use reason to understand it? This is the case with the article in the Waikato journal. For the authors there is an unbreakable knower-knowledge tie. They insist that there is no independent knowledge for us to share universally, that how we know something is always tied to who we are, and who we are comes from our culture. But without the idea of universal knowledge which is beyond culture we are doomed to talk past each other.
This sort of thinking – or should that be feeling? – takes us back centuries to when beliefs rather than facts held sway.
The knowledge spat used to surface in university circles (think the late Professor Peter Munz’s critique of Linda Smith’s book about indigenous methodologies), though less so now that cultural ‘ways of knowing’ are accepted, even by such august bodies as the New Zealand Royal Society. The Society should know better of course but the belief that knowledge belongs to the knower is a premise of the new dominant ideologies; of ethnic nationalisms, nativisms and populism, and the Society has succumbed.
We no longer trust in reasoned knowledge. Gluckman says: ideas are not contested civilly, people are attacked, falsehoods multiply. He’s right. The current era of enlightened reason may well be over unless we recognise what is happening. Reasoned conversation is needed more than ever, but when knowledge is tied to the knowing group, universal reason no longer allows us to converse across groups. By abandoning reason we are endangering our future as a species. We are certainly abandoning what makes democracy possible. Given that the knowledge-knower belief now underpins New Zealand’s localised curriculum our retreat from the idea of universal knowledge will be accelerated. Our educational institutions are the first to fall. Others will follow.
This is alarming.
Educational institutions, universities in particular, should be places where ideas can be debated, questioned and tested; where arguments should be well thought out, be using and settled by, reason and facts.
They should be active in advancing knowledge based on research and science, not belief.
If they are not they are no better than the sad places on social media where arguments degenerate into personal abuse, where feelings matter more than facts and emotion is a substitute for reason.
I’ve been going a long time now
along the way I’ve learned some things.
You have to make the good times yourself
take the little times and make them into big times
and save the times that are all right
for the ones that aren’t so good. ―
1429 Joan of Arc arrived to relieve the Siege of Orleans.
1624 Cardinal Richelieu became Prime Minister of Louis XIII.
1672 Franco-Dutch War: Louis XIV of France invaded the Netherlands.
1707 Scotland and England unified in United Kingdom of Great Britain.
1832 Évariste Galois released from prison.
1861 American Civil War: Maryland’s House of Delegates voted not to secede from the Union.
1863 William Randolph Hearst, American publisher, was born (d. 1951).
1864 – The British attacked the Ngāi Te Rangi stronghold of Pukehinahina (Gate Pā) with the heaviest artillery bombardment and one of the largest forces used in the New Zealand Wars.
1869 – The assault on Gate Pa started.
1881 – The steamer Tararua, en route from Port Chalmers to Melbourne, struck a reef at Waipapa Point, Southland. Of the 151 passengers and crew on board, 131 were lost including 12 women and 14 children.
1899 Duke Ellington, American jazz pianist and bandleader, was born (d. 1974).
1901 Hirohito, Emperor of Japan, was born (d. 1989).
1903 A 30 million cubic-metre landslide killed 70 in Frank, Alberta.
1915 Donald Mills, American singer (Mills Brothers), was born (d. 1999).
1916 Easter Rebellion: Martial law in Ireland was lifted and the rebellion was officially over with the surrender of Irish nationalists to British authorities in Dublin.
1933 Rod McKuen, American poet and composer, was born.
1934 Otis Rush, American musician, was born.
1938 Bernard Madoff, American convict, who was a financier and Chairman of the NASDAQ stock exchange, was born.
1945 World War II: The German Army in Italy unconditionally surrendered to the Allies.
1945 World War II: Start of Operation Manna.
1945 – The Dachau concentration camp was liberated by United States troops.
1945 – The Italian commune of Fornovo di Taro was liberated from German forces by Brazilian forces.
1946 Former Prime Minister of Japan Hideki Tojo and 28 former Japanese leaders were indicted for war crimes.
1952 Anzus came into force.
1953 The first U.S. experimental 3D-TV broadcast showed an episode ofSpace Patrol on Los Angeles ABC affiliate KECA-TV.
1954 Jerry Seinfeld, American comedian, was born.
1957 – Daniel Day-Lewis, British-Irish actor, was born.
1958 Michelle Pfeiffer, American actress, was born.
1958 Eve Plumb, American actress, was born.
1965 Pakistan’s Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission(SUPARCO) successfully launched its seventh rocket in its Rehber series.
1967 After refusing induction into the United States Army the day before (citing religious reasons), Muhammad Ali was stripped of his boxing title.
1968 The controversial musical Hair opened on Broadway.
1970 Andre Agassi, American tennis player, was born.
1970 Vietnam War: United States and South Vietnamese forces invaded Cambodia to hunt Viet Cong.
1974 President Richard Nixon announced the release of edited transcripts of White House tape recordings related to the Watergate scandal.
1975 Vietnam War: Operation Frequent Wind: The U.S. began to evacuate U.S. citizens from Saigon prior to an expected North Vietnamese takeover. U.S. involvement in the war ended.
1979 Jo O’Meara, British singer (S Club), was born.
1980 Corazones Unidos Siempre Chi Upsilon Sigma National Latin Sorority Inc. was founded.
1980 Kian Egan, Irish singer (Westlife), was born.
1986 Roger Clemens then of the Boston Red Sox set a major league baseball record with 20 strikeouts in nine innings against the Seattle Mariners.
1986 A fire at the Central library of the City of Los Angeles Public Librarydamaged or destroyed 400,000 books and other items.
1991 A cyclone struck the Chittagong district of southeastern Bangladesh with winds of around 155 mph, killing at least 138,000 people and leaving as many as 10 million homeless.
1992 Riots in Los Angeles following the acquittal of police officers charged with excessive force in the beating of Rodney King. Over the next three days 53 people were killed and hundreds of buildings were destroyed.
1997 The Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993 enters into force, outlawing the production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons by its signatories.
1999 The Avala TV Tower near Belgrade was destroyed in the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia.
2002 The United States was re-elected to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, one year after losing the seat that it had held for 50 years.
2004 Dick Cheney and George W. Bush testified before the 9/11 Commission in a closed, unrecorded hearing in the Oval Office.
2004 Oldsmobile built its final car ending 107 years of production.
2005 Syria completed withdrawal from Lebanon, ending 29 years of occupation.
2005 – New Zealand’s first civil union took place.
2011 – Wedding of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Kate Middleton.
2015 – A baseball game between the Baltimore Orioles and the Chicago White Sox set the all-time low attendance mark for Major League Baseball. Zero fans were in attendance for the game, as the stadium was officially closed to the public due to the 2015 Baltimore protests.
Sourced from NZ History Online and Wikipedia.
Redingote – a woman’s long coat with a cutaway or contrasting front; a man’s double-breasted overcoat with a full skirt; a dress or lightweight coat, usually belted, open along the entire front to reveal a dress or petticoat worn underneath it; a coat dress with a contrasting gore in front.
Growing a Better World Together was the theme of Rabobank’s second Farm2Fork summit.
You can see some of the highlights here.
The video below opened the day. The sheep at the very end, are ours.
Sunday’s soapbox is yours to use as you will – within the bounds of decency and absence of defamation. You’re welcome to look back or forward, discuss issues of the moment, to pontificate, ponder or point us to something of interest, to educate, elucidate or entertain, amuse, bemuse or simply muse, but not abuse.
Find out where joy resides, and give it a voice far beyond singing. For to miss the joy is to miss all. – Robert Louis Stevenson
1192 Assassination of Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I), King of Jerusalem, in Tyre, two days after his title to the throne was confirmed by election.
1611 Establishment of the Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, The Catholic University of the Philippines, the largest Catholic university in the world.
1715 Franz Sparry, composer, was born (d. 1767).
1758 James Monroe, 5th President of the United States, was born. (d. 1831).
1792 France invaded the Austrian Netherlands (present day Belgium), beginning the French Revolutionary War.
1796 The Armistice of Cherasco was signed by Napoleon Bonaparte and Vittorio Amedeo III, the King of Sardinia, expanding French territory along the Mediterranean coast.
1862 American Civil War: Admiral David Farragut captured New Orleans.
1888 – The first British rugby team to tour New Zealand played its first match, against Otago at the Caledonian Ground in South Dunedin.
1902 Using the ISO 8601 standard Year Zero definition for the Gregorian calendar preceded by the Julian calendar, the one billionth minute since the start of January 1, Year Zero occured at 10:40 AM on this date.
1912 Odette Sansom, French resistance worker, was born (d. 1995).
1916 Ferruccio Lamborghini, Italian automobile manufacturer, was born (d. 1993).
1920 Azerbaijan was added to the Soviet Union.
1922 Alistair MacLean, Scottish novelist, was born (d. 1987).
1926 Harper Lee, American author, was born.
1930 The first night game in organised baseball history took place in Independence, Kansas.
1932 A vaccine for yellow fever was announced for use on humans.
1937 – Saddam Hussein, President of Iraq, was born (d. 2006).
1941 Ann-Margret, Swedish-born actress, was born.
1948 Terry Pratchett, English author, was born (d. 2015).
1949 Former First Lady of the Philippines Aurora Quezon, 61, was assassinated while en route to dedicate a hospital in memory of her late husband; her daughter and 10 others are also killed.
1950 Jay Leno, American comedian and television host, was born.
1952 Occupied Japan: The United States occupation of Japan ended with the ratification of Treaty of San Francisco.
1952 The Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty (Treaty of Taipei) iwa signed in Taipei between Japan and the Republic of China to officially end the Second Sino-Japanese War.
1956 Jimmy Barnes, Scottish-born singer, was born.
1960 Ian Rankin, Scottish novelist, was born.
1965 United States troops landed in the Dominican Republic to “forestall establishment of a Communist dictatorship” and to evacuate U.S. Army troops.
1967 Expo 67 opened to the public in Montreal.
1969 Charles de Gaulle resigned as President of France.
1969 – Terence O’Neill announced his resignation as Prime Minister of Northern Ireland.
1970 Vietnam War: U.S. President Richard M. Nixon formally authorised American combat troops to fight communist sanctuaries in Cambodia.
1974 Penélope Cruz, Spanish actress, was born.
1978 President of Afghanistan, Mohammed Daoud Khan, was overthrown and assassinated in a coup led by pro-communist rebels.
1981 Jessica Alba, American actress, was born.
1986 The aircraft carrier USS Enterprise became the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier to transit the Suez Canal, navigating from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea to relieve the USS Coral Sea.
1987 American engineer Ben Linder was killed in an ambush by U.S. funded Contras in northern Nicaragua.
1988 Near Maui, Hawaii, flight attendant Clarabelle “C.B.” Lansing was blown out of Aloha Flight 243, a Boeing 737 and fell to her death when part of the plane’s fuselage rips open in mid-flight.
1994 Former C.I.A. official Aldrich Ames pleaded guilty to giving U.S. secrets to the Soviet Union and later Russia.
1996 Whitewater controversy: Bill Clinton gave a 4½ hour videotaped testimony for the defence.
1996 – In Tasmania Martin Bryant went on a shooting spree, killing 35 people and seriously injuring 21 more.
2008 – A train collision in Shandong, China, killed 72 people and injured 416 more.
2015 – The National Football League announced it was giving up its tax-exempt status.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia
Farouche – marked by shyness and lack of social graces sullen or gloomy; unsociable.