On October 8:
314 Roman Emperor Licinius was defeated by his colleague Constantine I at the Battle of Cibalae, and lost his European territories.
451 The first session of the Council of Chalcedon began.
1075 Dmitar Zvonimir was crowned King of Croatia.
1200 Isabella of Angoulême was crowned Queen consort of England.
1480 Great standing on the Ugra river, a standoff between the forces of Akhmat Khan, Khan of the Great Horde, and the Grand Duke Ivan III of Russia which resulted in the retreat of the Tataro-Mongols and the eventual disintegration of the Horde.
1573 End of the Spanish siege of Alkmaar, the first Dutch victory in Eighty Years War.
1600 San Marino adopted its written constitution.
1806 Napoleonic Wars: Forces of the British Empire laid siege to the port of Boulogne by using Congreve rockets.
1813 The Treaty of Ried was signed between Bayern and Austria.
1821 The government of general José de San Martín established the Peruvian Navy.
1829 Stephenson’s The Rocket won The Rainhill Trials.
1847 Rose Scott, Australia social reformer, was born (d. 1925).
1856 The Second Opium War began with the Arrow Incident on the Pearl River.
1860 Telegraph line between Los Angeles and San Francisco opened.
1862 American Civil War: Battle of Perryville – Union forces under General Don Carlos Buell halted the Confederate invasion of Kentucky by defeating troops led by General Braxton Bragg.
1871 Four major fires broke out on the shores of Lake Michigan including the Great Chicago Fire, and the much deadlier Peshtigo Fire.
1879 War of the Pacific: the Chilean Navy defeated the Peruvian Navy in the Battle of Angamos, Peruvian Admiral Miguel Grau was killed.
1895 Zog I, King of Albania, was born (d. 1961).
1895 Juan Perón, Argentinean President, was born.
1895 Eulmi incident– Queen Min of Joseon, the last empress of Korea, was assassinated and her corpse burnt by the Japanese in Gyeongbok Palace.
1912 First Balkan War began when Montenegro declared war against Turkey.
1918 World War I: In the Argonne Forest in France, United States Corporal Alvin C. York led an attack that killed 25 German soldiers and captures 132.
1920 Frank Herbert, American writer, was born (d. 1986).
1925 Cubana de Aviación founded.
1928 Joseph Szigeti gave the first performance of Alfredo Casella‘s Violin Concerto.
1932 The Indian Air Force was established.
1939 Paul Hogan, Australian actor, was born.
1939 World War II: Germany annexed Western Poland.
1941 Stan Graham shot dead three policemen and fatally wounded two other men before escaping into the bush.
1941 US civil rights activist Jesse Jackson was born.
1943 US actor Chevy Chase was born.
1943 US children’s horror writer R.L (Robert Lawrence) Stine was born.
1944 World War II: The Battle of Crucifix Hill – Capt. Bobbie Brown received a Medal of Honor for his heroics.
1948 Johnny Ramone, American musician (The Ramones), was born (d. 2004).
1949 Sigourney Weaver, American actress, was born.
1952 The Harrow and Wealdstone rail crash killed 112 people.
1962 Spiegel scandal: Der Spiegel published the article “Bedingt abwehrbereit” (“Conditionally prepared for defense”) about a NATO manoeuver called “Fallex 62”, which uncovered the sorry state of the Bundeswehr (Germany’s army) facing the communist threat from the east at the time.
1965 C-Jay Ramone, American musician (The Ramones), was born.
1967 Guerrilla leader Che Guevara and his men were captured in Bolivia.
1968 Vietnam War: Operation Sealords – United States and South Vietnamese forces launched a new operation in the Mekong Delta.
1969 The opening rally of the Days of Rage, organised by the Weather Underground in Chicago, Illinois.
1970 Vietnam War: In Paris, a Communist delegation rejected US President Richard Nixon’s October 7 peace proposal as “a maneuver to deceive world opinion”.
1973 Yom Kippur War: Gabi Amir’s armored brigade attacked Egyptian occupied positions on the Israeli side of the Suez Canal in hope of driving them away. The attack failed, and over 150 Israeli tanks were destroyed.
1974 Franklin National Bank collapsed due to fraud and mismanagement.
1978 Australia’s Ken Warby set the world water speed record of 317.60mph at Blowering Dam, Australia.
1982 Poland banned Solidarity and all trade unions.
1990 Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Police killed 17 Palestinians and wounded over 00.
1998 Oslo’s Gardermoen airport opened.
2001 A twin engine Cessna and Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) jetliner collided in heavy fog during takeoff from Milan, Italy killing 118.
2001 U.S. President George W. Bush announced the establishment of the Office of Homeland Security.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia