Grimoire – a book of magic spells and invocations; a manual of magic or witchcraft used by witches and sorcerers.
NZ aware of ASF threat – Sally Rae:
New Zealand’s pork industry would be “decimated” if African swine fever (ASF) was to hit the country, New Zealand Pork chairman Eric Roy says.
Since China reported the first case of ASF just over a year ago, it has culled more than 131million pigs, or around 40% of the previous pig herd.
Some private sector estimates suggested the culling might have even been larger than official estimates, BNZ’s latest Rural Wrap said.
NZ Pork was concerned the disease was spreading “quite rapidly” and was now in Timor-Leste, or East Timor, as it continued to move south from China. It has been confirmed in the Philippines and South Korea. . .
Kiwi vegan loonies are treasonous – Ryan Bridge:
How do you know there’s a vegan in the room? They’ll tell you.
It’s an old joke but a good one.
Vegans are like evangelical Bible Belt Christians from the United States. They want to ram their ideology down your throat at any chance they can get.
On Tuesday, you will hear in the news stories about a new survey of consumers. They will claim a third of Kiwis are on their way to becoming vegetarians or vegans. We’re all going green.
But make no mistake, the percentage of Kiwis who are vegetarian or vegan remains at 3 percent. Yes, 97 percent of us are still into our meat and so we should be, especially in New Zealand. . .
Women elected to DairyNZ board – Pam Tipa:
Two Waikato dairy farmers were elected to DairyNZ’s board last week. Tracy Brown is a new member and Elaine Cook was re-elected at the annual general meeting in Hamilton on October 22.
They are two of five farmer-elected directors and three board-appointed directors who contribute to strategy and priorities on behalf of dairy farmers. DairyNZ now has a board of five women and three men.
Chair Jim van der Poel welcomed the directors and acknowledged their role in “playing a key part in setting the future direction of DairyNZ”. . .
A voice for telling rural stories – Alice Scott:
A strong desire to capture the essence of people and tell their stories won a former West Otago woman the Rural Champion category at the NZI Rural Women NZ Business Awards recently. Alice Scott reports.
Kate Taylor, who now lives in Hawke’s Bay, grew up in the small southern farming district of Dunrobin.
She says entering the Rural Women business awards was a way for her to ”walk the talk” and share her story, as she has for so many years been preaching to the people she interviews.
Mrs Taylor is the youngest of four Rivett girls and grew up on her family’s sheep and beef farm known as The Glen. She attended Blue Mountain College, in Tapanui, and got her first job in Gore, at radio station 4ZG, then did a journalism course at Christchurch Polytechnic . .
NZ lamb exporters welcome Brexit deadline extension– Maja Burry:
An extension to the Brexit deadline is being welcomed by New Zealand lamb exporters, who had been worried about possible disruptions to Christmas trade.
European Union leaders have agreed to extend Brexit until 31 January next year – meaning the UK will not leave as planned on Thursday. The bloc would also allow for a so-called “flextension” – meaning the UK could leave before the deadline if a deal was approved by Parliament.
The UK market is very important for chilled New Zealand lamb exports ahead of Christmas and there had been concerns from industry that the UK’s departure from the European Union during this period could present border delays and increased administrative costs. . . .
An iconic Hawke’s Bay station founded on pioneering spirit and nurtured over 100 years by the same family is now on the market for the first time.
Historic Te Rangi Station, located 50 minutes north of Napier Airport is generating strong interest among farming circles as far afield as the South Island from potential buyers recognising the opportunities a deer fenced station of this scale and summer safe location offers. . .
The government’s Essential Freshwater proposal would cost far more than the country can afford:
Economic modelling by DairyNZ shows the proposed Essential Freshwater package could significantly harm New Zealand’s dairy sector and the wider national economy – by 2050, costing $6 billion per year. . .
DairyNZ initiated three studies into the potential economic effects of the Essential Freshwater proposals, two are independent and all three have been peer-reviewed.
The economic studies are supported by additional technical research by DairyNZ which analyses the likely water quality improvements. DairyNZ’s full submission will be released by end of day Thursday, October 31.
“The economic modelling shows us that the proposed Essential Freshwater policy package is one of the largest economic challenges posed to the dairy sector in a generation – its full effect could lead to a fall in our GDP of $6 billion by 2050, without even adding additional costs related to climate change,” said DairyNZ chief executive, Dr Tim Mackle.
The proposals focus only on the environmental leg of the sustainability stool and ignore the economic and social ones.
“But what is really crucial is that we believe other options are available to improve and strengthen the protection of ecosystem health and we will be outlining these in our full submission.
“The proposed freshwater changes would result in significant declines in milk production and is therefore a serious threat to the international competitiveness of New Zealand’s dairy sector.
“However, water quality and emissions gains can still be made with less stringent reforms, at a lesser cost to the New Zealand economy. Farmers care deeply about the environment and have been doing their bit to protect the environment and our waterways for some time,” said Dr Mackle.
This is the water farming families drink and use for recreation. It is in our interests to protect and enhance its quality.
“They are absolutely onboard with continuing to play their part in improving our waterways, however stringent changes cannot be at the detriment of farming’s future and the communities they support. We need to approach this carefully, balancing environment and economy – we can achieve both goals by working closely together on this issue.
“The economic analysis shows potential significant impact. By 2050, total milk production is forecast to fall by 24 percent and all national exports by 5.2 percent or $8.1 billion.”
Tax revenue from dairy is also forecast to more than halve by 2050, with an annual loss of $0.54 billion at the national level. . .
The forecast from the independent Sense Partners showed an extra $1 billion loss and another 4 percent reduction in milk production.
Where would that money come from if it didn’t come from dairying?
The more moderate freshwater reforms, in isolation, are not expected to have the same degree of economic impact.
“Four scenarios were modelled and scenarios one and two, which include actions around fencing, farm plans, capital expenditure, consented stand-off pads and nitrogen caps in priority catchments, had less financial impact for farmers and therefore the economy,” said Dr Mackle.
“In contrast, the consideration of proposed nutrient limits under scenario three was forecast to impose a significant financial burden on the dairy sector. Research by DairyNZ also shows that these limits – broadscale introduction of phosphorus and nitrogen leaching reductions in monitored catchments – are based on overly simplistic relationships and not supported by robust science.
“It is under these more stringent reforms that dairy will struggle to contribute as significantly to the national economy, as it does now.” . . .
The flow-effects would spread from farms to rural communities and beyond.
Southland, Taranaki, Marlborough and West Coast are likely to be most negatively affected. By 2050, GDP could fall in Southland by up to 3.6 percent; Taranaki by up to 2.9 percent; Marlborough by up to 3.2 percent and West Coast by up to 2.9 percent. Waikato would also be significantly affected.
“The proposed changes potentially compromise the vitality of regional communities, due to the importance of processing jobs as well as farm profits and expenses being a key source of revenue for other businesses,” said Dr Mackle.
“Less milk means 15-20 percent less jobs and reduced competitiveness in global markets. This is an issue because nearly one-third of exported goods and 46,000 jobs are associated with dairy production in New Zealand.
“The proposed Essential Freshwater changes constitute substantial business risk for New Zealand dairy farms, with the number of insolvent farms forecast to jump from 2 to 11 percent by 2050.
“Dairy is here to play our part but it must be done in a way that supports the community and all Kiwis while working towards improved water quality.” . .
The freshwater proposals are yet another example of policy the country can’t afford from a government we can’t afford.
You can read more ofDairyNZ’s economic assessment on the proposals here.
Spanghew – to throw violently into the air; especially, to throw (a frog) into the air from the end of a stick.
Taranaki farmers fear new freshwater rules will drive them out of business – Catherine Groenestein:
Dairy farmer Ali Wicksteed is so confident of how good the water on his farm is, he scoops a glassful from a stream on his property and takes a long drink.
Yet he and his wife Nicola fear they could be unable to carry on farming their central Taranaki property under new rules proposed in the Government’s Action for Healthy Waterways discussion document.
The changes aim to improve water quality and reduce the amount of pollution entering waterways from cities and farms. . .
They grab every opportunity – Annette Scott:
Driving their business to grow and intensify while keeping true to their farming values for Mt Somers Station is a challenge for David and Kate Acland who are also heavily involved in both their local community and wider industry groups. They talked to Annette Scott.
Mt Somers Station is a 3800 hectare family property in the heart of the Mid Canterbury foothills.
The Acland family has farmed the fully integrated property with proud traditions of caring for their land, environment and people for almost 40 years.
The philosophy has always been to farm with minimal impact, recognising that to farm sustainably they must farm profitably and remain open to change as they take a 100-year view on their farming business decisions. . .
Venison spreads it’s wings – Annette Scott:
Farm-raised venison is changing with New Zealand no longer having all its eggs in one basket, new Deer Industry NZ chief executive Innes Moffat says.
With established markets evolving and new ones emerging some important new markets have been developed.
They are the result of active market development programmes by both individual venison companies and collectively by the five main venison exporters supported by DINZ. . . .
Ngāi Tahu Farming chair Barry Bragg says the government’s announcement of their five-year joint action plan on agricultural emissions signals a step in the right direction, but that the sector must work collaboratively to implement urgent change.
Ngāi Tahu Farming is a large-scale agricultural presence in Te Waipounamu with interests in dairy, beef and forestry, and Bragg says that the business strives to balance economic priorities against reducing environmental impact.
“We are charged with running a farming business that contributes to the commercial outcomes of the iwi, as well as upholding Ngāi Tahu values. . .
Lloyd and Valerie Mapp are downsizing.
After nearly 50 years in Pine Valley, in rural Marlborough, the Mapps are selling 50 hectares of land, including their home, flat paddocks and rolling hill blocks.
But they’re not moving far – just 2 kilometres in fact, to the front of the farm, where they will lose their sheep, but continue beef farming. . .
“My understanding of a meaningful life is having a sense of purpose and having a sense of struggle that’s attached to that, because you quickly get bored with yourself if those ingredients are missing,” says Ross Monaghan, Science Team Leader of the Environmental Sciences Team.
Ross was born and bred in the sleepy rural Southland town of Mataura, 13 kilometres south of Gore. This was where he spent quite a lot of his childhood growing up on family farms where his enjoyment for agriculture began to flourish.
“I quickly realised that to own a farm without a large backing of capital was quite a tough thing to do, so I drifted into agricultural science. I then specialised in soil science. I could see that obviously agriculture is important to New Zealand and that there are quite a lot of environmental pressures coming through due in part to agriculture, so that’s where I thought I could perhaps gain some expertise and try and make a difference to alleviate some of those pressures.” . . .
People with intellectual disabilities and their parents owe gratitude to IHC which has just turned 70:
On 25 October 1949, 22 parents met in Wellington. A notice had been placed in the Evening Post the previous day calling for ‘parents and guardians of backward children in the Wellington district… to attend a meeting … to consider the formation of a parents’ association’.
The meeting elected Hal Anyon as interim president and his wife Margaret Anyon as secretary/treasurer, plus two committee members. At the following meeting, on 23 November, 50 people formed the Intellectually Handicapped Children’s Parents’ Association. Within three years there were a thousand members in several branches around New Zealand. In 1994, following several name changes, the large nationwide organisation became the IHC.
Those founding parents were brave and stroppy. They had to be. In 1949 there was widespread discrimination against people with what was then called intellectual or mental handicap. This situation was a legacy of decades of eugenic assumptions in which disabled people, particularly those with intellectual or learning disability, were considered defective and likely also deviant. Widespread assumptions of ‘tainted heredity’ and shame meant parents were strongly advised to hide their disabled children away from families and communities in institutions and forget about them. Many mothers were powerless to fight the removal of their child in the face of state authorities. . .
Both our sons had brain disorders which left them with multiple disabilities.
Tom was only 20 weeks when he died. Dan survived five years without passing any developmental milestones.
Looking after him got harder as he grew physically without developing intellectually and IHC’s support was invaluable.
Just how good the organisation was, was summed up by the manager of the local branch when we were trying to work out what was best for Dan.
He said, “Let us know what you need and we’ll work out how to provide it.”
I served on the branch IHC committee for several years which increased my admiration for the work the organisation does in supporting and advocating for the intellectually disabled and its members.
They continue to face challenges, one of which has resulted in a mother taking the government to court to prove her disabled son isn’t her employer:
An independent disability advocate has filed papers asking the Employment Court to decide if people with intellectual disabilities have the mental capacity to be employers.
The government is promising to change this, but advocate Jane Carrigan doesn’t want to wait and is going to court. . .
In order to get funding, Ms Fleming has to be an employee of her disabled son, a relationship the Ministry of Health has already admitted is a mere fiction.
Independent disability advocate Jane Carrigan said for too long the ministers and their ministries have indulged in what she calls tricky and technical conduct, by creating sham employment relationships.
And in doing so, the ministers had removed themselves from their responsibilities under the New Zealand Public Health and Disability Act, she said.
“This allows the ministry to step back in the very cynical name of choice and control and say to people with disabilities – the majority of whom I might add have an intellectual disability – ‘well there you go, you’re the employer, you have the choice to employ who you want, the control to manage how your employment relationship works’.”
Ms Carrigan said that was ludicrous.
“The so-called employer is usually lying in bed with nappies on and has no capacity to manage the employment relationship intellectually. And even those people who are only physically disabled, many of them, because they are high/very high needs, will rely on a family member to do all the employment relationship stuff,” Ms Carrigan said.
Ms Carrigan said if there was an employment relationship it was between the carer and the Ministry of Health and she wanted the court to say so. . .
Thanks to those brave and stroppy parents who formed it, IHC’s advocacy has resulted in a lot of improvements to care and support for intellectually disabled people and their families in the last 70 years.
I am very grateful for the help it gave us and also aware of the help others still need and the battles still to fight.
Submissions on freshwater policy close tomorrow.
Federated Farmers has advice on how to submit here.
My submission is:
The goal of cleaner waterways should not be up for debate.
But how clean, how quickly and at what cost is.
1. I support the requirement for Farm Environment Plans.
The North Otago Irrigation Company (NOIC) requires independently audited FEPs from all farms it supplies as a condition of its consent and this works well.
2. All regulation must balance environmental requirements against the financial and social costs.
a) The North Otago Irrigation Scheme has had significant environmental, economic and social benefits.
i) Before irrigation there were four houses on our farm and the two immediate neighbours’. There are now 16, most of which are occupied by young families.
ii) This development has been repeated all over the district which is now drought-proofed.
iii) New on-farm jobs have been complimented by the creation of jobs for people who service and supply farmers.
iv) This has resulted in a significant economic and social boost to the Waitaki District and the town of Oamaru.
v) The consent condition included the supply of water to the Waiareka Creek. What used to be a series of stagnant pools most of the year is now a clear-flowing stream all year.
vi) The consent condition requiring farm environment plans which are independently audited each year has allowed development to proceed while protecting soils and waterways.
vii) This sort of development and the environmental, economic and social benefits which have resulted from it would not have been able to be done if the policies proposed had been in place.
viii) New policy must ensure new irrigation schemes can go ahead.
3. Regulation based on effects is better than prescriptive policy which will stymie development.
4. All policy must take into account the ability of farmers and councils to implement and monitor requirements.
i) It would take years to build up the workforce of suitably trained and skilled advisors, consultants and council staff required to implement and monitor the proposed policies.
5. Policy must not take a blanket-approach to regulation.
i) Different catchments and different areas within catchments require different policies.
II) Different climate, different topography, different soils, different gradients require different treatments within catchments.
6. Policy working towards cleaner waterways must balance social and economic factors with environmental ones.
i) Primary production plays a significant role in the economic and social wellbeing of New Zealand.
ii) Anything which harmed that would not just make individuals and communities poorer it would make New Zealand poorer thereby reducing its ability to pay for environmental improvements.
7. Policy working towards cleaner waterways must address the problem of fouling by colonies of birds.
i) Testing by the Otago Regional Council has found high E Coli levels in the Kakanui River are due to sea gulls, many of which are protected.
ii) This is not peculiar to the Kakanui River, fouling by protected species and other birds, including game birds, happens all over the country.
iii) I accept the need to leave protected species alone during nesting but we will never get clean waterways if they return year after year. Policy must allow action to re-locate nesting areas well away from waterways.
Lant– aged or stale urine, formerly collected for its ammonium content, used esp in household cleaning and manufacturing processes; to add urine to ale, in order to make it stronger; ny of several species of slender marine fishes of the genus Ammodytes.
How the freshwater plan could ruin my town – Dani Darke:
King Country sheep and beef farmer Dani Darke says her community is under threat if the government’s Essential Water policy passes into law.
Nestled in the heart of the King Country, the settlement of Aria embodies the richness of community spirit that is associated with heartland New Zealand.
With a population of 300 and a bustling CBD of 68, it is a place where everyone knows your name.
The Cosmopolitan Club acts as the community hub. Here age is irrelevant and 70-plus year olds socialise with 18-year-olds. We have thriving squash and tennis clubs and a primary school boasting a role of 50. . .
Farmer and new Environment Canterbury councillor Ian Mackenzie is cautious in his enthusiasm for the Government’s about-turn on the Emissions Trading Scheme.
In a world-first government-industry partnership the Government has backed down on taxing farmers and brokered a deal with the agricultural sector to manage and mitigate on-farm emissions.
It will avoid farmers being included in the ETS if they can commit to a new sector-led plan.
“Clearly, this is good news but it doesn’t necessarily send me skipping across the spring green paddocks with joy,” Mackenzie, an Ashburton cropping and livestock farmer, said. He was also Federated Farmers environment spokesman and a member of the Land and Water Forum. . .
MIA big guns next up in China – Alan Williams:
It follows a successful visit by a smaller technical team in late September that made clear NZ’s keenness to partner with the Chinese industry to help modernise and improve supply chain systems, including cold store infrastructure, the association’s trade and economic manager Sirma Karapeeva said. . .
Synlait Milk is buying Canterbury’s Dairyworks for $112 million as part of its push into the consumer market.
The speciality milk producer said Dairyworks was a good fit for its everyday dairy strategy, and complemented the recent purchase of cheese manufacturer Talbot Forest.
Dairyworks supplied New Zealand with almost half of its cheese, a quarter of its butter, as well as milk powder and Deep South ice-cream. . .
90-year-old Northland Kiwifruit farmer feeding the world – Susan Botting:
Northland grower Zela Charlton, 90, enjoys feeding the world from her Glenbervie kiwifruit orchard.
“My reward is feeding the people of the world. Even if it’s a bit of a luxury, kiwifruit is a very nourishing food,” Charlton said.
The nonagenarian loves kiwifruit – both green and gold.
“You can’t imagine what a perfectly ripe kiwifruit taken straight off the vine tastes like – it’s out of this world.” . .
Win for prime agrcultural land – Mitchel Clapham:
NSW Farmers has lobbied long and hard to protect our prime agricultural land and water resources in the face of increased mining and CSG activity.
On May 1, 2012, NSW Farmers spearheaded the ‘Protect our Land and Water Rally’ in Macquarie Street, joining with many other organisations like the CWA to galvanise support for local food and fibre production.
In response, the state government developed a Strategic Regional Land Use Policy and Gateway process, which was supposed to map and protect Biophysical Strategic Agricultural Land (BSAL), which comprises only 3 per cent of NSW. . .
“How can we be better stewards?”
The government’s year of delivery has delivered an extra $132m in jobseeker benefits.
An additional $132 million of dole payments have been dished out to people who are able to work in the past year, Leader of the Opposition Simon Bridges says.
“New Zealanders deserve a fair go but not a free ride. Since Labour came into Government an additional 22,000 people have gone on the Jobseeker Benefit.
That’s around the total population of the Waitaki District who could be working but aren’t and on a be fit because of that.
“Social Development Minister Carmel Sepuloni doesn’t seem to care how many people go on the dole and she doesn’t believe there should be sanctions if people show no willingness to get into employment.
“Being in work lifts people out of poverty and improves the lives of families. There’s no excuse for taxpayers having to pick up an additional $132 million, a figure that doesn’t include inflation. This figure is just for people on the Jobseeker Benefit – people who are fit to work and doesn’t include other benefits.
“Employers are crying out for workers so there shouldn’t be people who are able to work lining up for the benefit.
These aren’t people who can’t work, they could be working and aren’t.
“This week National will release our Social Services Discussion Document. We’ll release our positive plans to get more people into work and improve the lives of individuals, families and communities.
“National is aspirational for New Zealanders, we want people to have a safety net when they need it but we recognise that this is paid for through taxes and there needs to be accountability and obligations with that.
“The Minister needs to explain to taxpayers why they’re funding an additional $132 million in welfare and what her plan is to get people back into work.”
There are lots of reasons why people who are able to work might not be able to find a job in the short term and benefits provide a temporary safety net for them.
But there’s something wrong with a system that allows the safety net to become a hammock that traps people in dependency when so many employers are desperate for staff.
Precipitate – to hasten the occurrence of; bring about prematurely, hastily, or suddenly; to cast down headlong; fling or hurl down; to plunge, or send violently; accelerate; to fall to the earth’s surface as a condensed form of water; to rain, snow, hail, drizzle; to separate or cause to separate from a solution as a precipitate.
‘We have not suddenly woken up’ – Yvonne O’Hara:
For dairy farmer Peter Dobbie, learning about what affects his farm’s environment and how to remedy or improve it has been a continually evolving journey that has taken almost three decades.
”We have not suddenly woken up and realised we need to do this or that,” he said.
He has been farming since 1991, and was a financial consultant before that.
By 2001 he had moved to dairying in partnership with his brother William. . .
Helping farmers make green dough – Tim Fulton:
A team of agricultural innovators wants to help farmers take clever ideas to market across at least 100,000ha of mixed Kiwi farmland. Tim Fultonreports.
The self-described social enterprise-plus, Leftfield Innovation, is helping farmers explore alternative land uses and contracts.
Funding the enterprise mostly from trust grants, processing companies, farmers and science funds the co-founders Nick Pyke and Susan Goodfellow and four colleagues are exploring commercial opportunities for farmers to convert low-yield farmland to grow high-yield crops. . . .
Gas calculator gets support – Samantha Tennent:
With data scientists and software developers at their disposal Jo Kerslake and Mark Teviotdale from AbacusBio are keen to help farmers understand their on-farm emissions.
When Kerslake heard the call for projects from the Rural Innovation Lab she applied without a clear picture of what an end product could look like.
“We were a little unsure about what farmers wanted to know,” she said. . .
New Zealand’s wallaby problem could become a full-blown plague unless efforts to control them are ramped up and ‘shortsighted’ hunters start playing by the rules.
Forest and Bird says the pests could spread to cover a third of the country unless the Government steps in to fund a beefed-up control programme.
Central North Island regional manager Rebecca Stirnemann said wallabies were like giant rabbits, eating their way through native bush, damaging tussock grasslands and devouring pasture and young pine trees. . .
The Pukeuri meat works near Oamaru processed a record number of cattle in the past season.
The Alliance Group announced the achievement for its North Otago plant on Wednesday, saying more than 71,000 cattle were handled there in the beef season that finished on September 30.
The record was the result of hard work and commitment from staff and from farmers who supported the co-operative, chief executive David Surveyor said. . . .
Potential shake-up of GE restrictions – Pam Tipa:
Current restrictions on genetic modification regulation in New Zealand could be reviewed if National were to form the next government.
The party says it will be ready to go out and consult on a proposed review of the legislation and our current regulations if elected.
National leader Simon Bridges says if NZ is serious about tackling climate change that will require biotech answers. . .
The Labour, NZ First, Green government has just passed its second anniversary in power and what have we got?
- Fee-free tertiary education which hasn’t had a positive impact on participation, and a third of those who got the help failed or withdrew.
- KiwiBuild turned into KiwiFlop.
- Higher fuel taxes for all to pay for public transport in Auckland which includes the stalled project of rail to airport about which officials can’t get direction from the Minister.
- Two Ministers resigned/sacked.
- Thousands of hectares of productive land converted to forestry.
- Subsidies that incentivise forestry over farming.
- Foreign ownership of productive land encouraged by much less rigorous requirements than for purchase for farming, horticulture or viticulture.
- Business confidence in the doldrums.
- Interest rates heading towards zero and below.
- DHB deficits growing.
- Polytechs that are working well to be sacrificed for those that aren’t.
- Virtue-signaling environmental policies that come at a high economic and social cost here and add to environmental cost elsewhere.
- Policy at the mercy of the minor coalition partner’s leader’s whim.
- The waka-jumping legislation.
- The Provincial Growth
Shane Jones Promotion/NZ First re-electionFund.
- Policy announcement after policy announcement that is high on feel-good but low on planning.
It was easy to come up with those negatives, and it wouldn’t be hard to add more.
But what of the positives?
The only one that comes to mind is a Prime Minister who gets a lot of focus and high praise internationally.
But how much is that worth when there are so many problems that aren’t being solved at home?
A new government needs some time to get up to speed, but more than two-thirds through its term is too long on training wheels.
Convergence – the act, instance, process or state of converging; the act of moving toward union or uniformity; coordinated movement of the two eyes so that the image of a single point is formed on corresponding retinal areas; the state or property of being convergent; the tendency of unrelated animals and plants to evolve superficially similar characteristics under similar environmental conditions; a location where airflows or ocean currents meet, characteristically marked by upwelling (of air) or downwelling (of water).