January 2 in history

January 2, 2011

On January 2:

1492  Reconquista: the emirate of Granada, the last Moorish stronghold in Spain, surrendered.

 
La rendición de Granada (1882) by Francisco Pradilla Ortiz.
 
1818 The British Institution of Civil Engineers was founded.
IceLogo.jpg
 
 
1860  The discovery of the planet Vulcan was announced at a meeting of the Académie des Sciences in Paris. 

1871 Amadeus I became King of Spain.

1873 Thérèse de Lisieux, French Roman-Catholic nun, was born (d. 1897).

1896 – Sir Lawrence Wackett, Australian aircraft engineer, was born (d. 1982).

 1938 The first official New Zealand airmail to the United States departed Auckland for San Francisco aboard Pan American Airline’s Samoan Clipper, a Sikorsky S-42B flying boat was piloted by Captain Ed Musick.
First official airmail flight to San Francisco
1947 David Shapiro, American poet, literary critic, and art historian, was born.
1949 Luis Muñoz Marín became the first democratically elected Governor of Puerto Rico.

1955  Panamanian president Jose Antonio Remon was assassinated.

1959  Luna 1, the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Moon and to orbit the Sun, was launched by the U.S.S.R.

Luna 1

1967 Francois Pienaar, South African rugby player, Sprinbok, was born.

P1010921 FP.jpg

1971 – The second Ibrox disaster killed 66 fans at a Rangers-Celtic football match.

 

1974  President Richard Nixon signed a bill lowering the maximum U.S. speed limit to 55 MPH in order to conserve fuel during an OPEC embargo.

1975  Reuben Thorne, New Zealand All Black, was born.

1999  A brutal snowstorm hit the Midwestern United States, causing 14 inches (359 mm) of snow in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and 19 inches (487 mm) in Chicago, where temperatures plunged to -13°F (-25°C); 68 deaths were reported

2001 – Sila Calderón became the first female Governor of Puerto Rico.

2002 – Eduardo Duhalde was appointed interim President of Argentina by the Legislative Assembly.

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia.


December 4 in history

December 4, 2010

On December 4:

306 – Martyrdom of Saint Barbara.

771 – Austrasian King Carloman died, leaving his brother Charlemagne King of the complete Frankish Kingdom.

1110 – First Crusade: The Crusaders sacked Sidon.

Magnussonnenes saga 3 - G. Munthe.jpg

1259 – Kings Louis IX of France and Henry III of England agreed to the Treaty of Paris, in which Henry renounced his claims to French-controlled territory on continental Europe (including Normandy) in exchange for Louis withdrawing his support for English rebels.

1563 – The final session of the Council of Trent was held (it opened on December 13, 1545).

 

1619 – 38 colonists from Berkeley Parish in England disembarked in Virginia and gave thanks to God (this is considered by many to be the first Thanksgiving in the Americas).

Thanksgiving

1676 –  Battle of Lund: A Danish army under the command of King Christian V of Denmark engaged the Swedish army commanded by Field Marshal Simon Grundel-Helmfelt.

Charles XI, Battle of Lund.jpg

1745  Charles Edward Stuart’s army reached Derby, its furthest point during the second Jacobite rising.

1791 The first edition of The Observer, the world’s first Sunday newspaper, was published.

The Observer

1795  Thomas Carlyle, Scottish writer and historian, was born (d. 1881) .

1835  Samuel Butler, English writer, was born (d. 1902).

1867 – Former Minnesota farmer Oliver Hudson Kelley founded the Order of the Patrons of Husbandry (better known today as the Grange).

 

1872 The crewless American ship Mary Celeste was found by the British brig Dei Gratia (the ship had been abandoned for 9 days but was only slightly damaged).

Mary Celeste as Amazon in 1861.jpg

1881 The first edition of the Los Angeles Times was published.

Front page from October 21, 2008

1892  Francisco Franco, dictator of Spain, was born (d. 1975).

1918  U.S. President Woodrow Wilson sailed for the World War I peace talks in Versailles, becoming the first US president to travel to Europe while in office.

1930 Ronnie Corbett, Scottish actor, was born.

1939 –  HMS Nelson was struck by a mine (laid by U-31) off the Scottish coast.

HMS Nelson off Spithead for the Fleet Review.jpg

1942 – In Warsaw, Zofia Kossak-Szczucka and Wanda Krahelska-Filipowicz set up the Żegota organization.

Parasol Regiment, Warsaw 1944 

1942 – Carlson’s patrol during the Guadalcanal Campaign ended.

Guad2MarineRaiderPatrol.jpg

1943 – World War II: In Yugoslavia, resistance leader Marshal Tito proclaimed a provisional democratic Yugoslav government in-exile.

1943 – World War II: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt closed down the Works Progress Administration, because of the high levels of wartime employment in the United States.

1945 – By a vote of 65 to 7, the United States Senate approved United States participation in the United Nations

1949 Pamela Stephenson, New Zealand-born actress, was born.

1952 Great Smog of 1952: A cold fog descended upon London, combining with air pollution and killing at least 12,000 in the following months.

1954 The first Burger King opened in Miami, Florida.

Burger King Logo.svg

1958 – Dahomey (present-day Benin) became a self-governing country within the French Community.

1966 – The state monopoly on commercial radio broadcasting was challenged by the pirate station Radio Hauraki’s first scheduled transmission from the vessel Tiri in the Colville Channel.

Radio Hauraki rules the waves

1971 The Montreux Casino was set ablaze by someone wielding a flare gun during a Frank Zappa concert; the incident would be noted in the Deep Purple song “Smoke on the Water“.

1971 – McGurk’s Bar bombing: An Ulster Volunteer Force bomb kills 15 civilians and wounds 17 in Belfast.

1977 – Malaysia Airlines Flight 653 is hijacked and crashed in Tanjong Kupang, Johor, killing 100.

1978  Dianne Feinstein became San Francisco, California’s first female mayor.

1980   Led Zeppelin officially disbanded following the death of drummer John Bonham on September 25th.

1991 Journalist Terry A. Anderson was released after 7 years in captivity as a hostage in Beirut.

1991 Captain Mark Pyle piloted Clipper Goodwill, a Pan American World Airways Boeing 727-221ADV, to Miami International Airport ending 64 years of Pan Am operations.

Pan Am Logo.svg

1993 – A truce was concluded between the government of Angola and UNITA rebels.

1998 – The Unity Module, the second module of the International Space Station, was launched.

 

2005 – Tens of thousands of people in Hong Kong protested for democracy and call on the Government to allow universal and equal suffrage.

 

2006 – An adult giant squid was caught on video for the first time by Tsunemi Kubodera near the Ogasawara Islands.

 

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


September 6 in history

September 6, 2010

On September 6:

394  Battle of the Frigidus: The Christian Roman Emperor Theodosiu I defeated and killed the pagan usurper Eugenius and his Frankish magister militum Arbogast.

 

1522 The Victoria, the only surviving ship of Ferdinand Magellan’s expedition, returned to Sanlúcar de Barrameda in Spain, becoming the first ship to circumnavigate the world.

 

1620  The Pilgrims sailed from Plymouth on the Mayflower to settle in North America.

MayflowerHarbor.jpg

1628 Puritans settled Salem.

 

1634 Thirty Years’ War: In the Battle of Nördlingen the Catholic Imperial army defeated Protestant armies of Sweden and Germany.

 

1669 The siege of Candia ended with the Venetian fortress surrendering to the Ottomans.

Candia III.jpg

1729 Moses Mendelssohn, German philosopher, was born (d. 1786).

1757 Marquis de Lafayette, French soldier and statesman, was born (d. 1834).

Gilbert du Motier Marquis de Lafayette.jpg

1781 The Battle of Groton Heights resulted a British victory.

Fort trumbull.jpg

1800 Catharine Beecher, American educator, was born (d. 1878).

 

1847  Henry David Thoreau left Walden Pond and moved in with Ralph Waldo Emerson and his family.

 

1860 Jane Addams, American social worker, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, was born (d. 1935).

 

1870  Louisa Ann Swain of Laramie, Wyoming became the first woman in the United States to cast a vote legally.

1885 Eastern Rumelia declared its union with Bulgaria.

 

1888  Charles Turner became the first bowler to take 250 wickets in an English season.

CTBTurner.jpg

1901 Anarchist Leon Czolgosz shot and fatally wounded US President William McKinley.

 

1919 Wilson Greatbatch, American inventor (cardiac pacemaker), was born.

1930 Argentine president Hipólito Yrigoyen was deposed in a military coup.

 

1937  Spanish Civil War: The start of the Battle of El Mazuco.

1939 World War II: The Battle of Barking Creek.

1940 King Carol II of Romania abdicated and was succeeded by his son Michael.

 

 

1943 Roger Waters, British musician (Pink Floyd), was born.

1943 The Monterrey Institute of Technology, was founded in Monterrey, Mexico.

1948 New Zealand citizenship was established.

 New Zealand citizenship established

1948  Juliana became Queen of the Netherlands.

 

1949 Allied military authorities relinquished control of former Nazi Germany assets back to German control.

1955 Istanbul Pogrom: Istanbul’s Greek and Armenian minority were the target of a government-sponsored pogrom.

 

1957 José Sócrates, Prime Minister of Portugal, was born.

 

1963 Alice Sebold, American novelist, was born.

 

1965  India retaliated following Pakistan’s failed Operation Grand Slam which resulted in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.

 

1966 The architect of Apartheid, Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd, was stabbed to death during a parliamentary meeting.

1968  Swaziland became independent.

1970 Two passenger jets bound from Europe to New York were simultaneously hijacked by Palestinian terrorist members of PFLP and taken to Dawson’s Field in Jordan.

1972  Munich Massacre: 9 Israeli athletes and a German policeman taken hostage at the Munich Olympic Games by the Palestinian “Black September” terrorist group died  at the hands of the kidnappers during a failed rescue attempt.

 

1976   Soviet air force pilot Lt. Viktor Belenko landed a MiG-25 jet fighter on the island of Hokkaidō and requests political asylum in the United States.

1985  Midwest Express Airlines Flight 105, a Douglas DC-9 crashed just after takeoff from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, killing 31.

1986 In Istanbul, two terrorists from Abu Nidal’s organisation killed 22 and wounded six inside the Neve Shalom synagogue during Shabbat services.

1991 – The name Saint Petersburg was restored to Russia’s second largest city, which had been renamed Leningrad in 1924.

Coat of Arms of Saint Petersburg (2003).png
Coat of arms
Flag of Saint Petersburg Russia.svg

1997  Funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales  which was watched by a television audience of more than 2.5 billion.

 

Sourced from NZ History & Wikipedia


August 23 in history

August 23, 2010

On August 23:

79  Mount Vesuvius began stirring, on the feast day of Vulcan, the Roman god of fire.

1305  William Wallace, Scottish patriot, was executed for high treason.

 

1328  Battle of Cassel: French troops stopped an uprising of Flemish farmers.

The Battle of Cassel on 23rd August 1328.png

1514  Battle of Chaldiran ended with a decisive victory for the Sultan Selim I, Ottoman Empire, over the Shah Ismail I, Safavids founder.

 

1555  Calvinists were granted rights in the Netherlands.

1572   St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre – Mob violence against Huguenots in Paris.

 

1595  Michael the Brave confronted the Ottoman army in the Battle of Calugareni.

 
Theodor Aman - Izgonirea turcilor la Calugareni.jpg

1708  Meidingnu Pamheiba was crowned King of Manipur.

1775 King George III declared that the American colonies existed in a state of open and avowed rebellion.

1793 French Revolution: a levée en masse was decreed by the National Convention.

1799  Napoleon left Egypt for France en route to seize power.

1813  Battle of Grossbeeren, the Prussians under Von Bülow repulsed the French army.

 
Knotel-Battle of Grossbeeren.jpg

1839  The United Kingdom captured Hong Kong as a base as it prepared for war with Qing China.

1858  The Round Oak rail accident in Brierley Hill, England.

1866  Austro-Prussian War ended with the Treaty of Prague.

1873  Albert Bridge in Chelsea, London opened.

1875 William Eccles, English radio pioneer, was born (d. 1966).

1896 First Cry of the Philippine Revolution was made in Pugad Lawin (Quezon City), in the province of Manila.

1900 Malvina Reynolds, American folk singer/songwriter, was born (d. 1978).

 

1904 The automobile tyre chain was patented.

1912 Gene Kelly, American dancer and actor, was born (d. 1996).

1914 World War I: Japan declared war on Germany and bombed Qingdao, China.

1914 – World War I: the Battle of Mons; the British Army began withdrawal.

 

1921  British airship R-38 experienced structural failure over Hull in England and crashed in the Humber estuary.  Only 4 of her 49 British and American training crew survived.

 

1923  Capt. Lowell Smith and Lt. John P. Richter performed the first mid-air refueling on De Havilland DH-4B, setting an endurance flight record of 37 hours.

Smith and Richter cropped.jpg

1929  Hebron Massacre during the 1929 Palestine riots: Arab attack on the Jewish community in Hebron in the British Mandate of Palestine, continuing until the next day, resulted in the death of 65-68 Jews and the remaining Jews being forced to leave the city.

 

1934 Barbara Eden, American actress and singer, was born.

1938 English cricketer Sir Len Hutton set a world record for the highest individual Test innings of 364, during a Test match against Australia.

Len Hutton.jpg
 

 

1939 New Zealand writer Robin Hyde died in London.

Writer Robin Hyde dies in London

1939  World War II: Germany and the Soviet Union signed a non-aggression treaty, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. In a secret addition to the pact, the Baltic states, Finland, Romania, and Poland were divided between the two nations.

MolotovRibbentropStalin.jpg

1942  Beginning of the Battle of Stalingrad.

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-W0506-316, Russland, Kampf um Stalingrad, Siegesflagge.jpg

1942  The last cavalry charge in history took place at Izbushensky.

1943 Nelson DeMille, American novelist, was born.

 
Word of honor cover.jpg

1943   Kharkov was liberated.

1944   Marseille was liberated.

1944   King Michael of Romania dismissed the pro-Nazi government of General Antonescu, who was arrested. Romania switched sides from the Axis to the Allies.

1944  Freckleton Air Disaster – A United States Army Air Forces B-24 Liberator bomber crashed into a school in Freckleton, England killing 61 people.

1946 Keith Moon, English musician (The Who), was born (d. 1978).

1946  Ordinance No. 46 of the British Military Government constitutes the German Land (state) of Schleswig-Holstein.

1947 Assisted immigration to New Zealand for British people resumed after WWII.

Assisted immigration resumes after war

1947 – Willy Russell, British playwright, was born.

Educating Rita.jpg

1948  World Council of Churches was formed.

1949 Rick Springfield, Australian singer and actor, was born.

1951 Queen Noor of Jordan, was born.

1954 First flight of the C-130 Hercules transport aircraft.

 

1958  Chinese Civil War: The Second Taiwan Strait crisis began with the People’s Liberation Army’s bombardment of Quemoy.

1966  Lunar Orbiter 1 took the first photograph of Earth from orbit around the Moon.

1975 Successful Communist coup in Laos.

1977  The Gossamer Condor won the Kremer prize for human powered flight.

1979  Soviet dancer Alexander Godunov defected to the United States.

1982 Bachir Gemayel was elected Lebanese President amidst the raging civil war.

 

1985  Hans Tiedge, top counter-spy of West Germany, defected to East Germany.

1989  Hungary: the last communist government opened the Iron curtain and caused the exodus of thousands of Eastern Germans to West Germany via Hungary.

1989  Singing Revolution: two million people from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania stoodon the Vilnius-Tallinn road, holding hands (Baltic Way).

 

1989 – 1,645 Australian domestic airline pilots resign after the airlines threaten to fire them and sue them over a dispute.

1990  Saddam Hussein appeared on Iraqi state television with a number of Western “guests” ( hostages) to try to prevent the Gulf War.

1990  Armenia declared its independence from the Soviet Union.

 

1990  West and East Germany announced that they would unite on October 3.

1994  Eugene Bullard, The only black pilot in World War I, was posthumously commissioned as Second Lieutenant in the United States Air Force.

Eugene Jacques Bullard, first African American combat pilot in uniform, First World War.jpg

1996 Osama bin Laden issued message entitled ‘A declaration of war against the Americans occupying the land of the two holy places.’

 
Bin Laden Poster2.jpeg

2000  Gulf Air Flight 072 crashed into the Persian Gulf near Manama, Bahrain, killing 143.

2006Natascha Kampusch, who was abducted at the age of 10, managed to escape from her captor Wolfgang Priklopil, after 8 years of captivity.

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


April 30 in history

April 30, 2010

On April 30:

313  Roman emperor Licinius unified the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule.

 
132 Licinius.jpg

1006  Supernova SN 1006, the brightest supernova in recorded history, appeared in the constellation Lupus.

 

1315 Enguerrand de Marigny was hanged on the public gallows at Montfaucon.

1492 Spain gave Christopher Columbus his commission of exploration.

1513  Edmund de la Pole, Yorkist pretender to the English throne, was executed on the orders of Henry VIII.

John de la Pole, 1st Earl of Lincoln.jpg

1651 Jean-Baptiste de la Salle, French educational reformer, Catholic saint, was born (d. 1719).

1662 Queen Mary II of England was born (d. 1694).

1671  Petar Zrinski, the Croatian Ban from the Zrinski family, was executed.

Petar Zrinski (1621-1671)
 

1789  George Washington took the oath of office to become the first elected President of the United States.

 

1794  The Battle of Boulou was fought, in which French forces defeated the Spanish under General Union.

Bataille de Boulou.jpg

1803  Louisiana Purchase: The United States purchased the Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million, more than doubling the size of the young nation.

Location of Louisiana Purchase

1838  Nicaragua declared independence from the Central American Federation.

1864  Pai Marire warriors were defeated at Sentry Hill.

Pai Marire defeated at Sentry Hill Taranaki

1865 ex-Governor Robert Fitzroy committed suicide.

Ex-Governor FitzRoy commits suicide

1871 The Camp Grant Massacre took place in Arizona Territory.

1894 Coxey’s Army reached Washington, D.C. to protest the unemployment caused by the Panic of 1893.

 

1900 Hawaii became a territory of the United States, with Sanford B. Dole as governor.

1900  Casey Jones died in a train wreck in Vaughn, Mississippi, while trying to make up time on the Cannonball Express.

 

1904 The Louisiana Purchase Exposition World’s Fair opened in St. Louis, Missouri.

1907  Honolulu, Hawaii became an independent city.

1909  Queen Juliana of the Netherlands (d. 2004), was born.

 

1925 Dodge Brothers, Inc was sold to Dillon, Read & Company for $146 million plus $50 million for charity.

Dodge Logo

1927  The Federal Industrial Institute for Women, opened in Alderson, West Virginia, as the first women’s federal prison in the United States.

Alderson Federal Prison Camp entrance.jpg
 

1927 – Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford became the first celebrities to leave their footprints in concrete at Grauman’s Chinese Theater in Hollywood.

Grauman's Chinese Theatre, by Carol Highsmith fixed & straightened.jpg

1933 Willie Nelson, American musician, was born.

1937  The Philippines held a plebiscite for Filipino women on whether they should be extended the right to suffrage; more than 90% voted in the affirmative.

1938  The animated cartoon short Porky’s Hare Hunt debuted in movie theatres, introducing Happy Rabbit.

1938 The first televised FA Cup Final took place between Huddersfield Town and Preston North End.

1939  The 1939-40 New York World’s Fair opened

 

1939  NBC inaugurated its regularly scheduled television service in New York City, broadcasting President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s World’s Fair opening day ceremonial address.

NBC logo.svg

1943  World War II: Operation Mincemeat: The submarine HMS Seraph surfaced in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Spain to deposit a dead man planted with false invasion plans and dressed as a British military intelligence officer.

 

1945 World War II: Fuehrerbunker: Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun committed suicide after being married for one day. Soviet soldiers raised the Victory Banner over the Reichstag building.

 

1946 King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, was born.

1947 The Boulder Dam was renamed Hoover Dam a second time.

Hoover Dam

1948 The Organization of American States was established.

1949 António Guterres, former Prime Minister of Portugal, was born.

1953  In Warner Robins, Georgia, an F4 tornado killed 18 people.

1953 Merrill Osmond, American musician (The Osmonds), was born.

1954 Jane Campion, New Zealand film director, was born.

1956 Former Vice President and Senator Alben Barkley died during a speech in Virginia. He collapsed after proclaiming “I would rather be a servant in the house of the lord than sit in the seats of the mighty.”

1959 Stephen Harper, Prime Minister of Canada, was born.

1973  Watergate Scandal: U.S. President Richard Nixon announced that top White House aids H.R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman and others had resigned.

1975 Fall of Saigon: Communist forces gained control of Saigon. The Vietnam War formally ended with the unconditional surrender of South Vietnamese president Duong Van Minh.

1980 Accession of Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands.

1988 Queen Elizabeth II officially opened World Expo ’88 in Brisbane, Australia.

 

1993  CERN announced World Wide Web protocols will be free.

1993 Virgin Radio broadcast for the first time in the United Kingdom.

 

1995 U.S. President Bill Clinton became the first President to visit Northern Ireland.

1999 Cambodia joined the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) bringing the number of members to 10.

2004 U.S. media release graphic photos of American soldiers abusing and sexually humiliating Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison.

2008  Two skeletal remains found near Ekaterinburg, Russia were confirmed by Russian scientists to be the remains of Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia and one of his sisters Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna.

2009 Chrysler  filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.

Chrysler LLC logo.svg
 

Sourced from NZ History Online & WIkipedia


November 14 in history

November 14, 2009

On November 14:

1805  Fanny Mendelssohn, German composer and pianist, was born.

1840  Claude Monet, French painter, was born.

1878  Julie Manet, French painter, was born.

 

1889 Pioneering female journalist Nellie Bly (aka Elizabeth Cochrane) began a successful attempt to travel around the world in less than 80 days. She completed the trip in seventy-two days.

1908  Joseph McCarthy, U.S. Senator from Wisconsin, was born.

1918 Czechoslovakia beccame a republic.

Flag Coat of arms

 

1919  Veronica Lake, American actress, was born.

1922 The BBC began radio service.

1927 Bart Cummings, Australian race horse trainer, was born.

1935  King Hussein of Jordan was born.

1947 P. J. O’Rourke, American writer, was born.

1948  Prince Charles  was born.

1952 The first regular UK singles chart was published by the New Musical Express.

 

1954 – Condoleezza Rice, former United States Secretary of State, was born.

1959  Paul McGann, British actor, was born.

1969 NASA launched Apollo 12, the second manned mission to the surface of the Moon.
AP12goodship.png

1971 Adam Gilchrist, Australian cricketer, was born.

Adam Gilchrist.jpg

1973 DPB legislation was introduced in New Zealand.

1973  Princess Anne married Captain Mark Phillips, in Westminster Abbey.

2007 The last direct-current electrical distribution system in the United States is shut down in New York City by Con Edison.

 

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia.


September 17 in history

September 17, 2009

On September 17:

1787 The USA Constitution was signed.

1883 USA writer William Carlos Williams was born.

1901 English adventurer Sir Francis Chichester was born.

Norfolk Island two cent stamp commemorating Chichester’s arrival in his Gypsy Moth in 1931.

1929 English racing car driver Sir Stirling Moss was born.

1931 US actor Anne Bancroft was born.

1941 The death penalty was abolished in New Zealand.

1944 the airborne invasion of Holland began. Operation Market Garden is celebrated annually.


Waves of paratroopers land in the Netherlands during Operation Market Garden in September 1944.

Sourced from BBC On This Day, NZ History Online and Wikipedia.


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