Rural round-up

16/02/2021

Hackles rise over stock reduction numbers – Hamish MacLean:

A possible 15% reduction in livestock numbers on red meat and dairy farms by 2030 could break New Zealand’s under-pressure agriculture industry, some farmers fear.

While industry groups are taking a cautious approach to the Climate Change Commission’s draft advice package, its preferred path includes reduced livestock numbers by 2030.

And the already weary farming sector feared an urban-centred Government could again make changes for rural New Zealand that did not match what was happening on the ground, Riverton sheep farmer Leon Black said.

Mr Black, a former Beef + Lamb New Zealand southern South Island director, said any policy that led to fewer farms in the South would be catastrophic for rural communities. . . 

Concern over land reform changes – Annette Scott:

Changes proposed in the Crown Pastoral Land Reform Bill threaten the viability of high country farming for pastoral lessees.

The Bill proposes to amend the Crown Pastoral Land Act 1998 and the Land Act 1948, to end tenure review and redesign the regulatory system to deliver improved Crown pastoral outcomes.

But farmers say the Bill is poorly drafted, placing unreasonable limitations on day-to-day farming activities for pastoral leaseholders.

Farmers will be bogged down in red tape and environmental outcomes would go backwards. . . 

Zespri faces a China conundrum – Keith Woodford:

China is New Zealand’s biggest kiwifruit market. Growth of this market has been spectacular with the Zespri-owned SunGold variety much-loved by Chinese consumers. The problem is that the Chinese are also growing at least 4000 hectares of SunGold without the permission of Zespri. 

That compares to about 7000 hectares of SunGold grown in New Zealand.

The question now facing Zespri and the New Zealand kiwifruit industry is what to do about it.  There are no easy solutions.

This issue is something I discussed with local folk in the kiwifruit-growing regions of China way back in the years between 2012 and 2015. It did not need an Einstein to work out that the SunGold budwood was already there. . . 

Kiwifruit settlement a token, but an important one – Nikki Mandow:

This weekend’s settlement over PSA kiwifruit disease compensation is good news for the taxpayer, but bad news for business owners, particularly farmers. 

On Saturday morning, a group of kiwifruit growers announced they had reached a settlement with the Crown over damages they suffered after virulent kiwifruit vine disease PSA entered New Zealand. The bacteria arrived in 2009 in imported Chinese pollen because of a Ministry of Primary Industries biosecurity blunder at the border, and it devastated the industry.

The growers wanted $450 million, plus interest, to compensate them for the destruction of their orchards; in some cases the destruction of their livelihoods. 

But late on Friday night, with the final stage of a seven year-long court battle due to start in the Supreme Court today, they settled for $40 million. . . 

‘Absolutely gutted’: Maniototo A&P Show cancelled over alert level move – Yvonne O’Hara:

The Maniototo A&P Show, scheduled for Wednesday, has been cancelled.

Secretary Janine Smith said organisers made the tough decision to cancel the show after the Government moved the nation to Alert Level 2 and Auckland to Alert Level 3 on Sunday night.

The situation was being assessed by the Government every 24 hours. . . 

Cattle game is trusted; but society still wants oversight – Shan Goodwin:

Cattle producers enjoy a high level of trust by the Australian community but that does not equate to support for a relaxed regulatory environment.

This is the key finding from first-of-its-kind independent research into public perceptions of the cattle industry’s environmental performance, from a team headed up by The University of Queensland.

The work points to the need for a rethink of how the industry sometimes frames the relationship between environmental regulation and community trust.

A well-designed regulatory framework that is developed with the engagement of key stakeholders enables the demonstration of sound environmental performance and should not be framed as a burden, or the result of society being ‘on our back’, says lead researcher Dr Bradd Witt. . . 


Rural round-up

25/01/2021

NZ group cautions US to not turn climate change into ‘tit-for-tat tariff war’ – Adam Jacobson:

A proposal by the United States to tariff goods on countries which don’t meet their climate goals would be too complex to implement, a group representing New Zealand exporters says.

New US President Joe Biden is vowing to impose carbon fees on nations failing to cut emissions in accordance with the Paris Climate Agreement.

In December, the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE) said Aotearoa was not on track to meet its obligations.

Export NZ executive director Catherine Beard said it would be a big issue for New Zealand’s economy if the US did impose import taxes, but the proposal didn’t appear to be realistic.    . . 

Shearing world record holder harnessed competitive edge – Evan Harding:

As a youngster Megan Whitehead was super competitive, perhaps best highlighted when, as an eight year old, she even made a race of drenching lambs when doing the job with her father.

That competitive nature has never waned, and on Thursday she harnessed it to become a world record holder in women’s shearing.

Whitehead, 24, shore 661 strongwool lambs in nine hours, beating the previous nine-hour record of 648 which was set in 2007 by Waikato shearer Emily Welch.

Whitehead, who lives in Glenham, Southland, left no stone unturned in preparing for the record attempt. . . 

Hui planned for marae-based project teaching Kaipara to grow kai:

The Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) is funding a new marae-based project to help Kaipara residents grow their own food.

The first of four educational hui will be held this month to teach people how to transform their backyards into food bowls.

MPI is providing $20,000 to Māuri Orā Ngāti Whatua Charitable Trust to develop the community education programme. . .

Beef slaughter prices cap margin potential – Sarah Friel:

Since the start of the 2020-21 season, farm gate prime and bull prices have decreased consistently. Decreasing cattle slaughter prices are not unusual for this time of year when processors have a strong supply of killable cattle. Based on five-year average prices, bull slaughter prices normally reduce by 25c/kg from early November to mid-January, and primes normally reduce by 35c/kg over the same period. However, it’s knowing when the market will recover that’s the issue.

Since early November, prime slaughter values have decreased by an average of 50c/kg. This equates to 300kg carcase weight steer devaluing by $150. In regard to bull prices, it’s a similar situation. These have reduced by around 45c/kg over the same period, translating to a $135 devaluation to a 300kg carcase weight bull.

Evidently, the national bull slaughter price has reduced less severely than prime. This is due to greater fluctuation in the US95CL price. . .

Observation trumps the test-tube – Owen Jennings:

Over the month of January I have had occasion to travel the length of New Zealand from the Bay of Islands in the north to Invercargill in the south.  In between lots of criss-crossing and visiting places large and small.  We did narrow gravel roads and main highways.  As a retired farmer I looked with interest to see what is happening in the light of claims of environmental disaster, imminent catastrophe and chaos.

Several issues became apparent.

The obvious is that New Zealand is a beautiful country, diverse, interesting and a great place to live.  It has never been truer.

Rural New Zealand looks amazing.  . .

Cracking a tough nut for macadamia growers

Macadamia researchers are breeding thinner shells for bigger kernels and tougher husks for resisting pests. 

The University of Queensland’s Professor Bruce Topp said these combined attributes would boost Australia’s $270 million industry, which earns $190 million in export income annually.

“Two thirds of every harvested kilogram is in the weight of the macadamias’ extremely tough shells. That’s a lot of wasted productivity,” Professor Topp said.

“The goal for many growers is to produce less shell and more kernel from each nut but with the shell still tough enough to resist pests.” . . 


Rural round-up

04/09/2020

Covid 19 coronavirus: Why level 3 has been a ‘disaster’ for food producers, manufacturers  – Aimee Shaw:

The Food & Grocery Council says changes to the way the Government has handled boundary travel exemptions under the second round of lockdown had caused major disruption to food manufacturing.

Some food producers have been unable to get some of their key workers in and out of their factories located both in and outside of Auckland under alert level 3, resulting in some companies having to scale back production of some of their goods.

Griffin’s Foods is said to be one of a handful of companies that have scaled back production of some of their lines due to being unable to get some staff into their facilities and Invivo Wines has faced similar issues getting workers from Auckland into its Waikato winery. . .  

Perfect storm’ brewing for Central Otago growers facing Covid-19 labour crisis – Jo Mckenzie-Mclean:

Central Otago’s mayor will help pick fruit off trees this summer as a severe labour shortage threatens the region’s billion-dollar orchard industry.

The industry is forecasting a shortage of 5500 workers in the region during December and January, and 1500 for the critical thinning period due to start in six weeks.

Summerfruit New Zealand chairman and chief executive of Cromwell-based orchard 45 South Tim Jones said the looming worker shortage was a huge concern. The industry had been “leaving no stone unturned” in trying to find solutions. . . 

Taranaki farm couple’s 25 year war of the roses with possums – Mike Watson:

Taranaki dairy farmer Fiona Henchman​ can now declare victory in a personal war of the roses she has waged against possums for a quarter of a century.

With husband John she has fought a backyard battle against thousands of possums hopping over the boundary fence from Egmont National Park to munch on fruit trees, grass pasture and treasured climbing roses.

Pasture near the national park boundary has also taken a hammering, with the pests’ eating habits leaving the ground resembling a mown strip.

Anything the couple attempted to plant and grow on the 130ha Upper Weld Road property was gnawed to the stem by the nocturnal marauders, she said. . . 

Research finds genetic link between cattle temperament and autism in humans :

A strong association between the genes influencing cattle temperament and autism in humans has been discovered by University of Queensland researchers.

UQ genomic expert Professor Ben Hayes said the research by his interdisciplinary team headed by Dr Roy Costilla could lead to improved animal welfare and meat quality.

“The research doesn’t mean that cattle have autism; rather that cattle share an overlap of genes with humans which are critical in brain function and response to fear stimuli,” Hayes said.

Temperament is an important trait for day-to-day management of cattle, Hayes said . . .

City girl making good in rural sector – David Hill:

Olivia Egerton is a city girl who never imagined having a career in the rural sector.

The young Canterbury business executive is making a name for herself in the primary sector and was recently presented with the 2020 First Steps in Governance award by the Canterbury branch of the Institute of Directors.

“It’s a great opportunity and very exciting to be launching in earnest my management career and learning some different skills,” Ms Egerton said.

The award was given annually by the professional body of directors to a candidate who was motivated to further their business experience, gain insight into good governance practice and learn about the dynamics of sitting on a board.

Growing up in Auckland, Ms Egerton never intended having a primary sector career, but she did have family connections, with extended family involved in deer farming. . .

Importance of rodent control in free range egg systems :

A pest control expert has shared his views on rodent control within the free range egg industry, and how to prevent the situation in the 80’s repeating itself again.

The free range market has grown considerably over the last two decades to make up the majority of the UK laying flock.

This has been brought about through a combination of consumer demand, diversification and the success of the industry in promoting eggs a safe and nutritious food source. . .


Rural round-up

11/08/2020

Dry July puts Marlborough farmers at risk of spring drought – Sophie Trigger:

Marlborough farmers are relying on “significant” spring rain to avoid drought, figures show.

Last month’s weather data from the Marlborough Research Centre showed the region had recorded just 26 per cent of the long term July average, with 16.8mm.

Total rainfall in from January to July had been 220.2mm, or 59 per cent of the long term average. This made 2020 the fifth driest year on record so far, in the 91 years of data available. . . 

Carpet company links with NZ Merino:

Cavalier Bremworth has entered into a partnership with the New Zealand Merino Company to launch long-term forward contracts with its ZQ wool certification grower community.

In a statement, it said the partnership would deliver $5million value direct to New Zealand strong-wool growers over the next three years as Cavalier Bremworth moved away from synthetic products in favour of wool and natural fibres.

“Partnerships like this are so important for New Zealand’s economic recovery, adding value in generating local employment with transparency and gives confidence and reward to the growth of the New Zealand strong wool sector.

“It’s great to see local brands like Cavalier shifting the dial and walking the talk in helping counter climate change and carbon emissions with more regenerative fibres,” NZM chief executive John Brakenridge said. . . 

Muster’ brings in the younger generation – Sally Rae:

Georgia Urquhart had a couple of sleepless nights prior to the Nextgen Muster.

Miss Urquhart (24) was a driving force behind the initiative which aimed to get more young people involved in — and learning about — the merino industry.

Initially, she feared no-one would turn up or there might only be five, so she was thrilled when 68 attended the first day at Benmore Station, near Omarama, and about 40 the second at Simons Hill Station, in the Mackenzie district — “way more” than she expected.

Miss Urquhart grew up on Grays Hills Station in the Mackenzie, which includes a merino stud that she has become increasingly involved with over the last several years. . . 

New Zealand’s lesser known honeys to get a boost in international markets:

New Zealand’s apiculture industry has embarked on a collective story-telling drive to educate ‘conscious foodie’ consumers offshore about its diverse range of native honey varieties.

Apiculture New Zealand has joined forces with New Zealand Story to create a suite of compelling promotional material about lesser known honey varieties.

Karin Kos, Chief Executive of Apiculture New Zealand says although mānuka honey continues to yield strong export prices and has provided a ‘halo effect’ for other New Zealand honeys, the shrinking margins for non-mānuka styles mean producers are now competing in a commoditised market. . . 

Permission granted for new potato protector:

A new herbicide that controls potato weeds, like black nightshade, has been approved for use in New Zealand, subject to conditions.

Boxer Gold contains the active ingredient prosulfocarb, which is new to New Zealand, but already approved in the European Union, Australia, and Japan.

Benefits identified in the application process for this product include reduced resistance in weeds, leading to bigger potato crops, and more product choice for farmers. . . 

AACo rolls out the Wagyu flavour wheel :

THE unique flavour, texture and aroma of Australia’s famous Wagyu beef can now be marketed using a world-first flavour profile.

Developed by The University of Queensland in partnership with the Australian Agricultural Company, the new flavour wheel is designed to provide product descriptors and to differentiate the different Wagyu cuts and marbling grades.

Sensory and flavour expert Dr Heather Smyth said flavour wheels were commonly used by the wine, seafood, coffee, beer and cocoa industries to describe flavour and sensory properties . . 


2020 Zanda McDonald Award entries open

03/08/2019

Applications for the 2020 Zanda McDonald Award have opened:

Flying around Australia and New Zealand in a private jet, and being mentored by some of the greatest leaders in the agriculture industry might sound like a bit of a pipe dream, but it will be a dream come true for one young Kiwi or Aussie again next year.

Applications for the prestigious 2020 Zanda McDonald Award open today, and the search is on to find talented and passionate young individuals working in the ag sector to apply.

Now in its sixth year, the award provides the winner with an impressive personal development package that includes an all-expenses paid trans-Tasman mentoring trip, $2000 cash, and the ability to get up close and personal with leaders in the Australasian ag sector through the Platinum Primary Producers (PPP) Group. Some travel takes place in a privately chartered Pilatus PC-12 aircraft, enabling the winner to reach diverse and remote farming operations.

Richard Rains, Chairman of the Zanda McDonald Award, says the award is widely seen as a career and life-changing experience, that can really help take them to the next level.

“We’ve been lucky to discover some inspiring young people since the award began, with quite diverse backgrounds. But the one thing they all have in common is a real passion for the industry, and a hunger to make a difference. I’m really excited to see who will be uncovered this year. The prize is quite something, but even if you don’t win, there are still some wonderful opportunities if you make it into the top three, so I’d encourage anyone considering it to throw their hat in the ring.”

Previous winners have included a dairy farmer, a sheep and beef farmer, a business manager of a sheep milk company, and a beef extension officer. Earlier this year, for the first time, two people were crowned with the title – Queenslander Shannon Landmark, 28, and Luke Evans, also 28, from the Northern Territory.

Landmark is a trained vet and the coordinator of the Northern Genomics Project at the University of Queensland, where she focusses on improving genetic selection and reproductive technology. Evans, 28, is the Station Manager at Rockhampton Downs Station, a 450,000-hectare beef property in Tennant Creek. For Evans, it came as a huge surprise.

“I’m just a bush kid, and I wasn’t that comfortable putting myself out there, but my boss encouraged me to put an application in. And I can honestly say it’s been one of the best things I’ve ever done. I’ve already met some really great people, everyone has been so welcoming. I can’t wait to spend some time with them on my mentoring trip later this year, to find out how they’ve succeeded in business, and how I can further develop my skills.”

Applications are open to individuals aged 18 – 35 years, who live and work in the agriculture sector in Australia or New Zealand. Entries close on Friday 30th August 2019.

Further details and an online application form can be found on the PPP Group website – www.pppgroup.org


Rural round-up

03/07/2019

Snowstorm inspires stock-saver – Tim Fulton:

A shattering snowstorm changed David Brown’s life and inspired a life-saving product.

The founder of the Woolover started out as a sheep and cropping farmer at Clandeboye in South Canterbury, near the Fonterra milk factory. 

Running 3500 ewes he had lost his fair share of new-born lambs over a couple of decades, especially in three-day southerly storms. . . 

Iwi milk plant delivers value – Richard Rennie:

The skyline of the small Bay of Plenty town Kawerau has been dominated for the past 40 years by the big Tasman paper mill but now has another profile in the form of the new Waiu Dairy plant.

The joint iwi-Cedenco plant has been commissioned and its first commercial milk collection this week will be processed through the 900kg-an-hour drier.

Waiu chairman Richard Jones said the plant is the result of a bar-side conversation in 2012 with iwi business representatives when they were kicking around options for revitalising eastern Bay of Plenty. . . 

 

One Plan changes should bring relief to nearly 180 unconsented farmers – Jono Galuszka:

Nearly 180 farms in the wider Manawatū are operating without a consent and cannot get one without changes to contentious planning rules.

But even if the changes are made, the region’s economy is expected to lose tens of millions of dollars.

Horizons Regional Council is putting proposed changes to its One Plan out for consultation, with people having 60 days from July 22 to make a submission. . . 

Mataura Valley Milk expanding plant near Gore – Rachael Kelly:

Infant nutrition formula producer Mataura Valley Milk has begun work on a $5m expansion to its plant at McNab near Gore, less than a year since it began operations.

General manager Bernard May said the company had secured a 37 per cent increase in milk supply for the coming season and needed to expand the plant.

New silos would be constructed and a new tanker bay were included in the expansion, and there was the possibility of more jobs being created. . . 

Application to import wilding conifer herbicide :

Views are sought on an application to import Method 240 SL Herbicide to control wilding conifers and other woody weeds.

Your views are sought on an application to import Method 240 SL Herbicide to control wilding conifers and other woody weeds.

Bayer CropScience Pty Ltd has applied for approval to import the herbicide. . .

Agri-tech sector to pioneer govt industry transformation strategy Pattrick Smellie

(BusinessDesk) – Agricultural technology should be one of New Zealand’s leading sources of high-value jobs, exports and improved farming practice, but has failed to grow much in the last decade, prompting the government to make it the focus of the first of four new industry sector transformation plans.

In what was probably his last public act as Economic Development Minister before handing the portfolio to Phil Twyford after last week’s Cabinet reshuffle, Parker released both a general guide to the industry transformation plan concept and a draft ITP for the agri-tech sector this morning.

The other sectors targeted for such plans are food and beverages, digital technology, and forestry and wood processing.

Speeding breeding and other ways of feeding 10 billion people

Improvements to make crops more nutritious, disease resistant and climate smart are essential to feed a burgeoning world population.

While a host of fascinating innovations are primed to change the face of agriculture, there remains a stubborn limiting factor for plant breeding.

This is the long generation times of crops that allow only one or two generations per year. Unless this changes it is unlikely that we will be able to feed the 10 billion people who will be sharing the planet by 2050.

This roadblock to progress has been alleviated by speed breeding protocols developed by research teams at the John Innes Centre and the University of Queensland. . .


April 16 in history

16/04/2010

On April 16:

1178 BC; The calculated date of the Greek king Odysseus‘s return home from the Trojan War.

 

73 Masada, a Jewish fortress, fell to the Romans after several months of siege, ending the Jewish Revolt.

Dovecote at Masada, where ashes were probably stored — the openings have been shown to be too small for pigeons to fit.

1071 Bari faell to Robert Guiscard, ending Byzantine rule in Italy.

 

1346 The Serbian Empire was proclaimed in Skopje by Dusan Silni, occupying much of the Balkans.

1521 Martin Luther‘s first appearance before the Diet of Worms to be examined by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the other estates of the empire.

 

1582 Spanish conquistador Hernando de Lerma founded the settlement of Salta, Argentina.

1682 John Hadley, British inventor, was born.

1728 Joseph Black, Scottish chemist, was born.

1746 The Battle of Culloden was fought between the French-supported Jacobites and the Hanoverian British Government.

The Battle of Culloden.jpg

1780 The University of Münster was founded.

1799 Napoleonic Wars: The Battle of Mount Tabor – Napoleon drove Ottoman Turks across the River Jordan near Acre.

Bataille du mont-thabor.jpg

1853 The first passenger rail opened in India, from Bori Bunder, Bombay to Thane.

1862 American Civil War: The Battle at Lee’s Mills in Virginia.

1862 American Civil War: A bill ending slavery in the District of Columbia became law.

1863 American Civil War: The Siege of Vicksburg – ships led by Union Admiral David Dixon Porter moved through heavy Confederate artillery fire on approach to Vicksburg, Mississippi.

Battle of Vicksburg, Kurz and Allison.png

1865 Henry George Chauvel, Australian general (, was born.

Painting of Man in khaki uniform wearing Sam Browne belt, two rows of ribbons and red tabs. Holding a slouch hat with emu feathers in one had, and a swagger tucked under the left arm.

1867 Wilbur Wright, American aviation pioneer (, was born.

1889 Charlie Chaplin, English actor, writer, songwriter, composer, and film producer, was born.

1892 The New Zealand Rugby Football Union was founded.

Rugby Union founded

1910 The University of Queensland was founded, with the names of the members of the first Senate published in the Queensland Government Gazette.

UQlogo.svg

1912  Harriet Quimby became the first woman to fly an aeroplane across the English Channel.

1917 Lenin returnedto Petrograd from exile in Switzerland.

1918 Spike Milligan, Irish comedian, was born.

180

1919 – Gandhi organised a day of “prayer and fasting” in response to the killing of Indian protesters in the Amritsar Massacre by the British.

1921 Peter Ustinov, English actor, was born.

 

1922  Kingsley Amis, English author, was born.

1922 The Treaty of Rapallo, pursuant to which Germany and the Soviet Union re-established diplomatic relations, was signed.

 

1924 Henry Mancini, American composer, was born.

1925 The St Nedelya Church assault in Sofia – 150 people were killed and 500 were wounded.

 

1924 Rudy Pompilli, American musician (Bill Haley & His Comets), was born.

 

1927 Pope Benedict XVI, born Joseph Alois Ratzinger., was born.

Pope, 13 march 2007.jpg
 

1939 Dusty Springfield, English singer, was born.

1941 World War II: The Italian convoy Duisburg, was attacked and destroyed by British ships.

1941 – Bob Feller of the Cleveland Indians threw the only Opening Day no-hitter in the history of Major League Baseball, beating the Chicago White Sox 1-0.

1943 Ruth Madoc, British actress, was born.

HideHi.jpg

1943  Dr. Albert Hofmann discovered the psychedelic effects of LSD.

1945 The Red Army began the final assault on German forces around Berlin.

1945 The United States Army liberated Nazi Sonderlager (high security) Prisoner of War camp Oflag IV-C (better known as Colditz).

 

1945 – More than 7,000 died when the German refugee ship Goya was sunk by a Soviet submarine torpedo.

1946 Syria gained independence.

1947  Texas City Disaster: An explosion on board a freighter in port caused the city of Texas City to catch fire, killing almost 600.

 One of Grandcamp’s anchors Texas City Memorial Park

1947 Bernard Baruch coined the term “Cold War” to describe the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union.

 

1953 Queen Elizabeth II launched the Royal Yacht HMY Britannia.

HMY Britannia.jpg

1963Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. penned his Letter from Birmingham Jail while incarcerated in Birmingham, Alabama for protesting against segregation.

Martin Luther King Jr NYWTS.jpg

1963 Jimmy Osmond, American pop singer (The Osmonds), was born.

 

1972 Apollo programme: The launch of Apollo 16 from Cape Canaveral, Florida.

Apollo-16-LOGO.png

1987 British Conservative MP Harvey Proctor appeared at Bow Street Magistrates’ Court charged with gross indecency.

1990 The “Doctor of Death”, Jack Kevorkian, went through with his first assisted suicide.

1992 The Katina P. ran aground off Maputo, Mozambique. 60,000 tons of crude oil spilt into the ocean.

2003 The Treaty of Accession was signed in Athens admitting 10 new member states to the European Union.

 

2004 – The super liner Queen Mary 2 embarks on her first trans-Atlantic crossing, linking the golden age of ocean travel to the modern age of ocean travel.

2007 Virginia Tech massacreSeung-Hui Cho, killed 32 and injured 23 before committing suicide.

Students gather to mourn after the shooting.

2008 Democratic senators Hillary Rodham Clinton and Barack Obama participated in the final Democratic primary debate of 2008.

  Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpg Hillary Clinton official Secretary of State portrait crop.jpg

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


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