March 18 in history

18/03/2010

On March 18:

37 The Roman Senate annulled Tiberius‘ will and proclaimed Caligula emperor.

1229 Frederick II,  Holy Roman Emperor declared himself King of Jerusalem during the Sixth Crusade.

1241 Kraków was ravaged by Mongols.

1314 Jacques de Molay, the 23rd and the last Grand Master of the Knights Templar, was burned at the stake.

Born

1438 Albert II of Habsburg became King of Germany.

1608 Susenyos was formally crowned Emperor of Ethiopia.

1766 The British Parliament repealed the Stamp Act, which had been very unpopular in the British colonies.

 American newspapers reacted to the Stamp Act with anger and predictions of the demise of journalism.

1781 Charles Messier rediscovered global cluster M92.

1834  Six farm labourers from Tolpuddle were sentenced to be transported to Australia for forming a trade union.

1837 Grover Cleveland, 22nd and 24th President of the United States, was born.

1850 American Express was founded by Henry Wells and William Fargo.

American Express logo

1858 Rudolf Diesel, German inventor, was born.

1865 The Congress of the Confederate States of America adjourned for the last time.

1869 Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, was born.

A well-dressed, aging man is seated in a chair and looks sideways towards the camera.

1871 Declaration of the Paris Commune; President of the French Republic, Adolphe Thiers, ordered evacuation of Paris.

 

1893 Former Governor General Lord Stanley pledged to donate a silver challenge cup, later named after him, as an award for the best hockey team in Canada – the Stanley Cup.

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1893 Wilfred Owen, British poet, was born.

1906 Traian Vuia flew the first self-propelled heavier-than-air aircraft in Europe.

 

1913  King George I of Greece was assassinated in the recently liberated city of Thessaloniki.

1915 Richard Condon, American novelist, was born.

ManchurianCandidate.jpg

1915 Three battleships were sunk during a failed British and French naval attack on the Dardanelles.

1921  The second Peace of Riga between Poland and Soviet Union.

1922 Mohandas Gandhi was sentenced to six years in prison for civil disobedience. He would serve only 2 years.

 

1922 – The first public celebration of Bat mitzvah, for the daughter of Rabbi Mordecai Kaplan, was held in New York City.

1923 Mathrubhumi one of the largest Malayalam daily started to publish from Kozhikode in Kerala.

1925 The Tri-State Tornado hit the Midwestern states of Missouri, Illinois and Indiana, killing 695 people.

1928 Fidel V. Ramos, 12th President of the Philippines, was born.

1932 John Updike, American author, was born.

1936 Frederik Willem de Klerk, President of South Africa, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, was born.

1937 The New London School explosion killed three hundred, mostly children.

 

1937 –  Spanish Republican forces defeated the Italians at the Battle of Guadalajara.

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-2006-1204-513, Spanien, Schlacht um Guadalajara.jpg

1937 – The human-powered aircraft, Pedaliante, flew1 kilometre (0.62 mi) outside Milan.

 

1938 Charley Pride, American musician, was born.

1938  Mexico nationalised all foreign-owned oil properties within its borders.

1940 Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini met at the Brenner Pass and agreed to form an alliance against France and the United Kingdom.

1941 New Zealand troops arrived in Greece to bolster Allied defences.

NZ troops arrive in Greece

1944 Dick Smith, Australian Adventurer and Businessman, was born.

 

1944 The eruption of Mount Vesuvius  killed 26 and causes thousands to flee their homes.

1945 Joy Fielding, Canadian novelist and actress, was born.

 

1945 World War II: 1,250 American bombers attacked Berlin.

1947 Patrick Barlow, English actor, comedian and playwright, was born.

1949 Alex Higgins, Northern Irish snooker player, was born.

Alexhiggins1968.jpg

1950 John Hartman, American drummer (Doobie Brothers, was born.

1951  Ben Cohen, American co-founder of Ben & Jerry’s ice cream, was born.

Ben and jerry logo.svg

1953 An earthquake hit western Turkey, killing 250.

1959 President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed a bill into law allowing for Hawaiian statehood.

1960 James MacPherson, Scottish actor, was born.

1962 The Evian Accords put an end to the Algerian War of Independence.

1965 Cosmonaut Aleksei Leonovleft his spacecraft Voskhod 2 for 12 minutes to become the first person to walk in space.

 

1967 The supertanker Torrey Canyon ran aground off the Cornish coast.

1968  Gold standard: The U.S. Congress repeals the requirement for a gold reserve to back US currency.

1970 Lon Nol ousted Prince Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia.

1971 A landslide at Chungar, Peru crashed into Lake Yanahuani killing 200.

1974 Oil embargo crisis: Most OPEC nations ended a five-month oil embargo against the United States, Europe and Japan.

 

1980 At Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia, 50 people were killed by an explosion of a Vostok-2M rocket on its launch pad during a fueling operation.

Vostok 8K72K rocket on display in Moscow

1989 A 4,400-year-old mummy was found near the Pyramid of Cheops.

 

1990  In the largest art theft in US history, 12 paintings, collectively worth around $300 million, were stolen from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston, Massachusetts.

1996 A nightclub fire in Quezon City, Philippines killed 162.

1997  The tail of a Russian Antonov An-24 charter plane breaks off while en-route to Turkey causing the plane to crash and killing all 50 on board and leading to the grounding of all An-24s.

2003 – British Sign Language was recognised as an official British language.

 

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


March 10 in history

10/03/2010

On March 10:

241 BC Battle of the Aegates Islands – The Romans sank the Carthaginian fleet bringing the First Punic War to an end.

1606 Susenyos defeated the combined armies of Yaqob and Abuna Petros II at the Battle of Gol in Gojjam, which makes him Emperor of Ethiopia.

1762 French Huguenot Jean Calas, who was wrongly convicted of killing his son, diesdafter being tortured by authorities; the event inspired Voltaire to begin a campaign for religious tolerance and legal reform.

 

1804 Louisiana Purchase: In St. Louis, Missouri, a formal ceremony is conducted to transfer ownership of the Louisiana Territory from France to the United States.

 

1814 Napoleon I of France was defeated at the Battle of Laon in France.

Full length portrait of a man in his forties, in high-ranking dress white and dark blue military uniform. He stands amid rich 18th-century furniture laden with papers, and gazes at the viewer. His hair is Brutus style, cropped close but with a short fringe in front, and his right hand is tucked in his waistcoat.

1830 The KNI, the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army, was created.

 

1831  The French Foreign Legion was established by King Louis-Philippe to support his war in Algeria.

Grenade legion.svg

1847  Kate Sheppard, New Zealand suffragist, was born.

 

1848 The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was ratified by the United States Senate, ending the Mexican-American War.

 

1861 El Hadj Umar Tall seized the city of Segou, destroying the Bambara Empire of Mali.

1869 The New Zealand Cross was created because New Zealand’s local military were not eligible for the Victoria Cross. Only 23 were awarded, all to men who served in the New Zealand wars, making it one of the rarest military honours in the world.

New Zealand Cross created

1876 Alexander Graham Bell makes the first successful telephone call by saying “Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you.”

1891 Almon Strowger, an undertaker patented the Strowger switch, a device which led to the automation of telephone circuit switching.

 

1905 Eleftherios Venizelos called for Crete’s union with Greece, and started the Theriso revolt.

1906 Courrières mine disaster, Europe’s worst ever, kills 1099 miners in Northern France.

 

1912 Yuan Shikai was sworn in as the second Provisional President of the Republic of China.

1917  Batangas was formally founded as one of the Philippines’s earliest encomiendas.

1922 Mahatma Gandhi is arrested in India, tried for sedition, and sentenced to six years in prison, only to be released after nearly two years for an appendicitis operation.

  

1933 An earthquake in Long Beach, California kills 115 people and causes an estimated $40 million dollars in damage.

 

1945 The USA Army Air Force firebombed Tokyo, and the resulting firestorm killed more than 100,000 people.

 

Morgan Tsvangirai, Prime Minister of Zimbabwe, was born.

1952  Fulgencio Batista leads a successful coup in Cuba and appointed himself as the “provisional president”.

1957 Osama bin Laden, Islamist and leader of al-Qaeda, was born.

Bin Laden Poster2.jpeg

1959 Tibetan uprising: Fearing an abduction attempt by China, 300,000 Tibetans surround the Dalai Lama’s palace to prevent his removal.

1964 Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, was born.

1969 James Earl Ray admitted assassinating Martin Luther King Jr. He later retracted his guilty plea.

1970 Captain Ernest Medina is charged with My Lai war crimes.

1977 Rings of Uranus: Astronomers discover rings around Uranus.

  

1980 Madeira School headmistress Jean Harris shot and kills Scarsdale diet doctor Herman Tarnower

1980 – Formation of the Irish Army Ranger Wing

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1990 In Haiti, Prosper Avril was ousted 18 months after seizing power in a coup.

2000 NASDAQ Composite stock market index peaks at 5132.52, signaling the beginning of the end of the dot-com boom.

 

2006 The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter arrived at Mars.

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.jpg

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


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