January 1 in history

January 1, 2010

On January 1:

45 BC  The Julian calendar took effect for the first time.

1001 – Grand Prince Stephen I of Hungary was named the first King of Hungary by Pope Silvester II.

1449 Lorenzo de’ Medici, Italian statesman, was born.

Portrait by Agnolo Bronzino.

1651  Charles II was crowned King of Scotland.

1735 Paul Revere,  American patriot, was born.

 Portrait of Paul Revere by John Singleton Copley,

1772 – The first traveller’s cheques, which could be used in 90 European cities, went on sale in London.

1779  William Clowes, English printer, was born.

1788  First edition of The Times of London, previously The Daily Universal Register, was published.

1800  The Dutch East India Company was dissolved.

1801 The legislative union of Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland was completed to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

1801 The dwarf planet Ceres was discovered by Giuseppe Piazzi.

Ceres optimized.jpg

1803  Emperor Gia Long ordered all bronze wares of the Tây Sơn Dynasty to be collected and melted into nine cannons for the Royal Citadel in Huế, Vietnam.

1804 French rule ended in Haiti. Haiti becomes the first black republic and second independent country on the American Continent after the U.S.

       

1808  The importation of slaves into the United States wais banned.

1810  Major-General Lachlan Macquarie CB officially became Governor of New South Wales.

1833 The United Kingdom claimed sovereignty over the Falkland Islands.

       

1833 Robert Lawson, New Zealand architect, was born.

1859 Pencarrow, New Zealand’s first lighthouse, was lit for the first time.

NZ's first lighthouse, Pencarrow, lit for the first time

1860 First Polish stamp was issued.

1861  Porfirio Díaz conquered Mexico City.

1876  The Reichsbank opened in Berlin.

1877  Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom was proclaimed Empress of India.

1879 E. M. Forster, English novelist, was born.

1880 Ferdinand de Lesseps began French construction of the Panama Canal.

1890  Eritrea was consolidated into a colony by the Italian government.

 

 

 

 

1892  Ellis Island opened to begin processing immigrants into the United States.

1859 Pencarrow, New Zealand’s first lighthouse, was lit for the first time.

NZ's first lighthouse, Pencarrow, lit for the first time
 
  • 1894 – The Manchester Ship Canal,was officially opened to traffic.
  • 1895  J. Edgar Hoover, American FBI director, was born.

    1899Spanish rule ended in Cuba.

     Five horizontal stripes: three blue and two white. A red equilateral triangle at the left of the flag, partly covering the stripes, with a white five pointed star in the centre of the triangle.

     

     

     A shield in front of a fasces crowned by the Phrygian Cap, all supported by an oak branch and a laurel wreath

    1901 – The British colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania and Western Australia federated as the Commonwealth of Australia; Edmund Barton was appointed the first Prime Minister.

     

     

     

     

    1912 The Republic of China was established.

     A red flag, with a small blue rectangle in the top left hand corner on which sits a white sun composed of a circle surrounded by 12 rays.

     

     

     A blue circular emblem on which sits a white sun composed of a circle surrounded by 12 rays.

    1912  Kim Philby, British spy, was born.

    Kim philby.jpg

    1919 J. D. Salinger, American novelist, was born.

    1925  American astronomer Edwin Hubble announced the discovery of galaxies outside the Milky Way.

    1934  Alcatraz Island became a United States federal prison.

    1939  William Hewlett and David Packard founded Hewlett-Packard.

    Hewlett-Packard Company logo

    1948 The British railway network was nationalised to form British Railways.

    1956  The Republic of the Sudan gained independence.

     

     

     

     

    1958 The European Communitywas established.

    1959 Fulgencio Batista, president of Cuba ws overthrown by Fidel Castro‘s forces during the Cuban Revolution.


    Batista in 1938

    1960 The Republic of Cameroon achieved independence.

     

     

     

     Tricolor shield before two crossed fasces. Its center is an inverted red kite shape covered with a purple outline of Cameroon below a gold star, with the scales of justice superimposed. Its left is green and its right is gold. Banners with fine print are above and below.

    1962 Western Samoa achieves independence from New Zealand; its name is changed to the Independent State of Western Samoa.

     

     

     

     

    1962 – United States Navy SEALs established.

    US Navy SEALs insignia.png

    1982Peruvian Javier Pérez de Cuéllar became the first Latin American to hold the title of Secretary General of the United Nations.

    1983 – The ARPANET officially changes to using the Internet Protocol, creating the Internet.

    1984 – The Sultanate of Brunei became independent.

     

     

     

     

    1985 The Internet‘s Domain Name Systemwas created.

    1985 – The first British mobile phone callwais made by Ernie Wise to Vodafone.

    1990David Dinkins was sworn in as New York City’s first black mayor.

    1993 – A single market within the European Community is introduced.

    1994 – The North American Free Trade Agreement comes into effect.

    1995  The World Trade Organisation came  into effect.

    1995 – The Draupner wave in the North Sea in Norway was detected, confirming the existence of freak waves.

    1997 – Ghanaian diplomat Kofi Annan was appointed Secretary General of the United Nations.

    1998 – The European Central Bank was established.

    2006 – Sydney, sweltered through its hottest New Years Day on record. The thermometer peaked at 45 degrees celsius, sparking bushfires and power outages.

    Sourced from NZ History ONline & Wikipedia.


    December 25 in history

    December 25, 2009

    On December 25:

    800 Coronation of Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor, in Rome.

    1000 Hungary was established as a Christian kingdom by Stephen I of Hungary.

    1066  William the Conqueror was crowned as king of England, at Westminster Abbey.

    1000 Baldwin of Boulogne is crowned as the first King of Jerusalem in the Church of the Nativity.

    1130  Count Roger II of Sicily was crowned as the first King of Sicily.

     Detail of the mosaic with Roger II receiving the crown by Christ, Martorana, Palermo.

    1223 St. Francis of Assisi assembles the first Nativity scene.

    Painting by Jusepe de Ribera

    1643  Christmas Island was founded and named by Captain William Mynors of the East India Ship Company vessel, the Royal Mary.

    1814 At Oihi Beach in the Bay of Islands, Samuel Marsden preached in English to a largely Maori gathering, launching the Christian missionary phase of New Zealand history. Marsden’s service was translated by the Nga Puhi leader Ruatara.

    NZ's first Christian service?

    1818 The first performance of “Silent Night” took place in the church of St. Nikolaus in Oberndorf, Austria.

     Autograph of the carol by  Franz Xaver Gruber.

    1821  Clara Barton, founder of the American Red Cross, was born.

       

     1865 Evangeline Booth, the 4th General of The Salvation Army, was born.

     

    1870 Helena Rubinstein, Polish-born American cosmetics industrialist, was born.

    1887 Conrad Hilton, American hotelier, was born.

    1889 Lila Bell Wallace, American magazine publisher (Reader’s Digest), was born.

    1890  Robert Ripley, collector of odd facts, was born.

     Ripley’s Odditorium in Hollywood

    1899 Humphrey Bogart, American actor, was born.

    1908 Quentin Crisp, English author, was born.

    1913  Tony Martin, American singer and actor, was born.

    1914 James Muir Cameron Fletcher, New Zealand industrialist, was born.

    1918 Anwar Sadat, President of Egypt, Nobel laureate, was born.

    1918 Ahmed Ben Bella, politician, first President of Algeria, was born.

     Ben Bella (right) after his arrest by the French army

    1932  A magnitude 7.6 earthquake in Gansu, China kills ~70,000 people.

    1941 Battle of Hong Kong ended, beginning the Japanese Occupation of Hong Kong.

    1944 Kenny Everett, British entertainer, was born.

    Kenny Everett.jpg

    1947 The Constitution of the Republic of China went into effect.

    1949  Nawaz Sharif, Prime Minister of Pakistan was born.

    1949 Sissy Spacek, American actress, was born.

    1950 The Stone of Scone, traditional coronation stone of British monarchs, was taken from Westminster Abbey by Scottish nationalist students.

     

    1950 Karl Rove, former American presidential advisor, was born.

    1954 Annie Lennox, Scottish singer, was born.

    1963 Turkish Cypriot Bayrak Radio began transmitting in Cyprus after Turkish Cypriots were forcibly excluded from Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation.

    1968 Apollo 8 performed the  first successful Trans Earth Injection (TEI) maneouver, sending the crew and spacecraft on a trajectory back to Earth from Lunar orbit.

    1989  Nicolae Ceauşescu, former communist dictator of Romania and his wife Elena are condemned to death and executed under a wide range of charges.

     

    1990 The first successful trial run of the system which would become the World Wide Web.
     The Web’s historic logo designed by Robert Cailliau
     
    1991  Mikhail Gorbachev resigned as president of the Soviet Union (the union itself is dissolved the next day).
     
    1991 Ukraine‘s referendum was finalized and Ukraine officially left the Soviet Union.
     
  • 2003 – The ill-fated Beagle 2 probe, released from the Mars Express Spacecraft on December 19, disappeared shortly before its scheduled landing.
  • Beagle 2 replica.jpg
       

    Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia.


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