On January 4:
1493 Christopher Columbus left the New World, ending his first journey.
1642 King Charles I of England sent soldiers to arrest members of Parliament, commencing England’s slide into civil war.
1643 Sir Isaac Newton, English mathematician and natural philosopher, was born.
1785 Jacob Grimm, German philologist and folklorist(one of the Brothers Grim), was born.
1813 Isaac Pitman, English inventor, was born.
1854 The McDonald Islands were discovered by Captain William McDonald aboard the Samarang.
1865 The New York Stock Exchange opened its first permanent headquarters at 10-12 Broad near Wall Street in New York City.
1869 Te Kooti was defeated at Nga Tapa.
1878 Sofia was emancipated from Ottoman rule.
1878 Augustus John, Welsh painter, was born.
1884 The Fabian Society is founded in London.
1885 The first successful appendectomy was performed by William W. Grant on Mary Gartside.
1947 – Rick Stein, English chef and television presenter, was born.
1948 – Burma regained its independence from the United Kingdom.
1958 Sir Edmund Hillary led a New Zealand party to the South Pole.
1962 New York City introduced a train that operates without a crew on-board.
1975 Elizabeth Ann Seton became the first American-born saint.
2004 Spirit, a NASA Mars Rover, landed successfully on Mars.
2007 The 110th United States Congress elected Nancy Pelosi as the first female Speaker of the House in U.S. history.
Sourced from NZ History Online and Wikipedia.