October 15 in history

October 15, 2018

70 BC  Virgil, Roman poet, was born (d. 19 BC).

533  Byzantine general Belisarius made his formal entry into Carthage, having conquered it from the Vandals.

1582 Pope Gregory XIII implemented the Gregorian calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year was followed directly by October 15.

1701 – Marie-Marguerite d’Youville, Canadian nun and saint, founded Grey Nuns, was born (d. 1771).

1764 Edward Gibbon observed a group of friars singing in the ruined Temple of Jupiter in Rome, which inspired him to begin work on The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

1783 The Montgolfier brothers‘ hot air balloon marked the first human ascent, by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, (tethered balloon).

1793 Queen Marie-Antoinette was tried and condemned in a swift, pre-determined trial.

1814  – Mikhail Lermontov, Russian author, poet, and painter, was born (d. 1841).

1815 Napoleon I of France began his exile on Saint Helena.

1836 – James Tissot, French painter and illustrator, was born (d. 1902).

1844 Friedrich Nietzsche, German philosopher, was born (d. 1900).

1863  American Civil War: The H. L. Hunleythe first submarine to sink a ship, sank during a test, killing its inventor, Horace L. Hunley.

1864  American Civil War: The Battle of Glasgow was fought, resulting in the surrender of Glasgow, Missouri and its Union garrison, to the Confederacy.

1877 Sir Geroge Grey, former Governor, became Premier of New Zealand.

Former Governor Grey becomes Premier

1878  The Edison Electric Light Company began operation.

1880  Mexican soldiers killed Victorio, one of the greatest Apache military strategists.

1881 P. G. Wodehouse, British novelist, was born (d. 1975).

1888 The “From Hell” letter sent by Jack the Ripper was received by the investigators.

1894  Alfred Dreyfus was arrested for spying.

1905  – C. P. Snow, English chemist and author, was born (d. 1980).

1906 – Alicia Patterson, American journalist and publisher, co-founded Newsdaywas born (d. 1963).

1906 – Victoria Spivey, American singer-songwriter and pianist, was born (d. 1976).

1908 John Kenneth Galbraith, Canadian-born US economist, was born (d. 2006).

1917 World War I: Dutch dancer Mata Hari was executed by firing squad for spying for the German Empire.

1920 Mario Puzo, American novelist, was born (d. 1999).

1924 – Marguerite Andersen, German-Canadian author and educator, was born.

1924 Lee Iacocca, American industrialist, was born.

1926 – Ed McBain, American author and screenwriter (d. 2005), was born.

1928 The airship, the Graf Zeppelin completed its first trans-Atlantic flight.

1932 Tata Airlines (later to become Air India) made its first flight.

1934 The Soviet Republic of China collapsed when Chiang Kai-shek’s National Revolutionary Army successfully encircled Ruijin, forcing the fleeing Communists to begin the Long March.

1939 The New York Municipal Airport (later renamed La Guardia Airport) was dedicated.

1942 – Seventeen New Zealand coastwatchers and five civilians who had been captured in the Gilbert Islands were executed by the Japanese.

New Zealand coastwatchers executed by the Japanese

1944  The Arrow Cross Party took power in Hungary.

1945 World War II: The former premier of Vichy France Pierre Laval was shot by a firing squad for treason.

1946  Nuremberg Trials: Hermann Göring poisoned himself the night before his execution.

1948  – Chris de Burgh, Argentinian singer-songwriter and pianist.

1951  Mexican chemist Luis E. Miramontes conducted the very last step of the first synthesis of norethisterone, the progestin that would later be used in one of the first two oral contraceptives.

1953  British nuclear test Totem 1 detonated at Emu Field, South Australia.

1956  Fortran, the first modern computer language, was shared with the coding community for the first time.

1959 Sarah Ferguson, Duchess of York, was born.

1965 Vietnam War: The National Coordinating Committee to End the War in Vietnam stages the first public burning of a draft card in the United States to result in arrest under a new law.

1966  Black Panther Party was created by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale.

1970 Thirty-five construction workers were killed when a section of the new West Gate Bridge in Melbourne collapsed.

1970  Aeroflot Flight 244 was hijacked and diverted to Turkey.

1971 The start of the 2500-year celebration of Iran, celebrating the birth of Persia.

1979  Black Monday in Malta. The Building of the Times of Malta, the residence of the opposition leader Eddie Fenech Adami and several Nationalist Party clubs were ransacked and destroyed by supporters of the Malta Labour Party.

1987  The Great Storm of 1987 hit France and England.

1990  Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to lessen Cold War tensions and open up his nation.

1997  The first supersonic land speed record was set by Andy GreeninThrustSSC.

1997  The Cassini probe launched from Cape Canaveral on its way to Saturn.

2003  China launched Shenzhou 5, its first manned space mission.

2003 The Staten Island Ferry boat Andrew J. Barberi ran into a pier at the St. George Ferry Terminal, killing 11 people and injuring 43.

2007  Seventeen activists were arrested in the Ureweara in New Zealand’s first anti-terrorism raids.

'Anti-terror' raids in Urewera

2008 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed down 733.08 points, or 7.87%, the second worst day in the Dow’s history based on a percentage drop.

2011 – Global protests broke out in 951 cities in 82 countries.

2102 British Prime Minister David Cameron and Scottish First Minister Alex Salmond agreed on a deal setting out the terms of a referendum on Scottish independence at a meeting in Edinburgh.

2013 – A 7.2-magnitude earthquake struck the Philippines, resulting in more than 215 deaths.

2016 – One hundred and fifty nations meet at the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) summit in Rwanda and agree to phase out hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) as an amendment to the Montreal Protocol

Sourced from NZ History Online and Wikipedia


October 15 in history

October 15, 2017

70 BC  Virgil, Roman poet, was born (d. 19 BC).

533  Byzantine general Belisarius made his formal entry into Carthage, having conquered it from the Vandals.

1582 Pope Gregory XIII implemented the Gregorian calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year was followed directly by October 15.

1701 – Marie-Marguerite d’Youville, Canadian nun and saint, founded Grey Nuns, was born (d. 1771).

1764 Edward Gibbon observed a group of friars singing in the ruined Temple of Jupiter in Rome, which inspired him to begin work on The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

1783 The Montgolfier brothers‘ hot air balloon marked the first human ascent, by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, (tethered balloon).

1793 Queen Marie-Antoinette was tried and condemned in a swift, pre-determined trial.

1814  – Mikhail Lermontov, Russian author, poet, and painter, was born (d. 1841).

1815 Napoleon I of France began his exile on Saint Helena.

1836 – James Tissot, French painter and illustrator, was born (d. 1902).

1844 Friedrich Nietzsche, German philosopher, was born (d. 1900).

1863  American Civil War: The H. L. Hunleythe first submarine to sink a ship, sank during a test, killing its inventor, Horace L. Hunley.

1864  American Civil War: The Battle of Glasgow was fought, resulting in the surrender of Glasgow, Missouri and its Union garrison, to the Confederacy.

1877 Sir Geroge Grey, former Governor, became Premier of New Zealand.

Former Governor Grey becomes Premier

1878  The Edison Electric Light Company began operation.

1880  Mexican soldiers killed Victorio, one of the greatest Apache military strategists.

1881 P. G. Wodehouse, British novelist, was born (d. 1975).

1888 The “From Hell” letter sent by Jack the Ripper was received by the investigators.

1894  Alfred Dreyfus was arrested for spying.

1905  – C. P. Snow, English chemist and author, was born (d. 1980).

1906 – Alicia Patterson, American journalist and publisher, co-founded Newsdaywas born (d. 1963).

1906 – Victoria Spivey, American singer-songwriter and pianist, was born (d. 1976).

1908 John Kenneth Galbraith, Canadian-born US economist, was born (d. 2006).

1917 World War I: Dutch dancer Mata Hari was executed by firing squad for spying for the German Empire.

1920 Mario Puzo, American novelist, was born (d. 1999).

1924 – Marguerite Andersen, German-Canadian author and educator, was born.

1924 Lee Iacocca, American industrialist, was born.

1926 – Ed McBain, American author and screenwriter (d. 2005), was born.

1928 The airship, the Graf Zeppelin completed its first trans-Atlantic flight.

1932 Tata Airlines (later to become Air India) made its first flight.

1934 The Soviet Republic of China collapsed when Chiang Kai-shek’s National Revolutionary Army successfully encircled Ruijin, forcing the fleeing Communists to begin the Long March.

1939 The New York Municipal Airport (later renamed La Guardia Airport) was dedicated.

1942 – Seventeen New Zealand coastwatchers and five civilians who had been captured in the Gilbert Islands were executed by the Japanese.

New Zealand coastwatchers executed by the Japanese

1944  The Arrow Cross Party took power in Hungary.

1945 World War II: The former premier of Vichy France Pierre Laval was shot by a firing squad for treason.

1946  Nuremberg Trials: Hermann Göring poisoned himself the night before his execution.

1948  – Chris de Burgh, Argentinian singer-songwriter and pianist.

1951  Mexican chemist Luis E. Miramontes conducted the very last step of the first synthesis of norethisterone, the progestin that would later be used in one of the first two oral contraceptives.

1953  British nuclear test Totem 1 detonated at Emu Field, South Australia.

1956  Fortran, the first modern computer language, was shared with the coding community for the first time.

1959 Sarah Ferguson, Duchess of York, was born.

1965 Vietnam War: The National Coordinating Committee to End the War in Vietnam stages the first public burning of a draft card in the United States to result in arrest under a new law.

1966  Black Panther Party was created by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale.

1970 Thirty-five construction workers were killed when a section of the new West Gate Bridge in Melbourne collapsed.

1970  Aeroflot Flight 244 was hijacked and diverted to Turkey.

1971 The start of the 2500-year celebration of Iran, celebrating the birth of Persia.

1979  Black Monday in Malta. The Building of the Times of Malta, the residence of the opposition leader Eddie Fenech Adami and several Nationalist Party clubs were ransacked and destroyed by supporters of the Malta Labour Party.

1987  The Great Storm of 1987 hit France and England.

1990  Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to lessen Cold War tensions and open up his nation.

1997  The first supersonic land speed record was set by Andy GreeninThrustSSC.

1997  The Cassini probe launched from Cape Canaveral on its way to Saturn.

2003  China launched Shenzhou 5, its first manned space mission.

2003 The Staten Island Ferry boat Andrew J. Barberi ran into a pier at the St. George Ferry Terminal, killing 11 people and injuring 43.

2007  Seventeen activists were arrested in the Ureweara in New Zealand’s first anti-terrorism raids.

'Anti-terror' raids in Urewera

2008 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed down 733.08 points, or 7.87%, the second worst day in the Dow’s history based on a percentage drop.

2011 – Global protests broke out in 951 cities in 82 countries.

2102 British Prime Minister David Cameron and Scottish First Minister Alex Salmond agreed on a deal setting out the terms of a referendum on Scottish independence at a meeting in Edinburgh.

2013 – A 7.2-magnitude earthquake struck the Philippines, resulting in more than 215 deaths.

Sourced from NZ History Online and Wikipedia


October 15 in history

October 15, 2016

70 BC  Virgil, Roman poet, was born (d. 19 BC).

533  Byzantine general Belisarius made his formal entry into Carthage, having conquered it from the Vandals.

1582 Pope Gregory XIII implemented the Gregorian calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year was followed directly by October 15.

1701 – Marie-Marguerite d’Youville, Canadian nun and saint, founded Grey Nuns, was born (d. 1771).

1764 Edward Gibbon observed a group of friars singing in the ruined Temple of Jupiter in Rome, which inspired him to begin work on The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

1783 The Montgolfier brothers‘ hot air balloon marked the first human ascent, by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, (tethered balloon).

1793 Queen Marie-Antoinette was tried and condemned in a swift, pre-determined trial.

1814  – Mikhail Lermontov, Russian author, poet, and painter, was born (d. 1841).

1815 Napoleon I of France began his exile on Saint Helena.

1836 – James Tissot, French painter and illustrator, was born (d. 1902).

1844 Friedrich Nietzsche, German philosopher, was born (d. 1900).

1863  American Civil War: The H. L. Hunley, the first submarine to sink a ship, sank during a test, killing its inventor, Horace L. Hunley.

1864  American Civil War: The Battle of Glasgow was fought, resulting in the surrender of Glasgow, Missouri and its Union garrison, to the Confederacy.

1877 Sir Geroge Grey, former Governor, became Premier of New Zealand.

Former Governor Grey becomes Premier

1878  The Edison Electric Light Company began operation.

1880  Mexican soldiers killed Victorio, one of the greatest Apache military strategists.

1881 P. G. Wodehouse, British novelist, was born (d. 1975).

1888 The “From Hell” letter sent by Jack the Ripper was received by the investigators.

1894  Alfred Dreyfus was arrested for spying.

1905  – C. P. Snow, English chemist and author, was born (d. 1980).

1906 – Alicia Patterson, American journalist and publisher, co-founded Newsday, was born (d. 1963).

1906 – Victoria Spivey, American singer-songwriter and pianist, was born (d. 1976).

1908 John Kenneth Galbraith, Canadian-born US economist, was born (d. 2006).

1917 World War I: Dutch dancer Mata Hari was executed by firing squad for spying for the German Empire.

1920 Mario Puzo, American novelist, was born (d. 1999).

1924 – Marguerite Andersen, German-Canadian author and educator, was born.

1924 Lee Iacocca, American industrialist, was born.

1926 – Ed McBain, American author and screenwriter (d. 2005), was born.

1928 The airship, the Graf Zeppelin completed its first trans-Atlantic flight.

1932 Tata Airlines (later to become Air India) made its first flight.

1934 The Soviet Republic of China collapsed when Chiang Kai-shek’s National Revolutionary Army successfully encircled Ruijin, forcing the fleeing Communists to begin the Long March.

1939 The New York Municipal Airport (later renamed La Guardia Airport) was dedicated.

1942 – Seventeen New Zealand coastwatchers and five civilians who had been captured in the Gilbert Islands were executed by the Japanese.

NZ coastwatchers executed by the Japanese

1944  The Arrow Cross Party took power in Hungary.

1945 World War II: The former premier of Vichy France Pierre Laval was shot by a firing squad for treason.

1946  Nuremberg Trials: Hermann Göring poisoned himself the night before his execution.

1948  – Chris de Burgh, Argentinian singer-songwriter and pianist.

1951  Mexican chemist Luis E. Miramontes conducted the very last step of the first synthesis of norethisterone, the progestin that would later be used in one of the first two oral contraceptives.

1953  British nuclear test Totem 1 detonated at Emu Field, South Australia.

1956  Fortran, the first modern computer language, was shared with the coding community for the first time.

1959 Sarah Ferguson, Duchess of York, was born.

1965 Vietnam War: The National Coordinating Committee to End the War in Vietnam stages the first public burning of a draft card in the United States to result in arrest under a new law.

1966  Black Panther Party was created by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale.

1970 Thirty-five construction workers were killed when a section of the new West Gate Bridge in Melbourne collapsed.

1970  Aeroflot Flight 244 was hijacked and diverted to Turkey.

1971 The start of the 2500-year celebration of Iran, celebrating the birth of Persia.

1979  Black Monday in Malta. The Building of the Times of Malta, the residence of the opposition leader Eddie Fenech Adami and several Nationalist Party clubs were ransacked and destroyed by supporters of the Malta Labour Party.

1987  The Great Storm of 1987 hit France and England.

1990  Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to lessen Cold War tensions and open up his nation.

1997  The first supersonic land speed record was set by Andy GreeninThrustSSC.

1997  The Cassini probe launched from Cape Canaveral on its way to Saturn.

2003  China launched Shenzhou 5, its first manned space mission.

2003 The Staten Island Ferry boat Andrew J. Barberi ran into a pier at the St. George Ferry Terminal, killing 11 people and injuring 43.

2007  Seventeen activists were arrested in the Ureweara in New Zealand’s first anti-terrorism raids.

'Anti-terror' raids in Urewera

2008 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed down 733.08 points, or 7.87%, the second worst day in the Dow’s history based on a percentage drop.

2011 – Global protests broke out in 951 cities in 82 countries.

2102 British Prime Minister David Cameron and Scottish First Minister Alex Salmond agreed on a deal setting out the terms of a referendum on Scottish independence at a meeting in Edinburgh.

2013 – A 7.2-magnitude earthquake struck the Philippines, resulting in more than 215 deaths.

Sourced from NZ History Online and Wikipedia


October 15 in history

October 15, 2015

70 BC  Virgil, Roman poet, was born (d. 19 BC).

533  Byzantine general Belisarius made his formal entry into Carthage, having conquered it from the Vandals.

1582 Pope Gregory XIII implemented the Gregorian calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year was followed directly by October 15.

1764 Edward Gibbon observed a group of friars singing in the ruined Temple of Jupiter in Rome, which inspired him to begin work on The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

1783 The Montgolfier brothers‘ hot air balloon marked the first human ascent, by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, (tethered balloon).

1793 Queen Marie-Antoinette was tried and condemned in a swift, pre-determined trial.

1815 Napoleon I of France began his exile on Saint Helena.

1844 Friedrich Nietzsche, German philosopher, was born (d. 1900).

1863  American Civil War: The H. L. Hunley, the first submarine to sink a ship, sank during a test, killing its inventor, Horace L. Hunley.

1864  American Civil War: The Battle of Glasgow was fought, resulting in the surrender of Glasgow, Missouri and its Union garrison, to the Confederacy.

1877 Sir Geroge Grey, former Governor, became Premier of New Zealand.

Former Governor Grey becomes Premier

1878  The Edison Electric Light Company began operation.

1880  Mexican soldiers killed Victorio, one of the greatest Apache military strategists.

1881 P. G. Wodehouse, British novelist, was born (d. 1975).

1888 The “From Hell” letter sent by Jack the Ripper was received by the investigators.

1894  Alfred Dreyfus was arrested for spying.

1908 John Kenneth Galbraith, Canadian-born US economist, was born (d. 2006).

1917 World War I: Dutch dancer Mata Hari was executed by firing squad for spying for the German Empire.

1920 Mario Puzo, American novelist, was born (d. 1999).

1924 Lee Iacocca, American industrialist, was born.

1928 The airship, the Graf Zeppelin completed its first trans-Atlantic flight.

1932 Tata Airlines (later to become Air India) made its first flight.

1934 The Soviet Republic of China collapsed when Chiang Kai-shek’s National Revolutionary Army successfully encircled Ruijin, forcing the fleeing Communists to begin the Long March.

1939 The New York Municipal Airport (later renamed La Guardia Airport) was dedicated.

1942 – Seventeen New Zealand coastwatchers and five civilians who had been captured in the Gilbert Islands were executed by the Japanese.

NZ coastwatchers executed by the Japanese

1944  The Arrow Cross Party took power in Hungary.

1945 World War II: The former premier of Vichy France Pierre Laval was shot by a firing squad for treason.

1946  Nuremberg Trials: Hermann Göring poisoned himself the night before his execution.

1951  Mexican chemist Luis E. Miramontes conducted the very last step of the first synthesis of norethisterone, the progestin that would later be used in one of the first two oral contraceptives.

1953  British nuclear test Totem 1 detonated at Emu Field, South Australia.

1956  Fortran, the first modern computer language, was shared with the coding community for the first time.

1959 Sarah Ferguson, Duchess of York, was born.

1965 Vietnam War: The National Coordinating Committee to End the War in Vietnam stages the first public burning of a draft card in the United States to result in arrest under a new law.

1966  Black Panther Party was created by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale.

1970 Thirty-five construction workers were killed when a section of the new West Gate Bridge in Melbourne collapsed.

1970  Aeroflot Flight 244 was hijacked and diverted to Turkey.

1971 The start of the 2500-year celebration of Iran, celebrating the birth of Persia.

1979  Black Monday in Malta. The Building of the Times of Malta, the residence of the opposition leader Eddie Fenech Adami and several Nationalist Party clubs were ransacked and destroyed by supporters of the Malta Labour Party.

1987  The Great Storm of 1987 hit France and England.

1990  Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to lessen Cold War tensions and open up his nation.

1997  The first supersonic land speed record was set by Andy Green inThrustSSC.

1997  The Cassini probe launched from Cape Canaveral on its way to Saturn.

2003  China launched Shenzhou 5, its first manned space mission.

2003 The Staten Island Ferry boat Andrew J. Barberi ran into a pier at the St. George Ferry Terminal, killing 11 people and injuring 43.

2007  Seventeen activists were arrested in the Ureweara in New Zealand’s first anti-terrorism raids.

'Anti-terror' raids in Urewera

2008 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed down 733.08 points, or 7.87%, the second worst day in the Dow’s history based on a percentage drop.

2011 – Global protests broke out in 951 cities in 82 countries.

2102 British Prime Minister David Cameron and Scottish First Minister Alex Salmond agreed on a deal setting out the terms of a referendum on Scottish independence at a meeting in Edinburgh.

2013 – A 7.2-magnitude earthquake struck the Philippines, resulting in more than 215 deaths.

Sourced from NZ History Online and Wikipedia


December 31 in history

December 31, 2009

On December 31:

400  Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gaul.

1229  James I of Aragon the Conqueror entered Medina Mayurqa (now known as Palma, Spain)  consummating the Christian conquest of the island of Majorca.

1599  The British East India Company was chartered.

The Company flag, after 1707

1687– The first Huguenots set sail from France to the Cape of Good Hope.

1695 A window tax was imposed in England, causing many shopkeepers to brick up their windows to avoid the tax.

1729 Charles Edward Stuart, pretender to the British throne, was born.

1759 Arthur Guinness signed a 9,000 year lease at £45 per annum and started brewing Guinness.

1853 Sir George Grey left New Zealand after finishing hisfirst  term as Governor.

Grey leaves NZ after first term as Governor
1857 Queen Victoria chose Ottawa, Ontario, as the capital of Canada.
                           
1869 Henri Matisse, French painter, was born.
1878  Elizabeth Arden, Canadian businesswoman, was born.

1879 Thomas Edison demonstrated incandescent lighting to the public for the first time.

1904 The first New Year’s Eve celebration is held in Times Square (then known as Longacre Square) in New York.

1908  Simon Wiesenthal, Austrian Holocaust survivor, was born.

1909  Manhattan Bridge opened.

1923 The chimes of Big Ben were broadcast on radio for the first time by the BBC.

1937 Sir Anthony Hopkins, Welsh actor, was born.

1943 John Denver, American singer and songwriter, was born.

1943 Sir Ben Kingsley, English actor was born.

1943  Pete Quaife, English bassist (The Kinks) was born.

Four smiling young men leaning over the back of a green park bench, a row of three-story-tall residential buildings behind them. The man on the left wears a brown sports jacket and white turtleneck; the man to his right wears a black-and-white-striped pullover shirt; the man to his right (standing straighter, just behind the other three) wears a black suit and tie; the man on the far right wears a black sports jacket and white shirt.Original lineup in 1965. From left: Pete Quaife, Dave Davies, Ray Davies, Mick Avory.

1946 President Harry Truman officially proclaimed the end of hostilities in World War II.

1951 The Marshall Plan expired after distributing more than $13.3 billion USD in foreign aid to rebuild Europe.[1]

1955  The General Motors Corporation became the first U.S. corporation to make over $1 billion USD in a year.

General Motors.svg

1960 The farthing coin ceased to be legal tender in the United Kingdom.

1963  The Central African Federation officially collapsed and split into Zambia, Malawi and Rhodesia.

1965  Nicholas Sparks, American author, was born.

1980 – Richie McCaw, New Zealand rugby player, was born.

Richie McCaw

1983 – The AT&T Bell System is broken up by the United States Government.

1991  All official Soviet Union institutions ceased operations by this date and the Soviet Union was officially dissolved.

1992 Czechoslovakia was dissolved, resulting in the creation of the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

 

 

      

 

 

1998  The European Exchange Rate Mechanism froze the values of the legacy currencies in the Eurozone, and established the value of the euro currency.

 Banknotes

 

 Coins

1999  Boris Yeltsin resigned as President of Russia, leaving Prime Minister Vladimir Putin as the acting President.

1999 – The United States Government hands control of the Panama Canal (as well all the adjacent land to the canal known as the Panama Canal Zone) to Panama. This act complied with the signing of the 1977 Torrijos-Carter Treaties.

2004  The official opening of Taipei 101, the tallest skyscraper at that time in the world, standing at a height of 509 metres (1,670 ft).

Taipei101.portrait.altonthompson.jpg

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia.


October 15 in history

October 15, 2009

On October 15:

70 BC The Roman poet Virgil, was born.


A bust of Virgil, from the entrance to his tomb.

533 Byzantine general Belisarius makes his formal entry into Carthage, having conquered it from the Vandals.

1582 Pope Gregory XIII implemented the Gregorian calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain, October 4 of this year was followed directly by October 15.

1815 Napoleon I of France began his exile on Saint Helena

Full length portrait of a man in his forties, in high-ranking dress white and dark blue military uniform. He stands amid rich 18th-century furniture laden with papers, and gazes at the viewer. His hair is Brutus style, cropped close but with a short fringe in front, and his right hand is tucked in his waistcoat.

1844 German philosopher –Friedrich Nietzsche was born.

1877 Sir George Grey became Premier of New Zealand.

1878 The Edison Electric Light Company began operation.

1881 English author – P. G. (Pelham Grenville) Wodehouse was born.

1905 English author  C. P. (Charles Percy) Snow was born.

1908 Canadian born US economist John Kenneth Galbraith was born.

1920 Mario Puzo, US author, was born.

1924 US industrialist – Lee Iacocca was born.

1928 The airship, the Graf Zeppelin completed its first trans-Atlantic flight.

 

1934 The Soviet Republic of China collapsed when Chiang Kai-shek‘s National Revolutionary Army successfully encircled Ruijin, forcing the fleeing Communists to begin the Long March.

1951 Mexican chemist Luis E. Miramontes conducted the very last step of the first synthesis of norethisterone, the progestin that would later be used in one of the first two oral contraceptives.

1959 Sarah Ferguson, Duchess of York, was born.

 

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia.


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