Focus on right solutions

October 23, 2019

Stephen Franks explains why he supports climate change investment:

An article in Forbes magazine reports on George Shultz recounting how Ronald Reagan gained a consensus to support the Montreal Protocol to combat the fluorocarbons that were thought to be creating the hole in the ozone layer. He refers to the problem of persuading people who felt there was too much uncertainty in the science.

“And then he [Reagan] did something that nobody ever does anymore,” Shultz said. “He went to the scientists who didn’t agree and put his arm around them and said, ‘We respect you, but you do agree that if it happens it’s a catastrophe, so let’s take out an insurance policy.’”

For 20 years I’ve used the same analogy in trying to counsel people who trap themselves into claiming more confidence in the “denialist” case than they can possibly justify, just because they can’t stomach the religious fervour and anti-human callousness of many climate campaigners.

I see precautionary investment against climate change as equivalent in political decision-making, to expenditure on defence. Both require spending for highly uncertain benefit. No one can know whether we genuinely have an enemy who will attack. No one can know if our precautions will be effective. Hopefully the investment will be untested. We can’t know until afterwards whether it is wasted. Yet it is rational to try, because the catastrophe could be so overwhelming if the risk matures without resilience or mitigation precautions.

But such investment remains foolish if it is unlikely reduce CO2 levels materially, or to improve New Zealand’s ability to cope if change happens nevertheless. Given NZ’s inability to affect the first, an insurance investment should focus primarily on resilience. . .

Proposed measures do the opposite.

And so we have in NZ a closing of ranks against climate “denialism”. Our elite hunts for heretics. We should instead respect those who are suspicious of compulsory ‘scientific consensus’ but ask them to join in working out what is likely to be most efficient (given we are going to spend on ‘insurance’ anyway).

It is wicked to take steps just for expansive show. The Zero Carbon Bill approach will actually increase world CO2 emissions, just not here.  So we are posturing to an indifferent global class, impoverishing ourselves (reducing resilience) and achieving as much against climate change as the Summer Palace did for the Qing dynasty and China.

It is frustrating that climate evangelists insist we accept the science on climate change but don’t follow the science on mitigation and solutions.

In doing so they are ignoring the high economic and social costs for at best little environmental gain and too often losses.

Bjorn Lomborg also writes about the need to focus on the right solutions:

As it is becoming obvious that political responses to global warming such as the Paris treaty are not working, environmentalists are urging us to consider the climate impact of our personal actions. Don’t eat meat, don’t drive a gasoline-powered car and don’t fly, they say. But these individual actions won’t make a substantial difference to our planet, and such demands divert attention away from the solutions that are needed.

Even if all 4.5 billion flights this year were stopped from taking off, and the same happened every year until 2100, temperatures would be reduced by just 0.054 degrees, using mainstream climate models — equivalent to delaying climate change by less than one year by 2100.

Nor will we solve global warming by giving up meat. Going vegetarian is difficult — one US survey shows 84 percent fail, most in less than a year. Those who succeed will only reduce their personal emissions by about 2 percent.

And electric cars are not the answer. Globally, there are just 5 million fully electric cars on the road. Even if this climbs massively to 130 million in 11 years, the International Energy Agency finds CO₂ equivalent emissions would be reduced by a mere 0.4 percent globally.

Put simply: The solution to climate change cannot be found in personal changes in the homes of the middle classes of rich countries. . .

If these changes won’t work, what will?

We must look at how we solved past major challenges — through innovation. The starvation catastrophes in developing nations in the 1960s to ’80s weren’t fixed by asking people to consume less food but through the Green Revolution in which innovation developed higher-yielding varieties that produced more plentiful food.

Similarly, the climate challenge will not be solved by asking people to use less (and more expensive) green energy. Instead, we should dramatically ramp up spending on research and development into green energy.

The Copenhagen Consensus Center asked 27 of the world’s top climate economists to examine policy options for responding to climate change. This analysis showed that the best investment is in green-energy R&D. For every dollar spent, $11 of climate damages would be avoided.

This would bring forward the day when green-energy alternatives are cheaper and more attractive than fossil fuels not just for the elite but for the entire world.

Right now, despite all the rhetoric about the importance of global warming, we are not ramping up this spending. On the sidelines of the 2015 Paris climate summit, more than 20 world leaders made a promise to double green-energy research and development by 2020. But spending has only inched up from $16 billion in 2015 to $17 billion in 2018. This is a broken promise that matters.

After 30 years of pursuing the wrong solution to climate change, we need to change the script.

The predominant script is a red one not a green one. It’s driven by an anti-capitalist political agenda.

We need to write a new one directing efforts towards research and innovation that will save the earth without imposing huge costs on the world.

 


February 6 in history

February 6, 2019

1664 Mustafa II, Ottoman Sultan, was born (d. 1703).

1685 – James II of England and VII of Scotland became King upon the death of his brother Charles II.

1778 In Paris the Treaty of Alliance and the Treaty of Amity and Commerce were signed by the United States and France signaling official recognition of the new republic.

1815  New Jersey granted the first American railroad charter to John Stevens.

1817 José de San Martín crossed the Andes with an army in order to liberate Chile from Spanish rule.

1819 Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles founded Singapore.

1820 The first 86 African American immigrants sponsored by the American Colonization Society started a settlement in present-day Liberia.

1840 Around 40 Maori chiefs, led by Hone Heke, signed a treaty with the British Crown at Waitangi.

The Treaty of Waitangi is signed

1842 Mary Rudge, English chess master, was born (d. 1919).

1843  The first minstrel show in the United States, The Virginia Minstrelsopened in Bowery Amphitheatre in New York City.

1848 Walter B. Pitkin, American lecturer in philosophy and psychology, was born (d1953).

1862 Ulysses S. Grant gives the United States ts first victory of the Amnerican Civil War war in the Battle of Fort Henry by capturing Fort Henry, Tennessee.

1872 – Otago Girls’ High, New Zealand’s first public girls’ secondary school opened.

First public girls' secondary school

1894 Eric Partridge, New Zealand lexicographer, was born (d. 1979).

1895  Babe Ruth, American baseball player, was born (d. 1948).

1899 The Treaty of Paris, a peace treaty between the United States and Spain, was ratified by the United States Senate.

1900 The international arbitration court at The Hague was created when the Netherlands’ Senate ratified an 1899 peace conference decree.

1911 Ronald Reagan, 40th President of the United States, was born  (d. 2004).

1912  Eva Braun, wife of Adolf Hitler, was born (d. 1945).

1917 Zsa Zsa Gábor, Hungarian-born actress, was born (d. 2016).

1922 Denis Norden, British radio and television personality, was born.

1922 – Patrick Macnee, English actor, was born.

1922 The Washington Naval Treaty was signed, limiting the naval armaments of United States, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy.

1933 The 20th Amendment to the United States Constitution went into effect.

1934 Far right leagues rally in front of the Palais Bourbon in an attempted coup against the French Third Republic, creating a political crisis in France.

1945 Bob Marley, Jamaican musician, was born  (d. 1981).

1947 The trans-Tasman liner Wanganella was refloated after 18 days stuck on Barrett Reef.

Liner <em>Wanganella</em> refloated after 18 days on Barrett Reef

1950 Natalie Cole, American singer, was born.

1951 The Broker, a Pennsylvania Railroad passenger train derailed near Woodbridge Township, New Jersey, killing 85 people and injuring over 500 more.

1952 Elizabeth II became Queen upon the death of her father George VI.

1958 Eight Manchester United F.C. players were killed in the Munich air disaster.

1959 Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments filed the first patent for an integrated circuit.

1959 – At Cape Canaveral, the first successful test firing of a Titan intercontinental ballistic missile was accomplished.

1962 W. Axl Rose, American singer (Guns N’ Roses), was born.

1976 Princess Marie of Denmark, was born.

1974 – The bird calls began on what is  now RadioNZ National.

1978 The Blizzard of 1978, one of the worst Nor’easters in New England history, hit the region, with sustained winds of 65 mph and snowfall of 4″ an hour.

1987 Justice Mary Gaudron became the first woman appointed to the High Court of Australia.

1989 The Roundtable talks started in Poland marking the beginning of overthrow of communism in Eastern Europe.

1992 The Saami people of the Nordic countries had an official day celebrating their existence.

1996 – Willamette Valley Flood of 1996: Floods in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, United States, caused more than US$500 million in property damage throughout the Pacific Northwest.

1996 – Birgenair flight 301 crashed off the coast of the Dominican Republic, all 189 people inside the airplane are killed. This is the worst accident/incident involving a Boeing 757.

1998 – Washington National Airport was renamed Ronald Reagan National Airport.

2000 – Second Chechen War: Russia captured Grozny, Chechnya, forcing the separatist Chechen Republic of Ichkeria government into exile.

2004 – Princess Louise of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Princess of Belgium, was born.

2012 – A 6.9 magnitude earthquake hit near the central Philippines off the coast of Negros Island causing at least 51 deaths and injuring 112 others.

2013 – An 8.0 magnitude earthquake hit the Solomon Islands killing 10 people and injuring 17 others.

2016 – A 6.4 magnitude earthquake hit southern Taiwan, killing at least 38 people and injuring over 530 more.

2018 – SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy, a super heavy launch vehicle, made its maiden flight.

Sourced from NZ History Online, Radio NZ  & Wikipedia.


February 6 in history

February 6, 2018

1664 Mustafa II, Ottoman Sultan, was born (d. 1703).

1685 – James II of England and VII of Scotland became King upon the death of his brother Charles II.

1778 In Paris the Treaty of Alliance and the Treaty of Amity and Commerce were signed by the United States and France signaling official recognition of the new republic.

1815  New Jersey granted the first American railroad charter to John Stevens.

1817 José de San Martín crossed the Andes with an army in order to liberate Chile from Spanish rule.

1819 Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles founded Singapore.

1820 The first 86 African American immigrants sponsored by the American Colonization Society started a settlement in present-day Liberia.

1840 Around 40 Maori chiefs, led by Hone Heke, signed a treaty with the British Crown at Waitangi.

The Treaty of Waitangi is signed

1842 Mary Rudge, English chess master, was born (d. 1919).

1843  The first minstrel show in the United States, The Virginia Minstrelsopened in Bowery Amphitheatre in New York City.

1848 Walter B. Pitkin, American lecturer in philosophy and psychology, was born (d1953).

1862 Ulysses S. Grant gives the United States ts first victory of the Amnerican Civil War war in the Battle of Fort Henry by capturing Fort Henry, Tennessee.

1894 Eric Partridge, New Zealand lexicographer, was born (d. 1979).

1895  Babe Ruth, American baseball player, was born (d. 1948).

1899 The Treaty of Paris, a peace treaty between the United States and Spain, was ratified by the United States Senate.

1900 The international arbitration court at The Hague was created when the Netherlands’ Senate ratified an 1899 peace conference decree.

1911 Ronald Reagan, 40th President of the United States, was born  (d. 2004).

1912  Eva Braun, wife of Adolf Hitler, was born (d. 1945).

1917 Zsa Zsa Gábor, Hungarian-born actress, was born (d. 2016).

1922 Denis Norden, British radio and television personality, was born.

1922 – Patrick Macnee, English actor, was born.

1922 The Washington Naval Treaty was signed, limiting the naval armaments of United States, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy.

1933 The 20th Amendment to the United States Constitution went into effect.

1934 Far right leagues rally in front of the Palais Bourbon in an attempted coup against the French Third Republic, creating a political crisis in France.

1945 Bob Marley, Jamaican musician, was born  (d. 1981).

1947 The trans-Tasman liner Wanganella was refloated after 18 days stuck on Barrett Reef.

Liner <em>Wanganella</em> refloated after 18 days on Barrett Reef

1950 Natalie Cole, American singer, was born.

1951 The Broker, a Pennsylvania Railroad passenger train derailed near Woodbridge Township, New Jersey, killing 85 people and injuring over 500 more.

1952 Elizabeth II became Queen upon the death of her father George VI.

1958 Eight Manchester United F.C. players were killed in the Munich air disaster.

1959 Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments filed the first patent for anintegrated circuit.

1959 – At Cape Canaveral, the first successful test firing of a Titan intercontinental ballistic missile was accomplished.

1962 W. Axl Rose, American singer (Guns N’ Roses), was born.

1976 Princess Marie of Denmark, was born.

1974 – The bird calls began on what is  now RadioNZ National.

1978 The Blizzard of 1978, one of the worst Nor’easters in New England history, hit the region, with sustained winds of 65 mph and snowfall of 4″ an hour.

1987 Justice Mary Gaudron became the first woman appointed to the High Court of Australia.

1989 The Roundtable talks started in Poland marking the beginning of overthrow of communism in Eastern Europe.

1992 The Saami people of the Nordic countries had an official day celebrating their existence.

1996 – Willamette Valley Flood of 1996: Floods in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, United States, caused more than US$500 million in property damage throughout the Pacific Northwest.

1996 – Birgenair flight 301 crashed off the coast of the Dominican Republic, all 189 people inside the airplane are killed. This is the worst accident/incident involving a Boeing 757.

1998 – Washington National Airport was renamed Ronald Reagan National Airport.

2000 – Second Chechen War: Russia captured Grozny, Chechnya, forcing the separatist Chechen Republic of Ichkeria government into exile.

2004 – Princess Louise of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Princess of Belgium, was born.

2012 – A 6.9 magnitude earthquake hit near the central Philippines off the coast of Negros Island causing at least 51 deaths and injuring 112 others.

2013 – An 8.0 magnitude earthquake hit the Solomon Islands killing 10 people and injuring 17 others.

2016 – A 6.4 magnitude earthquake hit southern Taiwan, killing at least 38 people and injuring over 530 more.

Sourced from NZ History Online, Radio NZ  & Wikipedia.


February 6 in history

February 6, 2017

1664 Mustafa II, Ottoman Sultan, was born (d. 1703).

1685 – James II of England and VII of Scotland became King upon the death of his brother Charles II.

1778 In Paris the Treaty of Alliance and the Treaty of Amity and Commerce were signed by the United States and France signaling official recognition of the new republic.

1815  New Jersey granted the first American railroad charter to John Stevens.

1817 José de San Martín crossed the Andes with an army in order to liberate Chile from Spanish rule.

1819 Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles founded Singapore.

1820 The first 86 African American immigrants sponsored by the American Colonization Society started a settlement in present-day Liberia.

1840 Around 40 Maori chiefs, led by Hone Heke, signed a treaty with the British Crown at Waitangi.

The Treaty of Waitangi is signed

1842 Mary Rudge, English chess master, was born (d. 1919).

1843  The first minstrel show in the United States, The Virginia Minstrelsopened in Bowery Amphitheatre in New York City.

1848 Walter B. Pitkin, American lecturer in philosophy and psychology, was born (d1953).

1862 Ulysses S. Grant gives the United States ts first victory of the Amnerican Civil War war in the Battle of Fort Henry by capturing Fort Henry, Tennessee.

1894 Eric Partridge, New Zealand lexicographer, was born (d. 1979).

1895  Babe Ruth, American baseball player, was born (d. 1948).

1899 The Treaty of Paris, a peace treaty between the United States and Spain, was ratified by the United States Senate.

1900 The international arbitration court at The Hague was created when the Netherlands’ Senate ratified an 1899 peace conference decree.

1911 Ronald Reagan, 40th President of the United States, was born  (d. 2004).

1912  Eva Braun, wife of Adolf Hitler, was born (d. 1945).

1917 Zsa Zsa Gábor, Hungarian-born actress, was born (d. 2016).

1922 Denis Norden, British radio and television personality, was born.

1922 – Patrick Macnee, English actor, was born.

1922 The Washington Naval Treaty was signed, limiting the naval armaments of United States, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy.

1933 The 20th Amendment to the United States Constitution went into effect.

1934 Far right leagues rally in front of the Palais Bourbon in an attempted coup against the French Third Republic, creating a political crisis in France.

1945 Bob Marley, Jamaican musician, was born  (d. 1981).

1947 The trans-Tasman liner Wanganella was refloated after 18 days stuck on Barrett Reef.

Liner <em>Wanganella</em> refloated after 18 days on Barrett Reef

1950 Natalie Cole, American singer, was born.

1951 The Broker, a Pennsylvania Railroad passenger train derailed near Woodbridge Township, New Jersey, killing 85 people and injuring over 500 more.

1952 Elizabeth II became Queen upon the death of her father George VI.

1958 Eight Manchester United F.C. players were killed in the Munich air disaster.

1959 Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments filed the first patent for anintegrated circuit.

1959 – At Cape Canaveral, the first successful test firing of a Titan intercontinental ballistic missile was accomplished.

1962 W. Axl Rose, American singer (Guns N’ Roses), was born.

1976 Princess Marie of Denmark, was born.

1974 – The bird calls began on what is  now RadioNZ National.

1978 The Blizzard of 1978, one of the worst Nor’easters in New England history, hit the region, with sustained winds of 65 mph and snowfall of 4″ an hour.

1987 Justice Mary Gaudron became the first woman appointed to the High Court of Australia.

1989 The Roundtable talks started in Poland marking the beginning of overthrow of communism in Eastern Europe.

1992 The Saami people of the Nordic countries had an official day celebrating their existence.

1996 – Willamette Valley Flood of 1996: Floods in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, United States, caused more than US$500 million in property damage throughout the Pacific Northwest.

1996 – Birgenair flight 301 crashed off the coast of the Dominican Republic, all 189 people inside the airplane are killed. This is the worst accident/incident involving a Boeing 757.

1998 – Washington National Airport was renamed Ronald Reagan National Airport.

2000 – Second Chechen War: Russia captured Grozny, Chechnya, forcing the separatist Chechen Republic of Ichkeria government into exile.

2004 – Princess Louise of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Princess of Belgium, was born.

2012 – A 6.9 magnitude earthquake hit near the central Philippines off the coast of Negros Island causing at least 51 deaths and injuring 112 others.

2013 – An 8.0 magnitude earthquake hit the Solomon Islands killing 10 people and injuring 17 others.

2016 – A 6.4 magnitude earthquake hit southern Taiwan, killing at least 38 people and injuring over 530 more.

Sourced from NZ History Online, Radio NZ  & Wikipedia.


February 6 in history

February 6, 2016

1664 Mustafa II, Ottoman Sultan, was born (d. 1703).

1685 – James I of England and VII of Scotland became King upon the death of his brother Charles II.

1778 In Paris the Treaty of Alliance and the Treaty of Amity and Commerce were signed by the United States and France signaling official recognition of the new republic.

1815  New Jersey granted the first American railroad charter to John Stevens.

1817 José de San Martín crossed the Andes with an army in order to liberate Chile from Spanish rule.

1819 Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles founded Singapore.

1820 The first 86 African American immigrants sponsored by the American Colonization Society started a settlement in present-day Liberia.

1840 Around 40 Maori chiefs, led by Hone Heke, signed a treaty with the British Crown at Waitangi.

The Treaty of Waitangi is signed

1842 Mary Rudge, English chess master, was born (d. 1919).

1843  The first minstrel show in the United States, The Virginia Minstrelsopened in Bowery Amphitheatre in New York City.

1848 Walter B. Pitkin, American lecturer in philosophy and psychology, was born (d1953).

1862 Ulysses S. Grant gives the United States ts first victory of the Amnerican Civil War war in the Battle of Fort Henry by capturing Fort Henry, Tennessee.

1894 Eric Partridge, New Zealand lexicographer, was born (d. 1979).

1895  Babe Ruth, American baseball player, was born (d. 1948).

1899 The Treaty of Paris, a peace treaty between the United States and Spain, was ratified by the United States Senate.

1900 The international arbitration court at The Hague was created when the Netherlands’ Senate ratified an 1899 peace conference decree.

1911 Ronald Reagan, 40th President of the United States, was born  (d. 2004).

1912  Eva Braun, wife of Adolf Hitler, was born (d. 1945).

1917 Zsa Zsa Gábor, Hungarian-born actress, was born.

1922 Denis Norden, British radio and television personality, was born.

1922 – Patrick Macnee, English actor, was born.

1922 The Washington Naval Treaty was signed, limiting the naval armaments of United States, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy.

1933 The 20th Amendment to the United States Constitution went into effect.

1934 Far right leagues rally in front of the Palais Bourbon in an attempted coup against the French Third Republic, creating a political crisis in France.

1945 Bob Marley, Jamaican musician, was born  (d. 1981).

1947 The trans-Tasman liner Wanganella was refloated after 18 days stuck on Barrett Reef.

Liner <em>Wanganella</em> refloated after 18 days on Barrett Reef

1950 Natalie Cole, American singer, was born.

1951 The Broker, a Pennsylvania Railroad passenger train derailed near Woodbridge Township, New Jersey, killing 85 people and injuring over 500 more.

1952 Elizabeth II became Queen upon the death of her father George VI.

1958 Eight Manchester United F.C. players were killed in the Munich air disaster.

1959 Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments filed the first patent for anintegrated circuit.

1959 – At Cape Canaveral, the first successful test firing of a Titan intercontinental ballistic missile was accomplished.

1962 W. Axl Rose, American singer (Guns N’ Roses), was born.

1976 Princess Marie of Denmark, was born.

1974 – The bird calls began on what is  now RadioNZ National.

1978 The Blizzard of 1978, one of the worst Nor’easters in New England history, hit the region, with sustained winds of 65 mph and snowfall of 4″ an hour.

1987 Justice Mary Gaudron became the first woman appointed to the High Court of Australia.

1989 The Roundtable talks started in Poland marking the beginning of overthrow of communism in Eastern Europe.

1992 The Saami people of the Nordic countries had an official day celebrating their existence.

1996 – Willamette Valley Flood of 1996: Floods in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, United States, caused more than US$500 million in property damage throughout the Pacific Northwest.

1996 – Birgenair flight 301 crashed off the coast of the Dominican Republic, all 189 people inside the airplane are killed. This is the worst accident/incident involving a Boeing 757.

1998 – Washington National Airport was renamed Ronald Reagan National Airport.

2000 – Second Chechen War: Russia captured Grozny, Chechnya, forcing the separatist Chechen Republic of Ichkeria government into exile.

2004 – Princess Louise of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Princess of Belgium, was born.

2012 – A 6.9 magnitude earthquake hit near the central Philippines off the coast of Negros Island causing at least 51 deaths and injuring 112 others.

2013 – An 8.0 magnitude earthquake hit the Solomon Islands killing 10 people and injuring 17 others.

Sourced from NZ History Online, Radio NZ  & Wikipedia.


February 6 in history

February 6, 2015

1664 Mustafa II, Ottoman Sultan, was born (d. 1703).

1685 – James I of England and VII of Scotland became King upon the death of his brother Charles II.

1778 In Paris the Treaty of Alliance and the Treaty of Amity and Commerce were signed by the United States and France signaling official recognition of the new republic.

1815  New Jersey granted the first American railroad charter to John Stevens.

1817 José de San Martín crossed the Andes with an army in order to liberate Chile from Spanish rule.

1819 Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles founded Singapore.

1820 The first 86 African American immigrants sponsored by the American Colonization Society started a settlement in present-day Liberia.

1840 Around 40 Maori chiefs, led by Hone Heke, signed a treaty with the British Crown at Waitangi.

The Treaty of Waitangi is signed

1842 Mary Rudge, English chess master, was born (d. 1919).

1843  The first minstrel show in the United States, The Virginia Minstrels opened in Bowery Amphitheatre in New York City.

1848 Walter B. Pitkin, American lecturer in philosophy and psychology, was born (d1953).

1862 Ulysses S. Grant gives the United States ts first victory of the Amnerican Civil War war in the Battle of Fort Henry by capturing Fort Henry, Tennessee.

1894 Eric Partridge, New Zealand lexicographer, was born (d. 1979).

1895  Babe Ruth, American baseball player, was born (d. 1948).

1899 The Treaty of Paris, a peace treaty between the United States and Spain, was ratified by the United States Senate.

1900 The international arbitration court at The Hague was created when the Netherlands’ Senate ratified an 1899 peace conference decree.

1911 Ronald Reagan, 40th President of the United States, was born  (d. 2004).

1912  Eva Braun, wife of Adolf Hitler, was born (d. 1945).

1917 Zsa Zsa Gábor, Hungarian-born actress, was born.

1922 Denis Norden, British radio and television personality, was born.

1922 – Patrick Macnee, English actor, was born.

1922 The Washington Naval Treaty was signed, limiting the naval armaments of United States, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy.

1933 The 20th Amendment to the United States Constitution went into effect.

1934 Far right leagues rally in front of the Palais Bourbon in an attempted coup against the French Third Republic, creating a political crisis in France.

1945 Bob Marley, Jamaican musician, was born  (d. 1981).

1947 The trans-Tasman liner Wanganella was refloated after 18 days stuck on Barrett Reef.

Liner <em>Wanganella</em> refloated after 18 days on Barrett Reef

1950 Natalie Cole, American singer, was born.

1951 The Broker, a Pennsylvania Railroad passenger train derailed near Woodbridge Township, New Jersey, killing 85 people and injuring over 500 more.

1952 Elizabeth II became Queen upon the death of her father George VI.

1958 Eight Manchester United F.C. players were killed in the Munich air disaster.

1959 Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments filed the first patent for an integrated circuit.

1959 – At Cape Canaveral, the first successful test firing of a Titan intercontinental ballistic missile was accomplished.

1962 W. Axl Rose, American singer (Guns N’ Roses), was born.

1976 Princess Marie of Denmark, was born.

1974 – The bird calls began on what is  now RadioNZ National.

1978 The Blizzard of 1978, one of the worst Nor’easters in New England history, hit the region, with sustained winds of 65 mph and snowfall of 4″ an hour.

1987 Justice Mary Gaudron became the first woman appointed to the High Court of Australia.

1989 The Roundtable talks started in Poland marking the beginning of overthrow of communism in Eastern Europe.

1992 The Saami people of the Nordic countries had an official day celebrating their existence.

1996 – Willamette Valley Flood of 1996: Floods in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, United States, caused more than US$500 million in property damage throughout the Pacific Northwest.

1996 – Birgenair flight 301 crashed off the coast of the Dominican Republic, all 189 people inside the airplane are killed. This is the worst accident/incident involving a Boeing 757.

1998 – Washington National Airport was renamed Ronald Reagan National Airport.

2000 – Second Chechen War: Russia captured Grozny, Chechnya, forcing the separatist Chechen Republic of Ichkeria government into exile.

2004 – Princess Louise of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Princess of Belgium, was born.

2012 – A 6.9 magnitude earthquake hit near the central Philippines off the coast of Negros Island causing at least 51 deaths and injuring 112 others.

 

Sourced from NZ History Online, Radio NZ  & Wikipedia.


February 6 in history

February 6, 2014

1664 Mustafa II, Ottoman Sultan, was born (d. 1703).

1685 – James II of England and VII of Scotland became King upon the death of his brother Charles II.

1778 In Paris the Treaty of Alliance and the Treaty of Amity and Commerce were signed by the United States and France signaling official recognition of the new republic.

1815  New Jersey granted the first American railroad charter to John Stevens.

1817 José de San Martín crossed the Andes with an army in order to liberate Chile from Spanish rule.

1819 Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles founded Singapore.

1820 The first 86 African American immigrants sponsored by the American Colonization Society started a settlement in present-day Liberia.

1840 Around 40 Maori chiefs, led by Hone Heke, signed a treaty with the British Crown at Waitangi.

The Treaty of Waitangi is signed

1842 Mary Rudge, English chess master, was born (d. 1919).

1843  The first minstrel show in the United States, The Virginia Minstrels opened in Bowery Amphitheatre in New York City.

1848 Walter B. Pitkin, American lecturer in philosophy and psychology, was born (d1953).

1862 Ulysses S. Grant gives the United States ts first victory of the Amnerican Civil War war in the Battle of Fort Henry by capturing Fort Henry, Tennessee.

1894 Eric Partridge, New Zealand lexicographer, was born (d. 1979).

1895  Babe Ruth, American baseball player, was born (d. 1948).

1899 The Treaty of Paris, a peace treaty between the United States and Spain, was ratified by the United States Senate.

1900 The international arbitration court at The Hague was created when the Netherlands’ Senate ratified an 1899 peace conference decree.

1911 Ronald Reagan, 40th President of the United States, was born  (d. 2004).

1912  Eva Braun, wife of Adolf Hitler, was born (d. 1945).

1917 Zsa Zsa Gábor, Hungarian-born actress, was born.

1922 Denis Norden, British radio and television personality, was born.

1922 The Washington Naval Treaty was signed, limiting the naval armaments of United States, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy.

1933 The 20th Amendment to the United States Constitution went into effect.

1934 Far right leagues rally in front of the Palais Bourbon in an attempted coup against the French Third Republic, creating a political crisis in France.

1945 Bob Marley, Jamaican musician, was born  (d. 1981).

1947 The trans-Tasman liner Wanganella was refloated after 18 days stuck on Barrett Reef.

Liner <em>Wanganella</em> refloated after 18 days on Barrett Reef

1950 Natalie Cole, American singer, was born.

1951 The Broker, a Pennsylvania Railroad passenger train derailed near Woodbridge Township, New Jersey, killing 85 people and injuring over 500 more.

1952 Elizabeth II became Queen upon the death of her father George VI.

1958 Eight Manchester United F.C. players were killed in the Munich air disaster.

1959 Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments filed the first patent for an integrated circuit.

1959 – At Cape Canaveral, the first successful test firing of a Titan intercontinental ballistic missile was accomplished.

1962 W. Axl Rose, American singer (Guns N’ Roses), was born.

1976 Princess Marie of Denmark, was born.

1974 – The bird calls began on what is  now RadioNZ National.

1978 The Blizzard of 1978, one of the worst Nor’easters in New England history, hit the region, with sustained winds of 65 mph and snowfall of 4″ an hour.

1987 Justice Mary Gaudron became the first woman appointed to the High Court of Australia.

1989 The Roundtable talks started in Poland marking the beginning of overthrow of communism in Eastern Europe.

1992 The Saami people of the Nordic countries had an official day celebrating their existence.

1996 – Willamette Valley Flood of 1996: Floods in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, United States, caused more than US$500 million in property damage throughout the Pacific Northwest.

1996 – Birgenair flight 301 crashed off the coast of the Dominican Republic, all 189 people inside the airplane are killed. This is the worst accident/incident involving a Boeing 757.

1998 – Washington National Airport was renamed Ronald Reagan National Airport.

2000 – Second Chechen War: Russia captured Grozny, Chechnya, forcing the separatist Chechen Republic of Ichkeria government into exile.

2004 – Princess Louise of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Princess of Belgium, was born.

Sourced from NZ History Online, Radio NZ  & Wikipedia.


Judging welfare

November 4, 2013

Good point:

Hat tip: Capitalism.

#gigatownoamaru becoming the Southern Hemisphere’s fastest town will provide opportunities for employment.


February 6 in history

February 6, 2013

1664 Mustafa II, Ottoman Sultan, was born (d. 1703).

1685 – James II of England and VII of Scotland became King upon the death of his brother Charles II.

1778 In Paris the Treaty of Alliance and the Treaty of Amity and Commerce were signed by the United States and France signaling official recognition of the new republic.

1815  New Jersey granted the first American railroad charter to John Stevens.

1817 José de San Martín crossed the Andes with an army in order to liberate Chile from Spanish rule.

1819 Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles founded Singapore.

1820 The first 86 African American immigrants sponsored by the American Colonization Society started a settlement in present-day Liberia.

1840 Around 40 Maori chiefs, led by Hone Heke, signed a treaty with the British Crown at Waitangi.

The Treaty of Waitangi is signed

1842 Mary Rudge, English chess master, was born (d. 1919).

1843  The first minstrel show in the United States, The Virginia Minstrels opened in Bowery Amphitheatre in New York City.

1848 Walter B. Pitkin, American lecturer in philosophy and psychology, was born (d1953).

1862 Ulysses S. Grant gives the United States ts first victory of the Amnerican Civil War war in the Battle of Fort Henry by capturing Fort Henry, Tennessee.

1894 Eric Partridge, New Zealand lexicographer, was born (d. 1979).

1895  Babe Ruth, American baseball player, was born (d. 1948).

1899 The Treaty of Paris, a peace treaty between the United States and Spain, was ratified by the United States Senate.

1900 The international arbitration court at The Hague was created when the Netherlands’ Senate ratified an 1899 peace conference decree.

1911 Ronald Reagan, 40th President of the United States, was born  (d. 2004).

1912  Eva Braun, wife of Adolf Hitler, was born (d. 1945).

1917 Zsa Zsa Gábor, Hungarian-born actress, was born.

1922 Denis Norden, British radio and television personality, was born.

1922 The Washington Naval Treaty was signed, limiting the naval armaments of United States, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy.

1933 The 20th Amendment to the United States Constitution went into effect.

1934 Far right leagues rally in front of the Palais Bourbon in an attempted coup against the French Third Republic, creating a political crisis in France.

1945 Bob Marley, Jamaican musician, was born  (d. 1981).

1947 The trans-Tasman liner Wanganella was refloated after 18 days stuck on Barrett Reef.

Liner <em>Wanganella</em> refloated after 18 days on Barrett Reef

1950 Natalie Cole, American singer, was born.

1951 The Broker, a Pennsylvania Railroad passenger train derailed near Woodbridge Township, New Jersey, killing 85 people and injuring over 500 more.

1952 Elizabeth II became Queen upon the death of her father George VI.

1958 Eight Manchester United F.C. players were killed in the Munich air disaster.

1959 Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments filed the first patent for an integrated circuit.

1959 – At Cape Canaveral, the first successful test firing of a Titan intercontinental ballistic missile was accomplished.

1962 W. Axl Rose, American singer (Guns N’ Roses), was born.

1976 Princess Marie of Denmark, was born.

1978 The Blizzard of 1978, one of the worst Nor’easters in New England history, hit the region, with sustained winds of 65 mph and snowfall of 4″ an hour.

1987 Justice Mary Gaudron became the first woman appointed to the High Court of Australia.

1989 The Roundtable talks started in Poland marking the beginning of overthrow of communism in Eastern Europe.

1992 The Saami people of the Nordic countries had an official day celebrating their existence.

1996 – Willamette Valley Flood of 1996: Floods in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, United States, caused more than US$500 million in property damage throughout the Pacific Northwest.

1996 – Birgenair flight 301 crashed off the coast of the Dominican Republic, all 189 people inside the airplane are killed. This is the worst accident/incident involving a Boeing 757.

1998 – Washington National Airport was renamed Ronald Reagan National Airport.

2000 – Second Chechen War: Russia captured Grozny, Chechnya, forcing the separatist Chechen Republic of Ichkeria government into exile.

2004 – Princess Louise of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Princess of Belgium, was born.

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia.


February 6 in history

February 6, 2012

1664 Mustafa II, Ottoman Sultan, was born (d. 1703).

1685 – James II of England and VII of Scotland became King upon the death of his brother Charles II.

1778 In Paris the Treaty of Alliance and the Treaty of Amity and Commerce were signed by the United States and France signaling official recognition of the new republic.

1815  New Jersey granted the first American railroad charter to John Stevens.

1817 José de San Martín crossed the Andes with an army in order to liberate Chile from Spanish rule.

1819 Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles founded Singapore.

1820 The first 86 African American immigrants sponsored by the American Colonization Society started a settlement in present-day Liberia.

1840 Around 40 Maori chiefs, led by Hone Heke, signed a treaty with the British Crown at Waitangi.

The Treaty of Waitangi is signed

1842 Mary Rudge, English chess master, was born (d. 1919).

1843  The first minstrel show in the United States, The Virginia Minstrels opened in Bowery Amphitheatre in New York City.

1848 Walter B. Pitkin, American lecturer in philosophy and psychology, was born (d1953).

1862 Ulysses S. Grant gives the United States ts first victory of the Amnerican Civil War war in the Battle of Fort Henry by capturing Fort Henry, Tennessee.

1894 Eric Partridge, New Zealand lexicographer, was born (d. 1979).

1895  Babe Ruth, American baseball player, was born (d. 1948).

1899 The Treaty of Paris, a peace treaty between the United States and Spain, was ratified by the United States Senate.

1900 The international arbitration court at The Hague was created when the Netherlands’ Senate ratified an 1899 peace conference decree.

1911 Ronald Reagan, 40th President of the United States, was born  (d. 2004).

1912  Eva Braun, wife of Adolf Hitler, was born (d. 1945).

1917 Zsa Zsa Gábor, Hungarian-born actress, was born.

1922 Denis Norden, British radio and television personality, was born.

1922 The Washington Naval Treaty was signed, limiting the naval armaments of United States, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy.

1933 The 20th Amendment to the United States Constitution went into effect.

1934 Far right leagues rally in front of the Palais Bourbon in an attempted coup against the French Third Republic, creating a political crisis in France.

1945 Bob Marley, Jamaican musician, was born  (d. 1981).

1947 The trans-Tasman liner Wanganella was refloated after 18 days stuck on Barrett Reef.

Liner <em>Wanganella</em> refloated after 18 days on Barrett Reef

1950 Natalie Cole, American singer, was born.

1951 The Broker, a Pennsylvania Railroad passenger train derailed near Woodbridge Township, New Jersey, killing 85 people and injuring over 500 more.

1952 Elizabeth II became Queen upon the death of her father George VI.

1958 Eight Manchester United F.C. players were killed in the Munich air disaster.

1959 Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments filed the first patent for an integrated circuit.

1959 – At Cape Canaveral, the first successful test firing of a Titan intercontinental ballistic missile was accomplished.

1962 W. Axl Rose, American singer (Guns N’ Roses), was born.

1976 Princess Marie of Denmark, was born.

1978 The Blizzard of 1978, one of the worst Nor’easters in New England history, hit the region, with sustained winds of 65 mph and snowfall of 4″ an hour.

1987 Justice Mary Gaudron became the first woman appointed to the High Court of Australia.

1989 The Roundtable talks started in Poland marking the beginning of overthrow of communism in Eastern Europe.

1992 The Saami people of the Nordic countries had an official day celebrating their existence.

Mari Boine • Lars Levi Læstadius • Lisa Thomasson • Helga Pedersen • Renée Zellweger • Ole Henrik Magga

2004 Princess Louise of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Princess of Belgium, was born.

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia.


February 6 in history

February 6, 2011

On February 6:

1664 Mustafa II, Ottoman Sultan, was born (d. 1703).

II Mustafa.jpg

1685 – James II of England and VII of Scotland became King upon the death of his brother Charles II.

1778 In Paris the Treaty of Alliance and the Treaty of Amity and Commerce were signed by the United States and France signaling official recognition of the new republic.

1815  New Jersey granted the first American railroad charter to John Stevens.

1817 José de San Martín crossed the Andes with an army in order to liberate Chile from Spanish rule.

1819 Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles founded Singapore.

1820 The first 86 African American immigrants sponsored by the American Colonization Society started a settlement in present-day Liberia.

1840 Around 40 Maori chiefs, led by Hone Heke, signed a treaty with the British Crown at Waitangi.

The Treaty of Waitangi is signed

1842 Mary Rudge, English chess master, was born (d. 1919).

 1843  The first minstrel show in the United States, The Virginia Minstrels opened in Bowery Amphitheatre in New York City.

 

1848 Walter B. Pitkin, American lecturer in philosophy and psychology, was born (d1953).

1862 Ulysses S. Grant gives the United States ts first victory of the Amnerican Civil War war in the Battle of Fort Henry by capturing Fort Henry, Tennessee.

Battle of Fort Henry.png

1894 Eric Partridge, New Zealand lexicographer, was born (d. 1979).

1895  Babe Ruth, American baseball player, was born (d. 1948).

1899 The Treaty of Paris, a peace treaty between the United States and Spain, was ratified by the United States Senate.

1900 The international arbitration court at The Hague was created when the Netherlands’ Senate ratified an 1899 peace conference decree.

1911 Ronald Reagan, 40th President of the United States, was born  (d. 2004).

 

1912  Eva Braun, wife of Adolf Hitler, was born (d. 1945).

1917 Zsa Zsa Gábor, Hungarian-born actress, was born.

1922 Denis Norden, British radio and television personality, was born.

1922 The Washington Naval Treaty was signed, limiting the naval armaments of United States, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy.

Guns from battleships being scrapped in Philadelphia Navy Yard in December 1923

1933 The 20th Amendment to the United States Constitution went into effect.

1934 Far right leagues rally in front of the Palais Bourbon in an attempted coup against the French Third Republic, creating a political crisis in France.

1945 Bob Marley, Jamaican musician, was born  (d. 1981).

Black and white picture of a man with long dreadlocks playing the guitar on stage.

1947 The trans-Tasman liner Wanganella was refloated after 18 days stuck on Barrett Reef.

Liner <em>Wanganella</em> refloated after 18 days on Barrett Reef

1950 Natalie Cole, American singer, was born.

1951 The Broker, a Pennsylvania Railroad passenger train derailed near Woodbridge Township, New Jersey, killing 85 people and injuring over 500 more.

1952 Elizabeth II became Queen upon the death of her father George VI.

 

  

 Handwritten "Elizabeth R" with a tailed z and an underscore

1958 Eight Manchester United F.C. players were killed in the Munich air disaster.

1959 Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments filed the first patent for an integrated circuit.

       

1959 – At Cape Canaveral, the first successful test firing of a Titan intercontinental ballistic missile was accomplished.

1962 W. Axl Rose, American singer (Guns N’ Roses), was born.

1976 Princess Marie of Denmark, was born.

Royal Coat of Arms of Denmark.svg

1978 The Blizzard of 1978, one of the worst Nor’easters in New England history, hit the region, with sustained winds of 65 mph and snowfall of 4″ an hour.

1987 Justice Mary Gaudron became the first woman appointed to the High Court of Australia.

1989 The Roundtable talks started in Poland marking the beginning of overthrow of communism in Eastern Europe.

 

1992 The Saami people of the Nordic countries had an official day celebrating their existence.

 SamiWikibasedCollage.JPG

 

    Mari Boine • Lars Levi Læstadius • Lisa Thomasson • Helga Pedersen • Renée Zellweger • Ole Henrik Magga

2004 Princess Louise of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Princess of Belgium, was born.

Greater Coat of Arms of Belgium.svg

Sourced from NZ History Online & WIkipedia.


March 30 in history

March 30, 2010

On March 30:

240 BC 1st recorded perihelion passage of Halley’s Comet.

A color image of Comet Halley, shown flying to the left aligned flat against the sky

1282 The people of Sicily rebelled against the Angevin KingCharles I, in what became known as the Sicilian Vespers.

Sicilian Vespers (1846), by Francesco Hayez

1296 Edward I sacksed Berwick-upon-Tweed, during armed conflict between Scotland and England.

A man in half figure with short, curly hair and a hint of beard is facing left. He wears a coronet and holds a sceptre in his right hand. He has a blue robe over a red tunic, and his hands are covered by white, embroidered gloves. His left hand seems to be pointing left, to something outside the picture.

1746 Francisco Goya, Spanish painter, was born.

1811 Robert Bunsen, German chemist, was born.

1814 Napoleonic Wars: Sixth Coalition forces marched into Paris.

1814 – Joachim Murat issued the Rimini Declaration which later inspired Italian Unification.

1820 Anna Sewell, British author, was born.

1842 Anesthesia was used for the first time in an operation by Dr Crawford Long.

1844 One of the most important battles of the Dominican War of Independence from Haiti took place near the city of Santiago de los Caballeros.

1853 Vincent van Gogh, Dutch painter, was born.

Impressionist portrait painting of a man with a reddish beard wearing a dark coat and white shirt while looking forward with his body facing left

1855 Origins of the American Civil War: Bleeding Kansas – “Border Ruffians” from Missouri invaded Kansas and forced election of a pro-slavery legislature.

1856 The Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the Crimean War.

 

1858 Hymen Lipman patented a pencil with an attached rubber.

 

1863 Danish prince Wilhelm Georg was chosen as King George of Greece.

1864 Franz Oppenheimer, German sociologist, was born.

 

1867 Alaska was purchased for $7.2 million, about 2 cent/acre ($4.19/km²), by United States Secretary of State William H. Seward. The media called this Seward’s Folly.

 

1870 Texas was readmitted to the Union following Reconstruction.

1885 The Battle for Kushka triggered the Pandjeh Incident which nearly gave rise to war between the British and Russian Empires.

1909 The Queensboro Bridge opened, linking Manhattan and Queens.

 

1910  The Mississippi Legislature founded The University of Southern Mississippi.

The University of Southern Mississippi Seal

1912 Sultan Abdelhafid signed the Treaty of Fez, making Morocco a French protectorate.

 

1913 Frankie Laine, American singer, was born.

1918 Outburst of bloody March Events in Baku and other locations of Baku Governorate.

1928 Tom Sharpe, English satirical author, was born.

 

1930 Rolf Harris, Australian artist and entertainer, was born.

1937 Warren Beatty, American actor and director, was born.

1939 The Heinkel He 100 fighter sets a world airspeed record of 463 mph.

1939 – First flight of the Australian C.A.C. CA-16 Wirraway.

 

1940 Sino-Japanese War: Japan declared Nanking to be the capital of a new Chinese puppet government, nominally controlled by Wang Ching-wei.

1941 Graeme Edge, British musician (Moody Blues), was born.

1945  Eric Clapton, British guitarist, was born.

1945 World War II: Soviet Union forces invaded Austria and took Vienna; Polish and Soviet forces liberated Gdańsk.

1945 – World War II: a defecting German pilot delivered a Messerschmitt Me 262A-1 to the Americans.

 

1949  A riot broke out in Austurvöllur square in Reykjavík, when Iceland joined NATO.

1950 Robbie Coltrane, Scottish actor and comedian, was born.

1954  Yonge Street subway line opened in Toronto, the first subway in Canada.

1959 Peter Hugh McGregor Ellis, who was convicted of child abuse at the Christchurch Civic Creche, was born.

1961  The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs was signed in New York.

 

1962 MC Hammer, American rap musician, was born.

1964 Tracy Chapman, American singer, was born,

1965 Vietnam War: A car bomb exploded in front of the US Embassy, Saigon, killing 22 and wounding 183 others.

1967 Fred Ladd flew a plane under Auckland Harbour Bridge.

Fred Ladd flies plane under Auckland Harbour Bridge

1968 Celine Dion, Canadian singer, was born.

1972  Vietnam War: The Easter Offensive began after North Vietnamese forces cross into the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) of South Vietnam.

T-59 VC.jpg
North

1979 Airey Neave, a British MP, was killed by a car bomb as left the Palace of Westminster. The Irish National Liberation Army claimed responsibility.

 

1979 Norah Jones, American musician, was born.

1979 First Gay Rights Parade held in Michigan.

1981 President Ronald Reagan was shot in the chest outside a Washington, D.C., hotel by John Hinckley, Jr.

 

1982 Space Shuttle programme: STS-3 Mission was completed with the landing of Columbia at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico.

Sts3-patch.png

2006  The United Kingdom Terrorism Act 2006 becomes law.

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


February 6 in history

February 6, 2010

On February 6:

1664 Mustafa II, Ottoman Sultan, was born

II Mustafa.jpg

1685 – James II of England and VII of Scotland became King upon the death of his brother Charles II.

1778 In Paris the Treaty of Alliance and the Treaty of Amity and Commerce were signed by the United States and France signaling official recognition of the new republic.

1815  New Jersey granted the first American railroad charter to John Stevens.

1817 José de San Martín crossed the Andes with an army in order to liberate Chile from Spanish rule.

1819 Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles founded Singapore.

1820 The first 86 African American immigrants sponsored by the American Colonization Society started a settlement in present-day Liberia.

1840 Around 40 Maori chiefs, led by Hone Heke, signed a treaty with the British Crown at Waitangi.

The Treaty of Waitangi is signed

1842 Mary Rudge, English chess master, was born.

 1843  The first minstrel show in the United States, The Virginia Minstrels opened in Bowery Amphitheatre in New York City.

 

1848 Walter B. Pitkin, American lecturer in philosophy and psychology, was born.

1862 Ulysses S. Grant gives the United States ts first victory of the Amnerican Civil War war in the Battle of Fort Henry by capturing Fort Henry, Tennessee.

Battle of Fort Henry.png

1894 Eric Partridge, New Zealand lexicographer, was born.

1895  Babe Ruth, American baseball player, was born.

1899 The Treaty of Paris, a peace treaty between the United States and Spain, was ratified by the United States Senate.

1900 The international arbitration court at The Hague was created when the Netherlands’ Senate ratified an 1899 peace conference decree.

1911 Ronald Reagan, 40th President of the United States, was born.

 

1912  Eva Braun, wife of Adolf Hitler, was born.

1917 Zsa Zsa Gábor, Hungarian-born actress, was born.

1922 Denis Norden, British radio and television personality, was born.

1922 The Washington Naval Treaty was signed, limiting the naval armaments of United States, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy.

Guns from battleships being scrapped in Philadelphia Navy Yard in December 1923

1933 The 20th Amendment to the United States Constitution went into effect.

1934 Far right leagues rally in front of the Palais Bourbon in an attempted coup against the French Third Republic, creating a political crisis in France.

1945 Bob Marley, Jamaican musician, was born.

Black and white picture of a man with long dreadlocks playing the guitar on stage.

1947 The trans-Tasman liner Wanganella was refloated after 18 days stuck on Barrett Reef.

Liner <em>Wanganella</em> refloated after 18 days on Barrett Reef

1950 Natalie Cole, American singer, was born.

1951 The Broker, a Pennsylvania Railroad passenger train derailed near Woodbridge Township, New Jersey, killing 85 people and injuring over 500 more.

1952 Elizabeth II became Queen upon the death of her father George VI.

 

 Handwritten "Elizabeth R" with a tailed z and an underscore

1958 Eight Manchester United F.C. players were killed in the Munich air disaster.

1959 Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments filed the first patent for an integrated circuit.

       

1959 – At Cape Canaveral, the first successful test firing of a Titan intercontinental ballistic missile was accomplished.

1962 W. Axl Rose, American singer (Guns N’ Roses), was born.

1976 Princess Marie of Denmark, was born.

Royal Coat of Arms of Denmark.svg

1978 The Blizzard of 1978, one of the worst Nor’easters in New England history, hit the region, with sustained winds of 65 mph and snowfall of 4″ an hour.

1987 Justice Mary Gaudron became the first woman appointed to the High Court of Australia.

1989 The Roundtable talks started in Poland marking the beginning of overthrow of communism in Eastern Europe.

 

1992 The Saami people of the Nordic countries had an official day celebrating their existence.

 SamiWikibasedCollage.JPG

 

 Mari BoineLars Levi LæstadiusLisa ThomassonHelga PedersenRenée ZellwegerOle Henrik Magga

2004 Princess Louise of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Princess of Belgium, was born.

Greater Coat of Arms of Belgium.svg

Sourced from NZ History Online & WIkipedia.


January 20 in history

January 20, 2010

On January 20:

  • Emperor Decius began a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Pope Fabian was martyred.
  • Emperor Traianus Decius (Mary Harrsch).jpg

    1265 In Westminster, the first English parliament conducts its first meeting held by Simon de Montfort in the Palace of Westminster.

    Looking down from some height, a large stone building in the Gothic style lies by a river with its long side parallel to it. It is internally organised around a number of courtyards, and its various wings feature grey roofs and multiple=

    1356 Edward Balliol abdicated as King of Scotland.

    1523 Christian II was forced to abdicate as King of Denmark and Norway.

    1649 Charles I of England went on trial for treason and other “high crimes”.

    1788 The third and main part of First Fleet arrived at Botany Bay. Arthur Phillip decided that Botany Bay is unsuitable for location of a penal colony, and decides to move to Port Jackson.

    ArthurPhilip.jpg

    1840  Dumont D’Urville discovered Adélie Land, Antarctica.

    Dumont d'Urville00.jpg

     

    1840 – Willem II became King of the Netherlands.

    1841  Hong Kong Island was occupied by the British.

    1885  L.A. Thompson patented the roller coaster.

     Thompson’s Switchback Railway

     1887  The United States Senate allowed the Navy to lease Pearl Harbor as a naval base.

    1892  At the YMCA in Springfield, Massachusetts, the first official basketball game was played.

     The first basketball court: Springfield College.

    1896  George Burns, American actor, comedian, was born.

    1899  Clarice Cliff, English ceramic, was born.

    1910 Joy Adamson, Austrian naturalist and writer, was born.

    1921 The first Constitution of Turkey was adopted, making fundamental changes in the source and exercise of sovereignty by consecrating the principle of national sovereignty.

    1926 Patricia Neal, American actress, was born.

    1929  In Old Arizona, the first full-length talking motion picture filmed outdoors, was released.

    1930  Buzz Aldrin, American astronaut, was born.

    Aldrin.jpg

    1934  Tom Baker, British actor, was born.

    1936  Edward VIII became King of the United Kingdom.

     

    1937 Franklin Roosevelt was inaugurated for a second term as President of the United States. This was the first inauguration scheduled on January 20, following adoption of the 20th Amendment. Previous inaugurations were scheduled on March 4.

    1950  Liza Goddard, British actress, was born.

    1952 Paul Stanley, American musician (Kiss), was born.

    1957 Scott Base opened in Antarctica.

    Scott Base opened in Antarctica

    1959 The first flight of the Vickers Vanguard.

    1960 Hendrik Verwoerd announces a plebiscite on whether South Africa should become a Republic.

    1961  John F. Kennedy is inaugurated as the youngest man, and first-ever Roman Catholic, to become elected President of the United States.

    1965   Sophie, The Countess of Wessex, was born.

    1981 Irann released 52 American hostages twenty minutes after Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as U.S. President, the oldest man to be inaugurated at 69.

    1987  Church of England envoy Terry Waite was kidnapped in Lebanon.

    1990  Black January – crackdown of Azerbaijani pro-independence demonstrations by Soviet army in Baku.

     Soviet tanks in Baku during Black January.

    1991 Sudan‘s government imposed Islamic law nationwide, worsening the civil war between the country’s Muslim north and Christian south.

    2001  Philippine president Joseph Estradawas ousted in a nonviolent 4-day revolution, and was succeeded by Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.

    2009 Barack Obama was inaugurated as the 44th President of the United States of America – the United States’ first African-American president.

    Portrait of Barack Obama

    Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia.


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