100 BC Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic, was born (d. 44 BC).
1174 William I of Scotland, a key rebel in the Revolt of 1173–1174, was captured by forces loyal to Henry II.
1558 Battle of Gravelines: Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeated the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes.
1573 Eighty Years’ War: The Siege of Haarlem ends after seven months.
1643 English Civil War: Battle of Roundway Down – Henry Wilmot, 1st Earl of Rochester, commanding the Royalist forces, won a crushing victory over the Parliamentarian Sir William Waller.
1787 The Continental Congress enacted the Northwest Ordinance establishing governing rules for the Northwest Territory establishing procedures for the admission of new states and limiting the expansion of slavery.
1794 Battle of the Vosges between French forces and those of Prussia and Austria.
1821 Nathan Bedford Forrest, American Confederate cavalry officer, and founder of the original Ku Klux Klan, was born (d. 1877).
1854 In the Battle of Guaymas, Mexico, General Jose Maria Yanez stopped the French invasion led by Count Gaston de Raousset Boulbon.
1863 – Margaret Murray, Anglo-Indian Egyptologist, archaeologist, anthropologist, historian, and folklorist, was born. (d. 1963).
1863 New York Draft Riots: Opponents of conscription began three days of rioting.
1878 Treaty of Berlin: The European powers redraw the map of the Balkans. Serbia, Montenegro and Romania became completely independent of the Ottoman empire.
1916 Vivian Walsh became the first New Zealander to obtain an aviator’s certificate, following the establishment in October 1915 of the New Zealand Flying School at Orakei.
1918 – Marcia Brown, American author and illustrator, was born (d. 2015).
1919 The British airship R34 landed in Norfolk, completing the first airship return journey across the Atlantic in 182 hours of flight.
1923 The Hollywood Sign was officially dedicated in the hills above Hollywood. It originally read “Hollywoodland ” but the four last letters were dropped after renovation in 1949.
1927 – Simone Veil, French lawyer and politician, 12th President of the European Parliament, was born.
1928 Bob Crane, American actor, was born (d. 1978).
1941 World War II: Montenegrins started popular uprising against the Axis Powers (Trinaestojulski ustanak).
1942 – Harrison Ford, American Actor, was born.
1942 – Roger McGuinn, American musician (The Byrds), was born.
1950 – Rod Dixon, New Zealand runner, was born.
1950 Ma Ying-jeou, President of China, former mayor of Taipei, former chairman of the Kuomintang (KMT), was born.
1960 Ian Hislop, British writer, editor of Private Eye, was born.
1973 Alexander Butterfield revealed the existence of the Nixon tapes to the special Senate committee investigating the Watergate break in.
1985 – United States Vice President George H.W. Bush became the Acting President for the day when President Ronald Reagan underwent surgery.
2011 – Mumbai was rocked by three bomb blasts during the evening rush hour, killing 26 and injuring 130.
2013 – Typhoon Soulik killed at least 9 people and affected more than 160 million in East China and Taiwan.
2014 – World Cup Final took place at the Maracanã in Rio de Janeiro.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia