August 31 in history

August 31, 2010

On August 31:

12 Gaius Caligula, Roman Emperor, was born (d. 41).

 

1218 Al-Kamil became Sultan of Egypt, Syria and northern Mesopotamia on the death of his father Al-Adil.

 

1422  Henry VI became King of England at the age of 9 months.

 

1803 Lewis and Clark started their expedition to the west.

 

1870 Maria Montessori, Italian educator, was born (d. 1952).

 

1876 Ottoman sultan Murat V was deposed and succeeded by his brother Abd-ul-Hamid II.

 

1880 Wilhelmina I of the Netherlands, was born (d. 1962).

 

1886 An earthquake killed 100 in Charleston, South Carolina.

1888  Mary Ann Nichols was murdered, the first of Jack the Ripper’s known victims.

1894 The new Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration (IC&A) Act, a flagship policy of Richard Seddon’s Liberal government, made New Zealand the first country in the world to outlaw strikes in favour of compulsory arbitration. There were no major strikes for 11 years and wages and conditions generally improved.

Arbitration Act becomes law

1894 Albert Facey, Australian writer, was born (d. 1982).

1897  Thomas Edison patented the Kinetoscope, the first movie projector.

 

1907 Count Alexander Izvolsky and Sir Arthur Nicolson signed the St. Petersburg Convention, which resulted in the Triple Entente alliance.

 

1918 Alan Jay Lerner, American lyricist, was born (d. 1986).

Brigadoon 1947 a.JPG

1920 Polish-Bolshevik War: A decisive Polish victory in the Battle of Komarów.

 

1940 Pennsylvania Central Airlines Trip 19 crashed near Lovettsville, Virginia. The CAB investigation of the accident was the first investigation to be conducted under the Bureau of Air Commerce act of 1938.

1940 Jack Thompson, Australian actor, was born.

 

1943  The USS Harmon, the first U.S. Navy ship to be named after a black person, was commissioned.

USS Harmon

1945 The Liberal Party of Australia was founded by Robert Menzies.

Liberalpartyofaus.png

1945 Van Morrison, Northern Irish singer-songwriter and musician, was born.

1949 The retreat of the Greek Democratic Army in Albania after its defeat in mountain Grammos marked the end of the Greek Civil War.

1949 Richard Gere, American actor, was born.

1957 The Federation of Malaya (now Malaysia) gained its independence from the United Kingdom.

1958 A parcel bomb sent by Ngo Dinh Nhu, younger brother and chief adviser of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem, failed to kill Sihanouk of Cambodia.

1958 Serge Blanco, French rugby union footballer, was born.

401 Serge Blanco.jpg

1962  Trinidad and Tobago became independent.

1965 Willie Watson, New Zealand cricketer, was born.

1965  The Aero Spacelines Super Guppy aircraft made its first flight.

1974 Leader of the Labour Party since 1965 and Prime Minister from late 1972, Norman Kirk, ‘Big Norm’, died suddenly at the age of 51. He was the fifth New Zealand PM to die in office.

Death of Norman Kirk

1978 William and Emily Harris, founders of the Symbionese Liberation Army, pleaded guilty to the 1974 kidnapping of

1986 Aeroméxico Flight 498 collided with a Piper PA-28 over Cerritos, California, killing 67 in the air and 15 on the ground.

1986 The Soviet passenger liner Admiral Nakhimov sank in the Black Sea after colliding with the bulk carrier Pyotr Vasev, killing 423.

Berlin (III).jpg

1991  Kyrgyzstan declared its independence from the Soviet Union.

1992  Pascal Lissouba was inaugurated as the President of the Republic of the Congo .

1993  HMS Mercury, shore establishment of the Royal Navy,  closed after 52 years in commission.

HMS Mercury II launch.jpg

1994 The Provisional Irish Republican Army declared a ceasefire.

1997 Diana, Princess of Wales, her companion Dodi Al-Fayed and driver Henri Paul died in a car crash in Paris.

1998 North Korea reportedly launches Kwangmyongsong, its first satellite.

1999 The first of a series of bombings in Moscow, killing one person and wounding 40 others.

 

1999 – A LAPA Boeing 737-200 crashed during takeoff from Jorge Newbury Airport in Buenos Aires, killing 65, including 2 on the ground.

 

2005  A stampede on Al-Aaimmah bridge in Baghdad killed 1,199 people.

 

2006 Edvard Munch’s famous painting The Scream, which was stolen on August 22, 2004, was recovered in a raid by Norwegian police.

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


May 1 in history

May 1, 2010

On May 1: 

305  Diocletian and Maximian retired from the office of Roman Emperor. 

880 The Nea Ekklesia was inaugurated in Constantinople setting the model for all later cross-in-square Orthodox churches. 

1328  Wars of Scottish Independence ended: Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton – the Kingdom of England recognised the Kingdom of Scotland as an independent state. 

Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland 

1576  Stefan Batory, the reigning Prince of Transylvania, married Anna Jagiellon and they became the co-rulers of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. 

 

1707 The Act of Union joined the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. 

  

1751 The first cricket match was played in America. 

1753 Publication of Species Plantarum by Linnaeus, and the formal start date of plant taxonomy adopted by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. 

 

1759 Josiah Wedgwood founded the Wedgwood pottery company in Great Britain. 

  

1776 Establishment of the Illuminati in Ingolstadt (Upper Bavaria), by Jesuit-taught Adam Weishaupt

  

1778 American Revolution: The Battle of Crooked Billet began in Hatboro, Pennsylvania. 

Battle of Crooked Billet Monument.jpg 

1785  Kamehameha, the king of Hawaiʻi defeated Kalanikupule and established the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi. 

 

1786  Opening night of the opera The Marriage of Figaro by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in Vienna. 

 

1831 Emily Stowe, Canadian physician and suffragist, was born (d. 1903). 

  

1834  The British colonies abolished slavery

1840  The Penny Black, the first official adhesive postage stamp, was issued in the United Kingdom. 

Penny black.jpg 

1846  The few remaining Mormons left in Nauvoo, Illinois, formally dedicated the Nauvoo Temple

  

1848 The Fraternity of Phi Gamma Delta was founded at Jefferson College in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. 

1851 Queen Victoria opened the Great Exhibition in London. 

  

1852 Calamity Jane, American Wild West performer, was born (d. 1903). 

  

1852 The Philippine peso was introduced into circulation. 

1000-peso note one-peso coin

1863  American Civil War: The Battle of Chancellorsville began. 

Battle of Chancellorsville.png
 

1865 The Empire of Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay signed the Treaty of the Triple Alliance

 

1869 The Folies Bergère opened in Paris. 

  

1875 Alexandra Palace reopened after the 1873 fire burnt it down. 

  

1884  Proclamation of the demand for eight-hour workday in the United States. 

1884 Moses Fleetwood Walker became the first black person to play in a professional baseball game in the United States. 

 

1885 Ralph Stackpole, American sculptor, painter, was born  (d. 1973). 

 

1886 Rallies, that ended in the Haymarket affair, were held throughout the United States demanding the eight-hour work day. 

  

1893 The World’s Columbian Exposition opened in Chicago. 

  

1893 Richard Seddon became Premier of New Zealand. 

Richard Seddon becomes Premier 

  1894 Coxey’s Army, the first significant American protest march, arrived in Washington, D.C. 

1898  Spanish-American War: The Battle of Manila Bay – the United States Navy destroyed the Spanish Pacific fleet in the first battle of the war. 

  

1900 The Scofield mine disaster killed more than 200 men in Scofield, Utah. 

 

1901 The Pan-American Exposition opened in Buffalo, New York. 

  

1910 Dr. J. Allen Hynek, Astronomer/Astro-physicist. Noted UFO investigator, was born  (d. 1986). 

  

1915  The RMS Lusitania departed from New York City on her two hundred and second, and final, crossing of the North Atlantic. 

Lusitania
 

1925 The All-China Federation of Trade Unions was officially founded. 

ACFTU logo.jpg 

1926 New Zealand Railways magazine was launched. 

NZ Railways Magazine launched 

1927 The first cooked meals on a scheduled flight were introduced on an Imperial Airways flight from London to Paris. 

1927  The Union Labor Life Insurance Company was founded by the American Federation of Labor. 

1930 The dwarf planet Pluto was officially named.

Pluto-map-hs-2010-06-c180.jpg 

1931 The Empire State Building was dedicated in New York City.

Manhattan at Dusk by slonecker.jpg

1937  Una Stubbs, English actress, was born. 

TillDeathUsDo.jpg 

1939 Judy Collins, American folk singer, was born. 

 

1940 The 1940 Summer Olympics were cancelled owing to war. 

1941 – World War II: German forces launch a major attack on Tobruk

1945 World War II: A German newsreader officially announced that Adolf Hitler had “fallen at his command post in the Reich Chancellery fighting to the last breath against Bolshevism and for Germany”. 

1945  Yougoslav partisans freed Trieste

Yugoslav Partisans flag 1945.svg 

1945  Rita Coolidge, American singer, was born. 

 

1946  Joanna Lumley, English actress, was born. 

 

1946 Start of 3 year Pilbara strike of Indigenous Australians. 

1946 The Paris Peace Conference concluded that the islands of the Dodecanese should be returned to Greece by Italy. 

  

1947 Portella della Ginestra massacre against May Day celebrations in Sicily by the bandit and separatist leader Salvatore Giuliano; 11 people were killed and 33 wounded.

1948 The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) was established, with Kim Il-sung as president.

 

1950  Guam was organized as a United States commonwealth.

 

1956  The polio vaccine developed by Jonas Salk was made available to the public. 

1956  A doctor in Japan reported an “epidemic of an unknown disease of the central nervous system”, marking the official discovery of Minamata disease.

1960 Formation of the western Indian states of Gujarat and Maharashtra.

1960  Cold War: U-2 incidentFrancis Gary Powers, in a Lockheed U-2 spyplane, iwa shot down over the Soviet Union, sparking a diplomatic crisis.

 

1961 The Prime Minister of Cuba, Fidel Castro, proclaimed Cuba a socialist nation and abolishes elections.

Five horizontal stripes: three blue and two white. A red equilateral triangle at the left of the flag, partly covering the stripes, with a white five pointed star in the centre of the triangle. A shield in front of a fasces crowned by the Phrygian Cap, all supported by an oak branch and a laurel wreath

 

1965 Battle of Dong-Yin, a naval conflict between ROC and PRC, took place. 

1970  Protests erupted in Seattle, Washington, following the announcement by U.S. President Richard Nixon that U.S. Forces in Vietnam would pursue enemy troops into Cambodia, a neutral country. 

1971 Amtrak (the National Railroad Passenger Corporation) was formed to take over U.S. passenger rail service.

 
Logo

 

1977 36 people were killed in Taksim Square, Istanbul, during the Labour Day celebrations. 

1978 Japan’s Naomi Uemura, travelling by dog sled, became the first person to reach the North Pole alone.

1982 The 1982 World’s Fair opened in Knoxville, Tennessee.

 

1982 Operation Black Buck: The Royal Air Force attacked the Argentine Air Force during Falklands War. 

 

1983 Greek composer Mikis Theodorakis was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize.

1987 Pope John Paul II beatified Edith Stein, a Jewish-born Carmelite nun who was gassed in the Nazi concentration camp at Auschwitz.

 

1989 Disney-MGM Studios opened at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida.

 

1990 The former Philippine Episcopal Church (supervised by the Episcopal Church of the United States of America) was granted full autonomy and raised to the states of an Autocephalous Anglican Province and renamed the Episcopal Church of the Philippines. 

Episcopalphils.jpg

1992 On the third day of the 1992 Los Angeles riots, African-American activist, criminal, and victim of police beating Rodney King appeared in public before television news cameras to appeal for calm and plead for peace, asking, “People, I just want to say, you know, can we all get along?”. 

1994  Three-time Formula One world champion Ayrton Senna was killed in an accident during the San Marino Grand Prix at Imola.

 

1995 Croatian forces launch Operation Flash during the Croatian War of Independence. 

1997  Tasmania became the last state in Australia to decriminalize homosexuality. 

2001 Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo declared the existence of “a state of rebellion”, hours after thousands of supporters of her arrested predecessor, Joseph Estrada, stormed towards the presidential palace at the height of the EDSA III rebellion.

 

2003 2003 invasion of Iraq: In the “Mission Accomplished” speech, on board the USS Abraham Lincoln (off the coast of California), U.S. President George W. Bush declaref that “major combat operations in Iraq have ended”. 

  

2004 Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia joined the European Union, celebrated at the residence of the Irish President in Dublin.

Circle of 12 gold stars on a blue background.

2006  The Puerto Rican government closed the Department of Education and 42 other government agencies owing to to significant shortages in cash flow. 

2007  the Los Angeles May Day mêlée occured, in which the Los Angeles Police Department’s response to a May Day pro-immigration rally become a matter of controversy. 

2008 The London Agreement on translation of European patents, concluded in 2000, entered into force in 14 of the 34 Contracting States to the European Patent Convention

2009 Same-sex marriage was legalized in Sweden. 

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


September 28 in history

September 28, 2009

On September 28:

551: Confucious, the Chinese philosopher was born.

1066 The Norman conquest of England began with the invasion led by William the Conqueror.

King of England and Duke of Normandy
The Duke of Normandy in the Bayeux Tapestry

1571:Italian artist  Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio was born.


Chalk portrait of Caravaggio by Ottavio Leoni, c. 1621.

1844 Sir Robert Stout, Premier and chief Justice, was born.

. . . in 1878  (he) introduced the Electoral Bill which made woman ratepayers eligible to vote and to stand for Parliament. In 1887 he supported Vogel’s Women’s Suffrage Bill. He won for women the right to vote for licensing committees, and was largely responsible for the Married Women’s Property Act 1884, which declared a married woman capable of acquiring, holding and disposing of property in her own right. Stout later worked, in close association with his wife, to limit the testamentary freedom of husbands so that property could not be willed away from wives. In 1896 he introduced a Limitation of the Power of Disposition by Will Bill. The Testator’s Family Maintenance Act 1900 was a modified form of this proposal.

1889: The first General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) defined the length of a meter as the distance between two lines on a standard bar of an alloy of platinum with ten percent iridium, measured at the melting point of ice.

1899 Premier Richard Seddon asked parliament to approve approve an offer to the British government of a contingent of mounted rifles to help in the Boer War.

1901 US television host Ed Sullivan was born.

1916 English-bron Australian actor Peter Finch was born.

1928: Sir Alexander Fleming noticed a bacteria-killing mould growing in his laboratory, discovering what later became known as penicillin.

1934 French model and actress Brigtte Bardot was born.

1946 English singer Helen Shapiro was born.

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia.


August 31 in history

August 31, 2009

On August 31:

1894 The Arbitration Act became law, a flagship policy of Richard Seddon’s Liberal government, made New Zealand the first country in the world to outlaw strikes in favour of compulsory arbitration.

1918: US lyracist Alan Jay Lerner was born.

1940: Australian actor Jack Thompson was born.

 

1945 The Australian Liberal Party was formed by Robert Menzies.

1945 Irish musician Van Morrison was born.

1949 US actor Richard Gere was born.

1957  The Federation of Malaya (now Malaysia) gained its independence from Britain.

Flag Coat of arms
 

1962 Trinadad and Tobago became independent.

1974 Prime Minsiter Norman Kirk died.

1991 Kyrgyzstan declared its independence from the USSR.

1994 The Provisional Irish Republican Army declared a cease fire.

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia.


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