March 3 in history

March 3, 2010

On March 3:

1284 The Statute of Rhuddlan incorporated the Principality of Wales into England.

1575 Indian Mughal Emperor Akbar defeated Bengali army at the Battle of Tukaroi.

 
Akbar1.jpg

1776 The first amphibious landing of the United States Marine Corps began the Battle of Nassau.

Battle of Nassau.jpg

1585 The Olympic Theatre, designed by Andrea Palladio, is inaugurated in Vicenza.

 

1803 Colégio Militar is founded in Portugal by Colonel Teixeira Rebello.

 

1805 Jonas Furrer, first President of the Swiss Confederation, was born.

1820 The U.S. Congress passed the Missouri Compromise.

1831 George Pullman, American inventor and industrialist, was born.

1845 – For the first time the U.S. Congress passed legislation overriding a presidential veto.

1847  Alexander Graham Bell, Scottish-Canadian inventor, was born.

1849 – The U.S. Congress passed the Gold Coinage Act allowing the minting of gold coins.

1857 Second Opium War: France and the United Kingdom declared war on China.

Upper North Taku Fort.jpg

1865 – Opening of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, the founding member of the HSBC Group.

The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited
香港上海滙豐銀行有限公司

1873 The U.S. Congress enacted the Comstock Law, making it illegal to send any “obscene, lewd, or lascivious” books through the mail.

 

1875 Georges Bizet‘s opera Carmen received its première at the Opéra Comique of Paris.

            

1875 – The first ever organized indoor game of ice hockey was played in Montreal.

 

1878 Bulgaria regained its independence from Ottoman Empire according to the Treaty of San Stefano.

1879 The United States Geological Survey was created.

US-GeologicalSurvey-Seal.svg
Seal
USGS logo green.svg

1882 Charles Ponzi, Italian fraud convict, was born.

1885 The American Telephone and Telegraph Company was incorporated in New York.

Att-logo.png

1893 Beatrice Wood, American artist and ceramicist, was born.

 

1904  Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany became the first person to make a sound recording of a political document, using Thomas Edison‘s cylinder.

1905 Tsar Nicholas II of Russia agreed to create an elected assembly, the Duma.

 

1910 Rockefeller Foundation: J.D. Rockefeller Jr. announced his retirement from managing his businesses so that he can devote full time to being a philanthropist.

Rockefeller Foundation logo.png

1911 Jean Harlow, American actress, was born.

1915  NACA, the predecessor of NASA, was founded.

NACA seal.jpg

1918 Germany, Austria and Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk ending Russia’s involvement in World War I, and leading to the independence of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland.

 Leon Trotsky being greeted by German officers in Brest-Litovsk

1920 Ronald Searle, British illustrator, was born.

 

1923 TIME magazine is published for the first time.

 

1924 The 1400-year-old Islamic caliphate was abolished when Caliph Abdul Mejid II of the Ottoman Empire was deposed.

1924 – The Free State of Fiume was annexed by Kingdom of Italy.

1930 Ion Iliescu, President of Romania, was born.

1931 The United States officially adopted The Star-Spangled Banner as its national anthem.

 The 15-star, 15-stripe “Star Spangled Banner Flag” which inspired the poem.

1938 Oil was discovered in Saudi Arabia.

1939 In Mumbai, Mohandas Gandhi began to fast in protest at the autocratic rule in India.

 

1940 Five people were killed in an arson attack on the offices of the communist newspaper Norrskensflamman in Luleå, Sweden.

1942 Mike Pender, English singer and guitarist (The Searchers), was born.

1942 Ten Japanese warplanes raided the town of Broome, Western Australia killing more than 100 people.

1943  173 people were killed in a crush while trying to enter an air-raid shelter at Bethnal Green tube station in London.

1948 Snowy White, British guitarist (Thin Lizzy, Pink Floyd), was born.

1953 A Canadian Pacific Airlines De Havilland Comet crashed in Karachi, killing 11.

1958 Miranda Richardson, British actress, was born.

1958 Nuri as-Said became the prime minister of Iraq for the 14th time.


Faisal II with Nuri as-Said.

1960 Barry Crump’s novel A Good Keen Man  was published.

Barry Crump's novel <em>A good keen man</em> published

1961 Hassan II became King of Morocco.

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1964 Duncan Phillips, Australian drummer (Newsboys), was born.

1969  NASA launched Apollo 9 to test the lunar module.

Apollo-9-patch.png

1971 Beginning of Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 and India’s official entry to the Bangladesh Liberation War in support of Mukti Bahini.

1971 surrender.jpg

1972 Mohawk Airlines Flight 405 crashed as a result of a control malfunction and insufficient training in emergency procedures.

1974  Turkish Airlines Flight 981 crashes at Ermenonville near Paris,  killing all 346 aboard.

1976 Five workers were killed by the police in a demonstration in Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain.

1985 Arthur Scargill declared that the National Union of Mineworkers national executive voted to end the longest-running industrial dispute in Great Britain without any peace deal over pit closures.

NUM logo.png

1991 An amateur video captured the beating of Rodney King by Los Angeles police officers.

 

1991 – In two concurring referendums: 74 % of the population of Latvia and 83% of the population of  Estonia voted for independence from the Soviet Union.

1991 United Airlines Flight 585 crashed on approach into Colorado Springs, killing 25.

1992 – The nation of Bosnia was established.

1997  The tallest free-standing structure in the Southern Hemisphere, Sky Tower in downtown Auckland opened after two-and-a-half years of construction.

Sky Tower Collage Auckland.jpg

2002  Citizens of Switzerland narrowly voted in favor of their country becoming a member of the United Nations.

2004  Belgian brewer Interbrew and Brazilian rival AmBev agree to merge in a $11.2 billion deal that formed InBev, the world’s largest brewer.

2005 James Roszko murdered four Royal Canadian Mounted Police constables during a drug bust at his property in Rochfort Bridge, Alberta, then commits suicide.

2005 Steve Fossett became the first person to fly an airplane non-stop around the world solo without refueling.

2009  The Sri Lankan cricket team was attacked by terrorists while on their way to the Gaddafi Stadium, Lahore for a Test match against Pakistan.

2009 – The building of the Historisches Archiv der Stadt Köln (Historical Archives) in Cologne, Germany, collapsed.

 

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


February 10 in history

February 10, 2010

On February 10:

1306  Robert the Bruce murdered John Comyn, his leading political rival sparking revolution in the Scottish Wars of Independence

1355 The St. Scholastica’s Day riot broke out in Oxford leaving 63 scholars and perhaps 30 locals dead in two days.

1567 An explosion destroyed the Kirk o’ Field house in Edinburgh. The second husband of Mary Queen of Scots, Lord Darnley was found strangled, in what many believe to be an assassination.

 1567 drawing of Kirk o’ Field after the murder of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley drawn for Cecil (William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley) shortly after the murder.

1763 The 1763 Treaty of Paris ended theFrench and Indian War and France ceded Quebec to Great Britain.

French and Indian War map.png

1775 Charles Lamb, English essayist, was born.

1798 Louis Alexandre Berthier invaded Rome.

1814 Battle of Champaubert

1840 Queen Victoria  married Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.

 Marriage of Victoria and Albert by Sir George Hayter

1846 First Anglo-Sikh War: Battle of Sobraon – British defeated Sikhs in final battle of the war.

 Raja Lal Singh, who led Sikh forces against the British during the First Anglo-Sikh War, 1846

1870 The YWCA was founded.

1893 Jimmy Durante, American actor/comedian (, was born.

1894  Harold Macmillan, British Prime Minister, was born.

1906 HMS Dreadnought (1906) was launched.

HMS Dreadnought 1906 H61017.jpg

1920 Jozef Haller de Hallenburg performed a symbolic wedding of Poland to the sea, celebrating restitution of Polish access to open sea.

 

1923 Texas Tech University was founded as Texas Technological College in Lubbock.

1930  Robert Wagner, American actor, was born.

 

1931 New Delhi became the capital of India.

1933 The New York City-based Postal Telegraph Company introduces the first singing telegram.

1934 Fleur Adcock, New Zealand poet, was born.

1937 Roberta Flack, American singer, was born.

1947 Italy ceded most of Venezia Giulia to Yugoslavia.

1950 Mark Spitz, American swimmer, was born.

Mark Spitz Jul 2008-2.jpg

1952 Lee Hsien Loong, Prime Minister of Singapore. was born.

1955  – Greg Norman, Australian golfer, was born.

Gerg Norman visit USS John F Kennedy.jpg

1962 Captured American spy pilot Gary Powers was exchanged for captured Soviet spy Rudolf Abel.

  

  • 1964 – The aircraft carrier HMAS Melbourne (R21) collided with the destroyer HMAS Voyager (D04) off the south coast of New South Wales.
  •  Animation showing the courses and positions of the two ships leading up to the collision

    1967 The provision of free milk in schools ended.

    End of free school milk

     The 25th Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified.

    1981A fire at the Las Vegas Hilton hotel-casino killed eight and injured 198.

    1982  Iafeta Paleaaesina, New Zealand rugby league player, was born.

    Feka Wigan.jpg

    1989 Ron Brown became the first African American to lead a major American political party when he was elected chairman of the Democratic National Committee.

    1996 The IBM supercomputer Deep Blue defeated Garry Kasparov for the first time.

      Garri kasparow 20070318.jpg

    2008 The 2008 Namdaemun fire severely damaged Namdaemun, the first National Treasure of South Korea.

     

    Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


    November 11

    November 11, 2009

    On November 11:

    1634  Following pressure from Anglican bishop John Atherton, the Irish House of Commons passes “An Act for the Punishment for the Vice of Buggery“.

    1675: Gottfried Leibniz demonstrated integral calculus for the first time to find the area under the graph of y = ƒ(x).

    1880 Australian Bushranger Ned Kelly was hanged at Melbourne Gaol.

     

     

    1918 World War I ended when Germany signed an armistice agreement with the Allies in a railroad car outside Compiègne in France. The war officially stopped at 11:00 (The eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month).

     Armistice Day celebrations in Auckland were postponed in an attempt to prevent the spread of influenza but the rest of the coutnry celebrated.

    1918 Poland regained its independence.

    1922  Kurt Vonnegut, American novelist, was born.

    1924 Prime Minister Alexandros Papanastasiou proclaimed the first Greek Republic.

    1926  U.S. Route 66 was established.

    U.S. Route 66 shield

    1928  Carlos Fuentes, Mexican writer, was born.

    1930 Patent number US1781541 was awarded to Albert Einstein and Leó Szilárd for their invention, the Einstein refrigerator.

     

    1942 The troop ship Awatea was sunk and all on board but the ship’s cat escaped alive.

    1945 Daniel Ortega, President of Nicaragua, was born.

    1962 – Demi Moore, American actress, was born.

    1965  In Rhodesia (modern-day Zimbabwe), the white-minority government of Ian Smith unilaterally declard independence.

    Flag Coat of arms

    1968  A second republic was declared in the Maldives.

    1974 Leonardo DiCaprio, American actor, was born.

    1975  Australian constitutional crisis of 1975: Australian Governor-General Sir John Kerr dismissed the government of Gough Whitlam and commissions Malcolm Fraser as caretaker Prime Minister.

     

    Gough Whitlam speaking on the steps of Parliament House, Canberra, following his dismissal.
    1978  Lou Vincent, New Zealand cricketer, was born.
    1992 The Church of England in Britain voted to allow the ordination of women priests.
    2006  The New Zealand war memorial monument was unveiled by Queen Elizabeth II in London,  commemorating the loss of soldiers from the New Zealand Army and the British Army.
     
    Sourced from BBC On This Day, NZ History Online & Wikipedia.

    November 6 in history

    November 6, 2009

    On November 6:

    1528  Shipwrecked Spanish conquistador Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca became the first known European to set foot in Texas.

    1851  Charles Dow, American journalist and economist, was born.

    Charles Henry Dow.jpg 

    1856  The first work of fiction by George Eliot was submitted for publication.

    1861  James Naismith, Canadian inventor of basketball, was born.

    1893  Edsel Ford, president of Ford Motor Company, was born.

     

    1908 Prime Minister Sir Joseph Ward ceremonially opened the North Island main trunk railway line by driving home a final polished silver spike at Manganuioteao, between National Park and Ohakune.

    1913  Mohandas Gandhi was arrested while leading a march of Indian miners in South Africa.

    1917 Third Battle of Ypres ended: After three months of fierce fighting, Canadian forces took Passchendaele in Belgium.

    Australian gunners in Château Wood near Hooge, 29 October 1917.

    1918 The Second Polish Republic was proclaimed.

    Flag Coat of arms

     1935 First flight of the Hawker Hurricane.

    1944  Plutonium was first produced at the Hanford Atomic Facility.

    Light-gray standing cylinder. Its top slice has been cut off and slightly shifted aside exposing a darker inside

     1946  Sally Field, American actress, was born.

    1947  George Young, Australian musician fromAC/DC, was born.

    1949 Nigel Havers, English actor, was born.

    1962 The United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution condemning South Africa’s racist apartheid policies and called for all UN member states to cease military and economic relations with the nation.

    1970  Ethan Hawke, American actor, was born.

    A caucasian male with dark slick hair, wearing a two-piece grey suit, with a white shirt and black tie.

    1975  Green March began: 300,000 unarmed Moroccans converged on the southern city of Tarfaya and waited for a signal from King Hassan II of Morocco to cross into Western Sahara.

     

    A 100 dirham note from 1991 commemorating the Green March.
     
     Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia.

    November 3 in history

    November 3, 2009

    1493 Christopher Columbus first sighted the island of Dominica in the Caribbean Sea.

    1783 John Austin, a highwayman, was the last person to be publicly hanged at London’s Tyburn gallows.

    1801  Karl Baedeker, German author and publisher, was born.

    1817 The Bank of Montreal, Canada’s oldest chartered bank, opened.

    File:Bank of Montreal Logo.svg

    1838  The Times of India, the world’s largest circulated English language  daily broadsheetnewspaper was founded as The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce.

    1886 Anchor butter was launched from a dairy factory at Pukekura, Waikato,  by Henry Reynolds.

    1887 Coimbra Academic Association, the oldest students’ union in Portugal, was founded.

     

    1903 Panama proclaimed its independence from Colombia.

    1911 Chevrolet officially entered the automobile market in competition with the Ford Model T.

    Chevrolet Logo

    1918  Poland declared its independence from Russia.

    1941  Brian Poole, English musician of The Tremeloes, was born.

    1942 Second Battle of El Alamein ended– German forces under Erwin Rommel were forced to retreat during the night.

    1948 – Lulu, Scottish actress and singer, was born.

    1952 Roseanne Barr, American actress and comedian, was born.

    1954 Adam Ant, English singer, was born.

    1957 The Soviet Union launched Sputnik 2. On board is the first animal to enter orbit a dog named Laika.

    1973 NASA launched the Mariner 10 toward Mercury.

    The Mariner 10 probe

    1974 Daylight saving was reintroduced to New Zealand on a trial basis.

    1978  Dominica gained its independence from the United Kingdom.

    1986 The Federated States of Micronesia gain independence from the United States of America.

    Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia.


    Atrocities from all sides

    January 13, 2009

    Construction workers in Poland have uncovered a mass grave  believed to be of 1800 German civilians who disappeared during the Soviet Army’s march to Berlin.

    That reminded me of a story my father told. He served in the 20th battalion in Egypt and was part of a group who took some German POWs. They were handed over to Polish troops and never seen again.


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