October 15 in history

15/10/2018

70 BC  Virgil, Roman poet, was born (d. 19 BC).

533  Byzantine general Belisarius made his formal entry into Carthage, having conquered it from the Vandals.

1582 Pope Gregory XIII implemented the Gregorian calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year was followed directly by October 15.

1701 – Marie-Marguerite d’Youville, Canadian nun and saint, founded Grey Nuns, was born (d. 1771).

1764 Edward Gibbon observed a group of friars singing in the ruined Temple of Jupiter in Rome, which inspired him to begin work on The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

1783 The Montgolfier brothers‘ hot air balloon marked the first human ascent, by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, (tethered balloon).

1793 Queen Marie-Antoinette was tried and condemned in a swift, pre-determined trial.

1814  – Mikhail Lermontov, Russian author, poet, and painter, was born (d. 1841).

1815 Napoleon I of France began his exile on Saint Helena.

1836 – James Tissot, French painter and illustrator, was born (d. 1902).

1844 Friedrich Nietzsche, German philosopher, was born (d. 1900).

1863  American Civil War: The H. L. Hunleythe first submarine to sink a ship, sank during a test, killing its inventor, Horace L. Hunley.

1864  American Civil War: The Battle of Glasgow was fought, resulting in the surrender of Glasgow, Missouri and its Union garrison, to the Confederacy.

1877 Sir Geroge Grey, former Governor, became Premier of New Zealand.

Former Governor Grey becomes Premier

1878  The Edison Electric Light Company began operation.

1880  Mexican soldiers killed Victorio, one of the greatest Apache military strategists.

1881 P. G. Wodehouse, British novelist, was born (d. 1975).

1888 The “From Hell” letter sent by Jack the Ripper was received by the investigators.

1894  Alfred Dreyfus was arrested for spying.

1905  – C. P. Snow, English chemist and author, was born (d. 1980).

1906 – Alicia Patterson, American journalist and publisher, co-founded Newsdaywas born (d. 1963).

1906 – Victoria Spivey, American singer-songwriter and pianist, was born (d. 1976).

1908 John Kenneth Galbraith, Canadian-born US economist, was born (d. 2006).

1917 World War I: Dutch dancer Mata Hari was executed by firing squad for spying for the German Empire.

1920 Mario Puzo, American novelist, was born (d. 1999).

1924 – Marguerite Andersen, German-Canadian author and educator, was born.

1924 Lee Iacocca, American industrialist, was born.

1926 – Ed McBain, American author and screenwriter (d. 2005), was born.

1928 The airship, the Graf Zeppelin completed its first trans-Atlantic flight.

1932 Tata Airlines (later to become Air India) made its first flight.

1934 The Soviet Republic of China collapsed when Chiang Kai-shek’s National Revolutionary Army successfully encircled Ruijin, forcing the fleeing Communists to begin the Long March.

1939 The New York Municipal Airport (later renamed La Guardia Airport) was dedicated.

1942 – Seventeen New Zealand coastwatchers and five civilians who had been captured in the Gilbert Islands were executed by the Japanese.

New Zealand coastwatchers executed by the Japanese

1944  The Arrow Cross Party took power in Hungary.

1945 World War II: The former premier of Vichy France Pierre Laval was shot by a firing squad for treason.

1946  Nuremberg Trials: Hermann Göring poisoned himself the night before his execution.

1948  – Chris de Burgh, Argentinian singer-songwriter and pianist.

1951  Mexican chemist Luis E. Miramontes conducted the very last step of the first synthesis of norethisterone, the progestin that would later be used in one of the first two oral contraceptives.

1953  British nuclear test Totem 1 detonated at Emu Field, South Australia.

1956  Fortran, the first modern computer language, was shared with the coding community for the first time.

1959 Sarah Ferguson, Duchess of York, was born.

1965 Vietnam War: The National Coordinating Committee to End the War in Vietnam stages the first public burning of a draft card in the United States to result in arrest under a new law.

1966  Black Panther Party was created by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale.

1970 Thirty-five construction workers were killed when a section of the new West Gate Bridge in Melbourne collapsed.

1970  Aeroflot Flight 244 was hijacked and diverted to Turkey.

1971 The start of the 2500-year celebration of Iran, celebrating the birth of Persia.

1979  Black Monday in Malta. The Building of the Times of Malta, the residence of the opposition leader Eddie Fenech Adami and several Nationalist Party clubs were ransacked and destroyed by supporters of the Malta Labour Party.

1987  The Great Storm of 1987 hit France and England.

1990  Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to lessen Cold War tensions and open up his nation.

1997  The first supersonic land speed record was set by Andy GreeninThrustSSC.

1997  The Cassini probe launched from Cape Canaveral on its way to Saturn.

2003  China launched Shenzhou 5, its first manned space mission.

2003 The Staten Island Ferry boat Andrew J. Barberi ran into a pier at the St. George Ferry Terminal, killing 11 people and injuring 43.

2007  Seventeen activists were arrested in the Ureweara in New Zealand’s first anti-terrorism raids.

'Anti-terror' raids in Urewera

2008 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed down 733.08 points, or 7.87%, the second worst day in the Dow’s history based on a percentage drop.

2011 – Global protests broke out in 951 cities in 82 countries.

2102 British Prime Minister David Cameron and Scottish First Minister Alex Salmond agreed on a deal setting out the terms of a referendum on Scottish independence at a meeting in Edinburgh.

2013 – A 7.2-magnitude earthquake struck the Philippines, resulting in more than 215 deaths.

2016 – One hundred and fifty nations meet at the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) summit in Rwanda and agree to phase out hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) as an amendment to the Montreal Protocol

Sourced from NZ History Online and Wikipedia


October 15 in history

15/10/2017

70 BC  Virgil, Roman poet, was born (d. 19 BC).

533  Byzantine general Belisarius made his formal entry into Carthage, having conquered it from the Vandals.

1582 Pope Gregory XIII implemented the Gregorian calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year was followed directly by October 15.

1701 – Marie-Marguerite d’Youville, Canadian nun and saint, founded Grey Nuns, was born (d. 1771).

1764 Edward Gibbon observed a group of friars singing in the ruined Temple of Jupiter in Rome, which inspired him to begin work on The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

1783 The Montgolfier brothers‘ hot air balloon marked the first human ascent, by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, (tethered balloon).

1793 Queen Marie-Antoinette was tried and condemned in a swift, pre-determined trial.

1814  – Mikhail Lermontov, Russian author, poet, and painter, was born (d. 1841).

1815 Napoleon I of France began his exile on Saint Helena.

1836 – James Tissot, French painter and illustrator, was born (d. 1902).

1844 Friedrich Nietzsche, German philosopher, was born (d. 1900).

1863  American Civil War: The H. L. Hunleythe first submarine to sink a ship, sank during a test, killing its inventor, Horace L. Hunley.

1864  American Civil War: The Battle of Glasgow was fought, resulting in the surrender of Glasgow, Missouri and its Union garrison, to the Confederacy.

1877 Sir Geroge Grey, former Governor, became Premier of New Zealand.

Former Governor Grey becomes Premier

1878  The Edison Electric Light Company began operation.

1880  Mexican soldiers killed Victorio, one of the greatest Apache military strategists.

1881 P. G. Wodehouse, British novelist, was born (d. 1975).

1888 The “From Hell” letter sent by Jack the Ripper was received by the investigators.

1894  Alfred Dreyfus was arrested for spying.

1905  – C. P. Snow, English chemist and author, was born (d. 1980).

1906 – Alicia Patterson, American journalist and publisher, co-founded Newsdaywas born (d. 1963).

1906 – Victoria Spivey, American singer-songwriter and pianist, was born (d. 1976).

1908 John Kenneth Galbraith, Canadian-born US economist, was born (d. 2006).

1917 World War I: Dutch dancer Mata Hari was executed by firing squad for spying for the German Empire.

1920 Mario Puzo, American novelist, was born (d. 1999).

1924 – Marguerite Andersen, German-Canadian author and educator, was born.

1924 Lee Iacocca, American industrialist, was born.

1926 – Ed McBain, American author and screenwriter (d. 2005), was born.

1928 The airship, the Graf Zeppelin completed its first trans-Atlantic flight.

1932 Tata Airlines (later to become Air India) made its first flight.

1934 The Soviet Republic of China collapsed when Chiang Kai-shek’s National Revolutionary Army successfully encircled Ruijin, forcing the fleeing Communists to begin the Long March.

1939 The New York Municipal Airport (later renamed La Guardia Airport) was dedicated.

1942 – Seventeen New Zealand coastwatchers and five civilians who had been captured in the Gilbert Islands were executed by the Japanese.

New Zealand coastwatchers executed by the Japanese

1944  The Arrow Cross Party took power in Hungary.

1945 World War II: The former premier of Vichy France Pierre Laval was shot by a firing squad for treason.

1946  Nuremberg Trials: Hermann Göring poisoned himself the night before his execution.

1948  – Chris de Burgh, Argentinian singer-songwriter and pianist.

1951  Mexican chemist Luis E. Miramontes conducted the very last step of the first synthesis of norethisterone, the progestin that would later be used in one of the first two oral contraceptives.

1953  British nuclear test Totem 1 detonated at Emu Field, South Australia.

1956  Fortran, the first modern computer language, was shared with the coding community for the first time.

1959 Sarah Ferguson, Duchess of York, was born.

1965 Vietnam War: The National Coordinating Committee to End the War in Vietnam stages the first public burning of a draft card in the United States to result in arrest under a new law.

1966  Black Panther Party was created by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale.

1970 Thirty-five construction workers were killed when a section of the new West Gate Bridge in Melbourne collapsed.

1970  Aeroflot Flight 244 was hijacked and diverted to Turkey.

1971 The start of the 2500-year celebration of Iran, celebrating the birth of Persia.

1979  Black Monday in Malta. The Building of the Times of Malta, the residence of the opposition leader Eddie Fenech Adami and several Nationalist Party clubs were ransacked and destroyed by supporters of the Malta Labour Party.

1987  The Great Storm of 1987 hit France and England.

1990  Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to lessen Cold War tensions and open up his nation.

1997  The first supersonic land speed record was set by Andy GreeninThrustSSC.

1997  The Cassini probe launched from Cape Canaveral on its way to Saturn.

2003  China launched Shenzhou 5, its first manned space mission.

2003 The Staten Island Ferry boat Andrew J. Barberi ran into a pier at the St. George Ferry Terminal, killing 11 people and injuring 43.

2007  Seventeen activists were arrested in the Ureweara in New Zealand’s first anti-terrorism raids.

'Anti-terror' raids in Urewera

2008 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed down 733.08 points, or 7.87%, the second worst day in the Dow’s history based on a percentage drop.

2011 – Global protests broke out in 951 cities in 82 countries.

2102 British Prime Minister David Cameron and Scottish First Minister Alex Salmond agreed on a deal setting out the terms of a referendum on Scottish independence at a meeting in Edinburgh.

2013 – A 7.2-magnitude earthquake struck the Philippines, resulting in more than 215 deaths.

Sourced from NZ History Online and Wikipedia


October 15 in history

15/10/2016

70 BC  Virgil, Roman poet, was born (d. 19 BC).

533  Byzantine general Belisarius made his formal entry into Carthage, having conquered it from the Vandals.

1582 Pope Gregory XIII implemented the Gregorian calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year was followed directly by October 15.

1701 – Marie-Marguerite d’Youville, Canadian nun and saint, founded Grey Nuns, was born (d. 1771).

1764 Edward Gibbon observed a group of friars singing in the ruined Temple of Jupiter in Rome, which inspired him to begin work on The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

1783 The Montgolfier brothers‘ hot air balloon marked the first human ascent, by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, (tethered balloon).

1793 Queen Marie-Antoinette was tried and condemned in a swift, pre-determined trial.

1814  – Mikhail Lermontov, Russian author, poet, and painter, was born (d. 1841).

1815 Napoleon I of France began his exile on Saint Helena.

1836 – James Tissot, French painter and illustrator, was born (d. 1902).

1844 Friedrich Nietzsche, German philosopher, was born (d. 1900).

1863  American Civil War: The H. L. Hunley, the first submarine to sink a ship, sank during a test, killing its inventor, Horace L. Hunley.

1864  American Civil War: The Battle of Glasgow was fought, resulting in the surrender of Glasgow, Missouri and its Union garrison, to the Confederacy.

1877 Sir Geroge Grey, former Governor, became Premier of New Zealand.

Former Governor Grey becomes Premier

1878  The Edison Electric Light Company began operation.

1880  Mexican soldiers killed Victorio, one of the greatest Apache military strategists.

1881 P. G. Wodehouse, British novelist, was born (d. 1975).

1888 The “From Hell” letter sent by Jack the Ripper was received by the investigators.

1894  Alfred Dreyfus was arrested for spying.

1905  – C. P. Snow, English chemist and author, was born (d. 1980).

1906 – Alicia Patterson, American journalist and publisher, co-founded Newsday, was born (d. 1963).

1906 – Victoria Spivey, American singer-songwriter and pianist, was born (d. 1976).

1908 John Kenneth Galbraith, Canadian-born US economist, was born (d. 2006).

1917 World War I: Dutch dancer Mata Hari was executed by firing squad for spying for the German Empire.

1920 Mario Puzo, American novelist, was born (d. 1999).

1924 – Marguerite Andersen, German-Canadian author and educator, was born.

1924 Lee Iacocca, American industrialist, was born.

1926 – Ed McBain, American author and screenwriter (d. 2005), was born.

1928 The airship, the Graf Zeppelin completed its first trans-Atlantic flight.

1932 Tata Airlines (later to become Air India) made its first flight.

1934 The Soviet Republic of China collapsed when Chiang Kai-shek’s National Revolutionary Army successfully encircled Ruijin, forcing the fleeing Communists to begin the Long March.

1939 The New York Municipal Airport (later renamed La Guardia Airport) was dedicated.

1942 – Seventeen New Zealand coastwatchers and five civilians who had been captured in the Gilbert Islands were executed by the Japanese.

NZ coastwatchers executed by the Japanese

1944  The Arrow Cross Party took power in Hungary.

1945 World War II: The former premier of Vichy France Pierre Laval was shot by a firing squad for treason.

1946  Nuremberg Trials: Hermann Göring poisoned himself the night before his execution.

1948  – Chris de Burgh, Argentinian singer-songwriter and pianist.

1951  Mexican chemist Luis E. Miramontes conducted the very last step of the first synthesis of norethisterone, the progestin that would later be used in one of the first two oral contraceptives.

1953  British nuclear test Totem 1 detonated at Emu Field, South Australia.

1956  Fortran, the first modern computer language, was shared with the coding community for the first time.

1959 Sarah Ferguson, Duchess of York, was born.

1965 Vietnam War: The National Coordinating Committee to End the War in Vietnam stages the first public burning of a draft card in the United States to result in arrest under a new law.

1966  Black Panther Party was created by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale.

1970 Thirty-five construction workers were killed when a section of the new West Gate Bridge in Melbourne collapsed.

1970  Aeroflot Flight 244 was hijacked and diverted to Turkey.

1971 The start of the 2500-year celebration of Iran, celebrating the birth of Persia.

1979  Black Monday in Malta. The Building of the Times of Malta, the residence of the opposition leader Eddie Fenech Adami and several Nationalist Party clubs were ransacked and destroyed by supporters of the Malta Labour Party.

1987  The Great Storm of 1987 hit France and England.

1990  Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to lessen Cold War tensions and open up his nation.

1997  The first supersonic land speed record was set by Andy GreeninThrustSSC.

1997  The Cassini probe launched from Cape Canaveral on its way to Saturn.

2003  China launched Shenzhou 5, its first manned space mission.

2003 The Staten Island Ferry boat Andrew J. Barberi ran into a pier at the St. George Ferry Terminal, killing 11 people and injuring 43.

2007  Seventeen activists were arrested in the Ureweara in New Zealand’s first anti-terrorism raids.

'Anti-terror' raids in Urewera

2008 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed down 733.08 points, or 7.87%, the second worst day in the Dow’s history based on a percentage drop.

2011 – Global protests broke out in 951 cities in 82 countries.

2102 British Prime Minister David Cameron and Scottish First Minister Alex Salmond agreed on a deal setting out the terms of a referendum on Scottish independence at a meeting in Edinburgh.

2013 – A 7.2-magnitude earthquake struck the Philippines, resulting in more than 215 deaths.

Sourced from NZ History Online and Wikipedia


February 16 in history

16/02/2010

On February 16:

1032 Emperor Yingzong of China, was born.

Yingzong.jpg

1646  Battle of Great Torrington, Devon – the last major battle of the first English Civil War.

Burton, William Shakespeare- The Wounded Cavalier.jpg An allegory of the English Civil War by William Shakespeare Burton. It depicts a Cavalier lying on the ground wounded, while a Puritan in black stands in the background.

1770 Captain James Cook sighted what he called Banks Island but later discovered is was a peninsula.

James Cook sights Banks 'Island'

 1804  First Barbary War: Stephen Decatur led a raid to burn the pirate-held frigate USS Philadelphia (1799).

Burning of the uss philadelphia.jpg

1838 Weenen Massacre: Hundreds of Voortrekkers along the Blaukraans River, Natal were killed by Zulus.

1852 Studebaker Brothers wagon company, precursor of the automobile manufacturer, is established.

 The Studebaker brothers

1859 The French Government passed a law to set the A-note above middle C to a frequency of 435 Hz, in an attempt to standardize the pitch.

1899 President Félix Faure of France died in office.

1899 – Knattspyrnufélag Reykjavíkur Iceland‘s first football club was founded.

KR Reykjavík.png

1918 The Council of Lithuania unanimously adopted the Act of Independence, declaring Lithuania an independent state.

1923 Howard Carter unsealed the burial chamber of Pharoh Tutankhamun.

1926 Margot Frank, German-born Dutch Jewish holocaust victim, was born.

1934Austrian Civil War ended with the defeat of the Social Democrats and the Republican Schutzbund.

1934 – Commission of Government was sworn in as form of direct rule for the Dominion of Newfoundland.

1936 – Elections brought the Popular Front to power in Spain.

1937Wallace H. Carothers received a patent for nylon.

Nylon 6,6 unit

1940 Altmark Incident: The German tanker Altmark is boarded by sailors from the British destroyer HMS Cossack. 299 British prisoners were freed.

Altmark Incident.jpg

1941  –Kim Jong-il, North Korean leader, was born.

1947 Canadians granted Canadian citizenship after 80 years of being British subjects. Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King became the first Canadian citizen.

1954 – Iain Banks, Scottish author, was born.

1956 Vincent Ward, New Zealand director and screenwriter, was born.

1957 The “Toddlers’ Truce“, a controversial television close down between 6.00pm and 7.00pm was abolished in the United Kingdom.

1959 John McEnroe, American tennis player, was born.

John McEnroe by David Shankbone.jpg

1959 Fidel Castro becomes Premier of Cuba after dictator Fulgencio Batista was overthrown on January 1.

1960 Pete Willis, English guitarist (Def Leppard), was born.

1961 Andy Taylor, English musician (Duran Duran, The Power Station), was born.

 

1961Explorer program: Explorer 9 (S-56a) was launched.

1968 – In Haleyville, Alabama, the first 9-1-1 emergency telephone system goes into service.

1973  Cathy Freeman, Australian athlete, was born.

1978 – The first computer bulletin board system was created (CBBS in Chicago, Illinois).

 Ward Christensen and the computer that ran the first public Bulletin Board System, CBBS

1983 – The Ash Wednesday bushfires in Victoria and South Australia claimed the lives of 75 people.

Ash Wednesday bushfires

1985 – The founding of Hezbollah.

Hezbollah emblem

1986 – The Soviet liner Mikhail Lermontov ran aground in the Marlborough Sounds.

Mikhail lermontov 1972.jpg

1987 – The trial of John Demjanjuk, accused of being a Nazi guard dubbed “Ivan the Terrible” in Treblinka extermination camp, starts in Jerusalem.

1991Nicaraguan Contras leader Enrique Bermúdez is assassinated in Managua.

1999 – Across Europe Kurdish rebels took over embassies and hold hostages after Turkey arrested one of their rebel leaders, Abdullah Öcalan.

PKK.svg

2005 – The Kyoto Protocol came into force, following its ratification by Russia.

 Participation in the Kyoto Protocol, as of June 2009, where green indicates the countries that have signed and ratified the treaty, grey is not yet decided and red is no intention to ratify.

2005 – The National Hockey League cancelled the entire 2004-2005 regular season and playoffs, becoming the first major sports league in North America to do so over a labor dispute.

05 NHL Shield.svg

2006 – The last Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) was decommissioned by the United States Army.

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


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