April 5 in history

April 5, 2010

On April 5:

456  St. Patrick returned to Ireland as a missionary bishop.

 

1242 During a battle of the ice of Lake Peipus, Russian forces, led by Alexander Nevsky, rebuffed an invasion attempt by the Teutonic Knights.

 Depiction in the illuminated manuscript Life of Alexander Nevsky.

1254  Willen van Rubroeck, a Flemish Franciscan, meets the Mongolian Khan Möngke

1566 Two-hundred Dutch noblemen, led by Hendrik van Brederode, forced themselves into the presence of Margaret of Parma and present the Petition of Compromise, denouncing the Spanish Inquisition in the Netherlands.

1609Daimyo (Lord) of the Satsuma Domain in southern Kyūshū, Japan, completed his successful invasion of the Ryūkyū Kingdom in Okinawa.

1614 Pocahontas married English colonist John Rolfe.

 

1621 The Mayflower set sail from Plymouth, Massachusetts on a return trip to Great Britain.

MayflowerHarbor.jpg

1649  Elihu Yale, American benefactor of Yale University, was born.

1722 The Dutch explorer Jacob Roggeveen discovered Easter Island.

1792  U.S. President George Washington exercised his authority to veto a bill, the first time this power is used in the United States.

1804 High Possil Meteorite: The first recorded meteorite in Scotland fell in Possil.

1818 In the Battle of Maipú, Chile’s independence movement – led by Bernardo O’Higgins and José de San Martín – won a decisive victory over Spain, leaving 2,000 Spaniards and 1,000 Chilean patriots dead.

Battle of Maipu.jpg

1827 Joseph Lister, English surgeon (, was born.

1837 Algernon Charles Swinburne, English poet, was born.

 

1862 American Civil War: The Battle of Yorktown started.

 

1874 Birkenhead Park, the first civic public park,opened in Birkenhead.

1879  Chile declared war on Bolivia and Peru, starting the War of the Pacific.

Wotp.en.svg

1897  The Greco-Turkish War, also called “Thirty Days’ War”, was declared between Greece and the Ottoman Empire.

1900 Spencer Tracy, American actor, was born.

1904 The first international rugby league match was played between England and an Other Nationalities team (Welsh & Scottish players) in Central Park, Wigan.

1908 Bette Davis, American actress, was boprn.

 

1916 Gregory Peck, American actor, was born.

1920 Arthur Hailey, American writer, was born.

Airport Hailey 1968.jpg

1923 Firestone Tire and Rubber Company began production of balloon-tyres.

 

1928 Tony Williams, American singer (The Platters), was born.

1929 Nigel Hawthorne, British actor, was born.

1930  In an act of civil disobedience, Mohandas Gandhi broke British law after marching to the sea and making salt.

1932 Champion race horse Phar Lap died.

Death of Phar Lap

  1932  Alcohol prohibition in Finland ended. Alcohol sales begin in Alko liquor stores.

Alko logo.png

1932 – Dominion of Newfoundland: 10,000 rioters seized the Colonial Building leading to the end of self-government.

 

1933  U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 6102 “forbidding the Hoarding of Gold Coin, Gold Bullion, and Gold Certificates” by U.S. citizens.

1936 Tupelo-Gainesville tornado outbreak: An F5 tornado killed 233 in Tupelo, Mississippi.

1937 Colin Powell, U.S. Army General, 12th Chairman of the Joint Cheifs of Staff; and 65th Secretary of State, was born.

1937 Allan R. Thieme, American inventor, was born.

 

1942 World War II: The Japanese Navy attacked Colombo. Royal Navy Cruisers HMS Cornwall and HMS Dorsetshire were sunk southwest of the island.

 

1944 World War II: 270 inhabitants of the Greek town of Kleisoura were executed by the Germans.

1945 Cold War: Yugoslav leader Josip “Tito” Broz signed an agreement with the USSR to allow “temporary entry of Soviet troops into Yugoslav territory.”

1946 Jane Asher, British actress, was born.

 

1946 Soviet troops left the Danish  island of Bornholm after an 11 month occupation.

1949 Fireside Theater debuted on television.

1949 – A fire in a hospital in Effingham, Illinois, killed 77 people and leads to nationwide fire code improvements in the United States.

1950 Agnetha Fältskog, Swedish singer (ABBA), was born.

1955 Winston Churchill resigned as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom amid indications of failing health.

 

1956 Fidel Castro declared himself at war with the President of Cuba.

 

1956  In Sri Lanka, the Mahajana Eksath Peramuna won the general elections in a landslide and S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike was sworn in as the Prime Minister.

1957 In India, Communists won the first elections in united Kerala and E.M.S. Namboodiripad was sworn in as the first chief minister.

1958 Ripple Rock, an underwater threat to navigation in the Seymour Narrows in Canada was destroyed in one of the largest non-nuclear controlled explosions of the time.

1966 Mike McCready, American musician (Pearl Jam), was born.

1969 Vietnam War: Massive antiwar demonstrations occured in many U.S. cities.

1971 In Sri Lanka, Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna launched insurrection against the United Front government of Mrs Sirimavo Bandaranaike.

1976 The April Fifth Movement led to the Tiananmen incident.

1986 Three people were killed in the bombing of the La Belle Discothèque in West Berlin.

1991 An ASA EMB 120 crashed in Brunswick, Georgia, killing all 23 aboard.

1992 Several hundred-thousand abortion rights demonstrators marched in Washington, D.C.

1992 Alberto Fujimori,  president of Peru, dissolvesd the Peruvian congress by military force.

1992 The Siege of Sarajevo began when Serb paramilitaries murder peace protesters Suada Dilberovic and Olga Sucic on the Vrbanja Bridge.

Evstafiev-sarajevo-building-burns.jpg

1998 The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge linking Shikoku with Honshū and costing about $3.8 billion, opened to traffic, becoming the largest suspension bridge in the world.

1999 Two Libyans suspected of bringing down Pan Am flight 103 in 1988 were handed over for eventual trial in the Netherlands.

2009 North Korea launched its controversial Kwangmyŏngsŏng-2 rocket.

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


December 21 in history

December 21, 2009

On December 21:

1118  Thomas Becket, Lord Chancellor of England and Archbishop of Canterbury was born.

1598  Battle of Curalaba: The revolting Mapuche, led by cacique Pelentaru, inflicted a major defeat on Spanish troops in southern Chile.

1620 William Bradford and the Mayflower Pilgrims landed on what is now known as Plymouth Rock in Plymouth, Massachusetts.

 The Landing of the Pilgrims., by Henry A. Bacon, 1877

1682 Calico Jack Rackham, English pirate, was born.

Rackham,Jack.JPG

1804  Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, was born.

 

1815  Thomas Couture French painter and teacher, was born.

1843 Thomas Bracken, Irish-born New Zealand, was born.

1844 – The Rochdale Pioneers commenced business at their cooperative in Rochdale, England, starting the Cooperative movement.

1861  Medal of Honor: Public Resolution 82, containing a provision for a Navy Medal of Valor, was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln.

1872  HMS Challenger, commanded by Captain George Nares, sailed from Portsmouth.

HMS Challenger Painting of Challenger by William Frederick Mitchell

1883 The first Permanent Force cavalry and infantry regiments of the Canadian Army were formed: The Royal Canadian Dragoons and The Royal Canadian Regiment.

RCD cap badge.jpg Royalcanadianregt.jpg

1892  Rebecca West, British writer, was born.

Portrait of Rebecca West

1905  Anthony Powell, British author, was born.

1913 Arthur Wynne‘s “word-cross”, the first crossword puzzle, was published in the New York World.

1917  Heinrich Böll, German writer and Nobel laureate, was born.

1937 – Jane Fonda, American actress, was born.

1937  Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the first full-length animated film, premiered at the Carthay Circle Theater.

1946 Carl Wilson, American musician (The Beach Boys), was born.

1958 Charles de Gaulle was elected President of France when his Union des Démocrates pour la République party gained 78.5% of the vote.

  • 1962Rondane National Park was established as Norway‘s first national park.
  • 1964 More than 170 years of New Zealand whaling history came to a close when J. A. Perano and Company caught its last whale off the coast near Kaikoura.

    NZ whalers harpoon their last victim

    1967  Louis Washkansky, the first man to undergo a heart transplant, died 18 days after the transplant.

    1968 Apollo 8, the first manned mission to the moon, was launched from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. At 2h:50m:37s Mission elapsed time (MES), the crew performed the first ever manned Trans Lunar Injection and became the first humans to leave Earth’s gravity.

    Apollo-8-patch.png

    1971 New Zealand Railways (NZR) launched a new tourist-oriented steam passenger venture, the Kingston Flyer.

    Full steam ahead for Kingston Flyer

    1979 Lancaster House Agreement: An independence agreement for Rhodesia was signed in London by Lord Carrington, Sir Ian Gilmour, Robert Mugabe, Joshua Nkomo, Bishop Abel Muzorewa and S.C. Mundawarara.

     Bishop Abel Muzorewa signing the Lancaster House Agreement seated next to British Foreign Secretary Lord Carrington.

    1988  A bomb exploded on board Pan Am flight 103 over Lockerbie, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, killing 270.

     Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia.


    December 18 in history

    December 18, 2009

    On December 18:

    1271  Kublai Khan renamed his empire “Yuan” (元 yuán), officially marking the start of the Yuan Dynasty of Mongolia and China.

    YuanEmperorAlbumKhubilaiPortrait.jpg

  • 1620 – The Mayflower landed in present-day Plymouth, Massachusetts with 102 Pilgrims on board.
  • MayflowerHarbor.jpgMayflower in Plymouth Harbor by William Halsall (1882)

    1642  Abel Tasman and his men had the first known European encounter with Maori.

    First contact between Maori and Europeans

    1707 Charles Wesley, English Methodist hymnist, was born.

    1777 The United States celebrated its first Thanksgiving, marking the recent victory by the Americans over General John Burgoyne in the Battle of Saratoga in October.

    Thanksgiving

    1778 Joseph Grimaldi, English clown, was born.

    1849 Henrietta Edwards, Canadian women’s rights activist, was born.

    1863 Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria, was born.


    1878 Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union, was born.

    1888Richard Wetherill and his brother in-law discovered the ancient Indian ruins of Mesa Verde.

     
     

    Cliff Palace

    1890  Edwin Armstrong, American inventor (FM radio) was born.


    1898  Gaston de Chasseloup-Laubat set the new land speed record going 39.245 mph (63.159 km/h), in a Jeantaud electric car. This is the first recognized land speed record.

    1900 The Upper Ferntree Gully to Gembrook Narrow-gauge (2 ft 6 in or 762 mm) Railway (now the Puffing Billy Railway) in Victoria, Australia opened.

     The Monbulk Creek Trestle Bridge.

    1905 – Irving Kahn, American financial analyst and investor, was born.

    1908  Celia Johnson, English actress, was born.

    1910 – Eric Tindill, New Zealand cricketer and rugby player, was born.

    1912 The Piltdown Man, later discovered to be a hoax, was found in the Piltdown Gravel Pit, by Charles Dawson.

     

    1913 Willy Brandt, Chancellor of Germany, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, was born.

    1916  Betty Grable, American actress, was born.

    1935  Jacques Pépin, French chef, was born.

    Jacques Pépin 2006.JPG

    1938 Chas Chandler, English musician (The Animals), was born.


    1943  Keith Richards, English guitarist (The Rolling Stones), was born.

     

    1946  Steve Biko, South African anti-apartheid activist, was born.

     

    1946 – Steven Spielberg, American film director, was born.

     

    1963 Brad Pitt, American actor, was born.

    A Caucasian male in his mid-40s with brown hair. He is wearing a black suit and white shirt with a black bow-tie.

    1966 Saturn‘s moon Epimetheus is discovered by Richard L. Walker.

    The planet Saturn

    1969  Home Secretary James Callaghan‘s motion to make permanent the Murder (Abolition of Death Penalty) Act 1965, which had temporarily suspended capital punishment in England, Wales and Scotland for murder (but not for all crimes) for a period of five years, was carried by both the House of Commons and the House of Lords.

    1973 Soyuz 13, crewed by cosmonauts Valentin Lebedev and Pyotr Klimuk, was launched from Baikonur in the Soviet Union.

    1987  Larry Wall released the first version of the Perl programming language.

    1997  HTML 4.0 was published by the World Wide Web Consortium.

    1999 NASA launched into orbit the Terra platform carrying five Earth Observation instruments, including ASTER, CERES, MISR, MODIS and MOPITT.

    TERRA am1.jpg

    Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia.


    November 9 in history

    November 9, 2009

    On November 9:

    1494 The Family de’ Medici became rulers of Florence.

    Armorial of Medici

    1620 Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower sighted land at Cape Cod, Massachusetts.

    MayflowerHarbor.jpg

    1769 Captain Cook observed the transit of Mercury.

    1841 King Edward VII was born.

    1857  The Atlantic magazine was founded in Boston.

    1868  Marie Dressler, Canadian actress, was born.

    1887 The United States received rights to Pearl Harbour, Hawaii.

    1902  Anthony Asquith, British film director, was born.

    1917 Joseph Stalin entered the provisional government of the USSR.

    1918  Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany abdicated after the German Revolution, and Germany was proclaimed a Republic.

    1918  Spiro Agnew, 39th Vice President of the United States, was born.

    1920 White New Zealand policy  was introduced. The Immigration Restriction Amendment Act 1920 made it necessary for immigrants to apply for a permanent residence permit before they arrived in New Zealand.

    1921 Albert Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work with the photoelectric effect..

    1936 Mary Travers was born.

    1937  Roger McGough, English poet, was born.

    1953 Cambodia beccame independent from France.

    1955 – Karen Dotrice, British actress


    Karen Dotrice and Matthew Garber
    in a publicity photo for Mary Poppins

    1967 The First issue of Rolling Stone Magazine was published.

    1989  Fall of the Berlin Wall. Communist-controlled East Germany opened checkpoints in the Berlin Wall allowing its citizens to travel to West Germany. People started demolishing the Berlin Wall.

    View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the wall’s infamous “death strip”

    1994 The chemical element Darmstadtium was discovered.

    1998 Brokerage houses were ordered to pay 1.03 billion USD to cheated NASDAQ investors to compensate for their price-fixing.

    Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia.


    September 6 in history

    September 6, 2009

    On September 6:

    1522 The ship Victoria  returned to Sanlúcar de Barrameda in Spain and became the first ship to circumnavigate the world.

    Replica of the Victoria, built in 1992.
    1620 The Pilgrims set sail from Plymouth, England, on the Mayflower, to settle in North America.
    1870 Louisa Ann Swain became the first woman to legally cast a vote in the USA.
    1948 New Zealand citizenship was established by the British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act. Before it came into force, people born in New Zealand were British subjects but not New Zealand citizens.
    1963 USA author Alice Sebold was born.
    1968  Swaziland became independent.

    Sourced from Wikipedia & NZ History Online.


    August 5 in history

    August 5, 2009

    On August 5:

    1305 William Wallace who led the Scottish resistance to English rule was arrested

    Sir William Wallace

    1620 The Mayflower  left Southampton on its first attempt to reach North America.


    Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor by William Halsall (1882

    1962 Nelson Mandela was jailed.

    1988 The Cartwright report was released, condemning the “unfortunate experiment” for treating cervical cancer at National Women’s Hospital.

    Sourced from Wikipedia and NZ History Online.


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