April 13 in history

13/04/2010

On April 13:

1111 Henry V was crowned Holy Roman Emperor.

1250 The Seventh Crusade was defeated in Egypt, Louis IX of France was captured.

Seventh crusade.jpg

1256 – The Grand Union of the Augustinian order formed when Pope Alexander IV issues a papal bull Licet ecclesiae catholicae.

B Alexander IV.jpg

1570 Guy Fawkes, English Catholic conspirator, was born.

1598 Henry IV of France issued the Edict of Nantes, allowing freedom of religion to the Huguenots.

 

1742 George Frideric Handel’s oratorio Messiah made its world-premiere in Dublin.

1743 Thomas Jefferson, 3rd President of the United States, was born.

Jefferson portrait by Charles Willson Peale

1796 The first elephant ever seen in the United States arrived from India.

1808 Antonio Meucci, Italian inventor, was born.

1829 The British Parliament granted freedom of religion to Roman Catholics.

1849 Hungary became a republic.

1852 F.W. Woolworth, American businessman, was born.

1861 American Civil War:  Fort Sumter surrendered to Confederate forces.

 

1866 Butch Cassidy, American outlaw, was born.

 

1868  The Abyssinian War ended as British and Indian troops captured Magdala.

 

1870 The Metropolitan Museum of Art  was founded.

Facade of imposing building with Greek columns. Large colored banners hang from the building's top. A crowd of people is in front.

1873 The Colfax Massacre took place.

 

1892 Arthur Travers ‘Bomber’ Harris, British Air Force commander, was born.

Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Harris.jpg

1892 – Sir Robert Alexander Watson-Watt, Scottish inventor, was born.

 

1895 Sir Arthur Fadden, thirteenth Prime Minister of Australia, was born.

1896 The National Council of Women was formed in Christchurch.

NCW formed in Christchurch

1902– James C. Penney opened his first store in Kemmerer, Wyoming.

Jcpenny logoq.png

1902 Philippe de Rothschild, French race car driver and wine grower, was born.

 

1906 Samuel Beckett, Irish writer, Nobel laureate, was born.

 

1919 The Establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.

 

1919 Jallianwala Bagh massacre: British troops massacred at least 379 unarmed demonstrators in Amritsar, India. At least 1200 wounded.

 Jallianwala Bagh memorial

1919  Eugene V. Debs entered prison at the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary in Atlanta, Georgia for speaking out against the draft during World War I.

1920  Liam Cosgrave, fifth Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland, was born.

1921 Foundation of the Spanish Communist Workers’ Party.

1923 Don Adams, American actor and comedian, was born.

1931 Jon Stone, co-creator of Sesame Street, was born.

 

1939  In India, the Hindustani Lal Sena (Indian Red Army) was formed and vows to engage in armed struggle against the British.

1941 Pact of neutrality between the USSR and Japan was signed.

1943  World War II: The discovery of a mass grave of Polish prisoners of war executed by Soviet forces in the Katyń Forest Massacre is announced, alienating the Western Allies, the Polish government in exile in London, from the Soviet Union.

1943 James Boarman, Fred Hunter, Harold Brest and Floyd G. Hamilton took part in an attempt to escape from Alcatraz .

1943 The Jefferson Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C. on the 200th anniversary of Thomas Jefferson’ss birth.

1944 Diplomatic relations between New Zealand and the Soviet Union were established.

1945 Judy Nunn, Australian actress, was born.

1945 German troops killed more than 1,000 political and military prisoners in Gardelegen.

1945 Ninth American army crossesdThe Elbe River.

1948 The Hadassah medical convoy massacre: In an ambush, 79 Jewish doctors, nurses and medical students from Hadassah Hospital and a British soldier are massacred by Arabs in Sheikh Jarra near Jerusalem.

 

1949 Christopher Hitchens, English-born journalist, critic, and author, was born.

1953  CIA director Allen Dulles launched the mind-control program MKULTRA.

 

1956 Peter ‘Possum’ Bourne, New Zealand rally driver, was born.

 

1964 – At the Academy Awards, Sidney Poitier became the first African-American male to win the Best Actor award for Lilies of the Field.

1969 Closure of the Brisbane tramway network.

1970 An oxygen tank aboard Apollo 13 explodes, endangering the crew and causing major damage to the spacecraft en route to the Moon.

Apollo 13-insignia.png

1974 – Western Union (in cooperation with NASA and Hughes Aircraft) launches the United States’ first commercial geosynchronous communications satellite, Westar 1.

1975 Bus Massacre in Lebanon: Attack by the Phalangist resistance killed 26 militia members of the P.F.L. of Palestine, marking the start of the 15-year Lebanese Civil War.

 

1976 The United States Treasury Department reintroduced the two-dollar bill as a Federal Reserve Note on Thomas Jefferson’s 233rd birthday as part of the United States Bicentennial celebration.

 

1983 Harold Washington was elected as the first African-American mayor of Chicago.

1984 India moved into Siachen Glacier thus annexing more territory from the Line of Control.

1987 Portugal and the People’s Republic of China sign an agreement in which Macau would be returned to China in 1999.

1992 The Great Chicago Flood.

1997 Tiger Woods became the youngest golfer to win The Masters Tournament.

Tiger Woods drives by Allison.jpg

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia,


December 20 in history

20/12/2009

On December 20:

1192  Richard the Lion-Heart was captured and imprisoned by Leopold V of Austria on his way home to England after signing a treaty with Saladin ending the Third crusade.

  • 1522Suleiman the Magnificent accepted the surrender of the surviving Knights of Rhodes, who were allowed to evacuate. They eventually settled on Malta and became known as the Knights of Malta.
  •  

     
  • 1803 – The Louisiana Purchase was completed at a ceremony in New Orleans.
  • Location of Louisiana Purchase
     
    1865  Elsie De Wolfe, American socialite and interior decorator, was born.
     
    1868 Harvey Firestone, American automobile pioneer, was born.
     
    1894  Sir Robert Menzies, twelfth Prime Minister of Australia was born.
     
    1901  Robert Van de Graaff, American physicist and inventor, was born.
     
     
    1907  Paul Francis Webster, songwriter, was born.
     
     1913 The Great Strike of 1913, which had begun in late October when Wellington waterside workers stopped work, ended when the United Federation of Labour (UFL) conceded defeat.

    Waterfront strike ends

    1927  Kim Young-sam, first civilian President of South Korea after a series of dictatorships, was born.
     
    1944  Bobby Colomby, American musician (Blood, Sweat & Tears), was born.
    1945 Peter Criss, American drummer and singer (Kiss), was born.
    1948 Alan Parsons, British music producer and artist, was born.

    1951 The EBR-1 in Arco, Idaho becomes the first nuclear power plant to generate electricy.  The electricity powered four light bulbs.

    Experimental Breeder Reactor Number 1 in Idaho, the first power reactor.

    1955Cardiff was proclaimed the capital city of Wales.

     Cardiff City Hall

    1957  Billy Bragg, English singer and songwriter, was born.

    1973 Spanish Prime Minister, Admiral Luis Carrero Blanco, was assassinated by a car bomb attack in Madrid.

    1984 The Summit tunnel fire, the largest underground fire in history, as a freight train carrying over 1 million litres of petrol derails near the town of Todmorden in the Pennines.

     1987 History’s worst peacetime sea disaster, when the passenger ferry Doña Paz sank after colliding with the oil tanker Vector 1 in the Tablas Strait in the Philippines  killing an estimated 4,000 people (1,749 official).

    1988 The United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances was signed in Vienna

    1989  United States invasion of Panama: The United States sent troops into Panama to overthrow government of Manuel Noriega.

    1995  NATO began peacekeeping in Bosnia.

    1996 NeXT merged with Apple Computer, starting the path to Mac OS X.

    1999 Macau was handed over to the People’s Republic of China by Portugal.

    2007  Queen Elizabeth II becomes the oldest ever monarch of the United Kingdom, surpassing Queen Victoria, who lived for 81 years, 7 months and 29 days.

    Smiling elderly lady with grey hair wearing a matching hat and dress

    Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


    Another milk product recall

    01/10/2008

    Yesterday chocolate that had been made in China was recalled in Australia, China, Hong Kong and Taiwan because it contained melamine.

    Today Lipton’s milk tea powder  has been recalled in Hong Kong and Macau for the same reason.


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