81 Domitian became Emperor of the Roman Empire upon the death of his brother Titus.
786 Harun al-Rashid became the Abbasid caliph upon the death of his brother al-Hadi.
1180 Battle of Ishibashiyama in Japan.
1607 Flight of the Earls from Lough Swilly, Donegal, Ireland.
1682 Bishop Gore School, one of the oldest schools in Wales, was founded.
1752 The British Empire adopted the Gregorian calendar, skipping eleven days (the previous day was September 2).
1769 Alexander von Humboldt, German naturalist and explorer, was born (d. 1859).
1812 Napoleonic Wars: French grenadiers entered Moscow. The Fire of Moscow began as soon as Russian troops left the city.
1829 The Ottoman Empire signed the Treaty of Adrianople with Russia, ending the Russo-Turkish War.
1847 Mexican-American War: Winfield Scott captured Mexico City.
1862 American Civil War: The Battle of South Mountain, part of the Maryland Campaign.
1864 Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood, English lawyer and politician, Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Nobel Prize laureate was born, (d. 1958).
1879 – Margaret Sanger, American nurse and activist, was born (d. 1966).
1909 – Peter Scott, English ornithologist, painter, and sailor, was born (d. 1989).
1917 Russia was officially proclaimed a republic.
1923 Miguel Primo de Rivera became dictator of Spain.
1938 The cornerstone of the first Labour government’s welfare policies, theSocial Security Act, introduced revised pensions and extended benefits for families, invalids and the unemployed.
1944 World War II: Maastricht became the first Dutch city to be liberated by allied forces.
1947 Sam Neill, New Zealand actor, was born.
1948 Groundbreaking for the United Nations headquarters in New York City.
1953 Judy Playfair, Australian swimmer, was born.
1958 – Jeff Crowe, New Zealand cricketer, referee, and manager, was born.
1958 The first two German post-war rockets, designed by the German engineer Ernst Mohr, reached the upper atmosphere.
1959 The Soviet probe Luna 2 crashed onto the Moon, becoming the first man-made object to reach it.
1960 The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was founded.
1961 Wendy Thomas, namesake of the eponymous restaurant (Wendy’s), was born.
1975 The first American saint, Elizabeth Ann Seton, was canonized by Pope Paul VI.
1982 President-elect of Lebanon, Bachir Gemayel, was assassinated.
1984 Joe Kittinger became the first person to fly a hot air balloon alone across the Atlantic Ocean.
1995 Body Worlds opened in Tokyo.
1998 Telecommunications companies MCI Communications and WorldCom completed their $37 billion merger to form MCI WorldCom.
2001 Historic National Prayer Service held at Washington National Cathedral for victims of the September 11 attacks. A similar service was held in Canada on Parliament Hill, the largest vigil ever held in the nation’s capital.
2008 – All 88 people on board Aeroflot Flight 821 were killed when the plane crashed on approach to Perm Airport.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia