April 14 in history

April 14, 2010

On April 14:

43 BC  Battle of Forum Gallorum: Mark Antony, besieging Julius Caesar’s assassin Decimus Junius Brutus in Mutina, defeated the forces of the consul Pansa, who was killed.

M Antonius.jpg

69 Vitellius, commander of the Rhine armies, defeated Emperor Otho in the Battle of Bedriacum and seizes the throne.

Pseudo-Vitellius Louvre MR684.jpg

1028  Henry III, son of Conrad, was elected king of the Germans.

 

1205 Battle of Adrianople between Bulgarians and Crusaders.

Battle of Adrianople (1205).png

1294 Temür, grandson of Kublai, is elected Khagan of the Mongols and Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty with the reigning titles Oljeitu and Chengzong.

 
YuanEmperorAlbumTemurOljeituPortrait.jpg

1341 Sacking of Saluzzo  by Italian-Angevine troops under Manfred V of Saluzzo.

1434 The foundation stone of Cathedral of  St. Peter and St. Paul in Nantes was laid.

 

1471 The Yorkists under Edward IV defeated the Lancastrians under Warwick at the battle of Barnet; the Earl of Warwick was killed and Edward IV resumed the throne.

Two groups of black armoured knights, mounted and on foot, charge at each other, fighting with swords and lances.

1699  Birth of Khalsa  the brotherhood of the Sikh religion, in Northern India in accordance with the Nanakshahi calendar.

Khanda1.svg

1775 The Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage  – the first abolitionist society in North America – was organized in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by Benjamin Franklin and Benjamin Rush.

1828  Noah Webster copyrighted the first edition of his dictionary.

 

1846 The Donner Party of pioneers left Springfield, Illinois, for California, on what became a year-long journey of hardship, cannibalism, and survival.

 

1849 Hungary declared itself independent of Austria with Lajos Kossuth as its leader.

 

1860 The first Pony Express rider reached Sacramento, California.

 

1864 Battle of Dybbøl: A Prussian-Austrian army defeated Denmark and gained control of Schleswig. Denmark surrendered the province in the following peace settlement.

Dybbol Skanse.jpg

1865   Abraham Lincoln was shot in Ford’s Theatre by John Wilkes Booth.

 

1865 U.S. Secretary of State William H. Seward and his family were attacked in their home by Lewis Powell.

 

1866 Anne Sullivan, Helen Keller’s teacher, was born.

 

1881 The Four Dead in Five Seconds Gunfight erupted in El Paso, Texas.

1890 The Pan-American Union is founded by the First International Conference of American States.

1894 Thomas Edison demonstrated the kinetoscope, a device for peep-show viewing using photographs that flip in sequence.

  

1904 Sir John Gielgud, English actor, was born.

1912  The British passenger liner RMS Titanic hit an iceberg at 11.40pm in the North Atlantic, and sankthe following morning with the loss of 1,517 lives.

 

1915 The Turks invaded Armenia.

1927 The first Volvo car premiered in Gothenburg.

 

1927 Alan MacDiarmid, New Zealand chemist, Nobel laureate, was born.

1931 Spanish Cortes Generales deposed King Alfonso XIII and proclaimed the 2nd Spanish Republic.

Coat of arms or logo.

1932 A crowd of about 1500 rioted in Queen Street.

Unemployed riots rock Queen Street

1935 Black Sunday Storm, the worst dust storm of the U.S. Dust Bowl.

 

1935 Loretta Lynn, American singer/songwriter, was born.

1941 Julie Christie, British actress, was born.

1941 World War II: The Ustashe, a Croatian far-right organisation was put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Power after the Operation 25 invasion.

Ustashian U.png

1941 Rommel attacked Tobruk.

AustraliansAtTobruk.jpg

1944 Bombay Explosion: A massive explosion in Bombay harbour killsed300 caused economic damage valued then at 20 million pounds.

Bombay-Docks-aftermath1.png

1945 Osijek, Croatia, was liberated from fascist occupation.

1945 Ritchie Blackmore, English guitarist (Deep Purple), was born.

1951 Julian Lloyd Webber, English cellist, was born.

1956 In Chicago videotape was first demonstrated.

 

1958 The Soviet satellite Sputnik 2 fell from orbit after a mission duration of 162 days.

Sputnik 2
 

1961 Robert Carlyle, British actor, was born.

1969  Academy Award for Best Actress was a tie between Katharine Hepburn and Barbra Streisand.

1973 David Miller, American tenor (Il Divo), was born.

1978: Thousands of Georgians demonstrated in Tbilisi against Soviet attempts to change the constitutional status of the Georgian language.

1981 The first operational space shuttle, Columbia (OV-102) completed its first test flight.

 

1986 In retaliation for the April 5 bombing in West Berlin that killed two U.S. servicemen, U.S. president Ronald Reagan orders major bombing raids against Libya, killing 60 people.

1986 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) hailstones fell on the Gopalganj district of Bangladesh, killing 92 – these were the heaviest hailstones ever recorded.

 

1988 The USS Samuel B. Roberts struck a mine in the Persian Gulf during Operation Earnest Will.

USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG-58)

1988  The Soviet Union signed an agreement pledging to withdraw its troops from Afghanistan.

1994 In a U.S. friendly fire incident during Operation Provide Comfort in northern Iraq, two United States Air Force aircraft mistakenly shoot-down two United States Army helicopters, killing 26 people.

1999  NATO mistakenly bombed a convoy of ethnic Albanian refugees.

1999 A severe hailstorm struck Sydney causing A$2.3 billion in insured damages, the most costly natural disaster in Australian history.

2002 Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez returned to office two days after being ousted and arrested by the country’s military.

2003 The Human Genome Project was completed with 99% of the human genome sequenced to an accuracy of 99.99%.

2003 U.S. troops in Baghdad captured Abu Abbas, leader of the Palestinian group that killed an American on the hijacked cruise liner the MS Achille Lauro in 1985.

2005 The Oregon Supreme Court nullified marriage licenses issued to gay couples a year earlier by Multnomah County.

2007 At least 200,000 demonstrators in Ankara protested against the possible candidacy of incumbent Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.

 

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


April 13 in history

April 13, 2010

On April 13:

1111 Henry V was crowned Holy Roman Emperor.

1250 The Seventh Crusade was defeated in Egypt, Louis IX of France was captured.

Seventh crusade.jpg

1256 – The Grand Union of the Augustinian order formed when Pope Alexander IV issues a papal bull Licet ecclesiae catholicae.

B Alexander IV.jpg

1570 Guy Fawkes, English Catholic conspirator, was born.

1598 Henry IV of France issued the Edict of Nantes, allowing freedom of religion to the Huguenots.

 

1742 George Frideric Handel’s oratorio Messiah made its world-premiere in Dublin.

1743 Thomas Jefferson, 3rd President of the United States, was born.

Jefferson portrait by Charles Willson Peale

1796 The first elephant ever seen in the United States arrived from India.

1808 Antonio Meucci, Italian inventor, was born.

1829 The British Parliament granted freedom of religion to Roman Catholics.

1849 Hungary became a republic.

1852 F.W. Woolworth, American businessman, was born.

1861 American Civil War:  Fort Sumter surrendered to Confederate forces.

 

1866 Butch Cassidy, American outlaw, was born.

 

1868  The Abyssinian War ended as British and Indian troops captured Magdala.

 

1870 The Metropolitan Museum of Art  was founded.

Facade of imposing building with Greek columns. Large colored banners hang from the building's top. A crowd of people is in front.

1873 The Colfax Massacre took place.

 

1892 Arthur Travers ‘Bomber’ Harris, British Air Force commander, was born.

Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Harris.jpg

1892 – Sir Robert Alexander Watson-Watt, Scottish inventor, was born.

 

1895 Sir Arthur Fadden, thirteenth Prime Minister of Australia, was born.

1896 The National Council of Women was formed in Christchurch.

NCW formed in Christchurch

1902– James C. Penney opened his first store in Kemmerer, Wyoming.

Jcpenny logoq.png

1902 Philippe de Rothschild, French race car driver and wine grower, was born.

 

1906 Samuel Beckett, Irish writer, Nobel laureate, was born.

 

1919 The Establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.

 

1919 Jallianwala Bagh massacre: British troops massacred at least 379 unarmed demonstrators in Amritsar, India. At least 1200 wounded.

 Jallianwala Bagh memorial

1919  Eugene V. Debs entered prison at the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary in Atlanta, Georgia for speaking out against the draft during World War I.

1920  Liam Cosgrave, fifth Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland, was born.

1921 Foundation of the Spanish Communist Workers’ Party.

1923 Don Adams, American actor and comedian, was born.

1931 Jon Stone, co-creator of Sesame Street, was born.

 

1939  In India, the Hindustani Lal Sena (Indian Red Army) was formed and vows to engage in armed struggle against the British.

1941 Pact of neutrality between the USSR and Japan was signed.

1943  World War II: The discovery of a mass grave of Polish prisoners of war executed by Soviet forces in the Katyń Forest Massacre is announced, alienating the Western Allies, the Polish government in exile in London, from the Soviet Union.

1943 James Boarman, Fred Hunter, Harold Brest and Floyd G. Hamilton took part in an attempt to escape from Alcatraz .

1943 The Jefferson Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C. on the 200th anniversary of Thomas Jefferson’ss birth.

1944 Diplomatic relations between New Zealand and the Soviet Union were established.

1945 Judy Nunn, Australian actress, was born.

1945 German troops killed more than 1,000 political and military prisoners in Gardelegen.

1945 Ninth American army crossesdThe Elbe River.

1948 The Hadassah medical convoy massacre: In an ambush, 79 Jewish doctors, nurses and medical students from Hadassah Hospital and a British soldier are massacred by Arabs in Sheikh Jarra near Jerusalem.

 

1949 Christopher Hitchens, English-born journalist, critic, and author, was born.

1953  CIA director Allen Dulles launched the mind-control program MKULTRA.

 

1956 Peter ‘Possum’ Bourne, New Zealand rally driver, was born.

 

1964 – At the Academy Awards, Sidney Poitier became the first African-American male to win the Best Actor award for Lilies of the Field.

1969 Closure of the Brisbane tramway network.

1970 An oxygen tank aboard Apollo 13 explodes, endangering the crew and causing major damage to the spacecraft en route to the Moon.

Apollo 13-insignia.png

1974 – Western Union (in cooperation with NASA and Hughes Aircraft) launches the United States’ first commercial geosynchronous communications satellite, Westar 1.

1975 Bus Massacre in Lebanon: Attack by the Phalangist resistance killed 26 militia members of the P.F.L. of Palestine, marking the start of the 15-year Lebanese Civil War.

 

1976 The United States Treasury Department reintroduced the two-dollar bill as a Federal Reserve Note on Thomas Jefferson’s 233rd birthday as part of the United States Bicentennial celebration.

 

1983 Harold Washington was elected as the first African-American mayor of Chicago.

1984 India moved into Siachen Glacier thus annexing more territory from the Line of Control.

1987 Portugal and the People’s Republic of China sign an agreement in which Macau would be returned to China in 1999.

1992 The Great Chicago Flood.

1997 Tiger Woods became the youngest golfer to win The Masters Tournament.

Tiger Woods drives by Allison.jpg

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia,


December 30 in history

December 30, 2009

On December 30:

39  Titus, Roman emperor was born.

Tito, testa in marmo da Pantelleria.jpg

1066 Granada massacre: A Muslim mob stormed the royal palace in Granada, crucified Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and massacred most of the Jewish population of the city.

 1460  Wars of the Roses: Battle of Wakefield.

 Roses-Lancaster victory.svg

1835 Charles Darwin left New Zealand after a nine day visit.

Charles Darwin leaves NZ after 9-day visitThis red gurnard was collected by Charles Darwin when the Beagle visited the Bay of Islands.

Rudyard Kipling, English writer, Nobel laureate, was born.

1916 The last coronation in Hungary iw performed for King Charles IV and Queen Zita.

 King Charles IV taking his coronation oath on 30 December 1916

  • 1919Lincoln’s Inn in London admitted its first female bar student.
  • 1922  Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was formed.

    Flag Coat of arms

    1924 Edwin Hubble announces the existence of other galaxies.

    1927  The Ginza Line, the first subway line in Asia, opened in Tokyo, Japan.

     One of the original 1000 series cars.

    1931  Skeeter Davis, American singer, was born.

    1937 Noel Paul Stookey, American folk singer (Peter, Paul & Mary), was born.

    1940 California opened its first freeway the Arroyo Seco Parkway.

    1944 King George II of Greece declared a regency, leaving the throne vacant.

    1945  Davy Jones, English singer (The Monkees), was born.

    1947 King Michael of Romania was forced to abdicate by the Soviet-backed Communist government of Romania.

    1947 Jeff Lynne, English musician (ELO), was born.

    1948  The Cole Porter Broadway musical, Kiss Me, Kate (1,077 performances), opened at the New Century Theatre and was the first show to win the Best Musical Tony Award.

    Caucasian man in his thirties smiling and looking to the camera. He has a round face, full lips and large dark eyes, and his short dark hair is combed to the side. He is wearing a dark jacket, a white shirt and a black tie with white dots.

    1950 Bjarne Stroustrup, Danish computer scientist, creator of C++, was born.

    1953 The first ever NTSC colour television sets went on sale for about USD at $1,175 each from RCA.

    RCA Logo

    1959 Tracey Ullman, English actress and singer, was born.

    Tracy Ullman 1990.jpg

    1965  Ferdinand Marcos became President of the Philippines.

    1975 Tiger Woods, American golfer, was born.

    Tiger Woods drives by Allison.jpg

    1993  Israel and the Vatican established diplomatic relations.

    2004 A fire in the República Cromagnon nightclub in Buenos Aires, Argentina killed 194.

     Relatives of the deceased in the fire light candles in a public protest against the perceived lack of control by the government.

    2005  Tropical Storm Zeta formed in the open Atlantic Ocean, tying the record for the latest tropical cyclone ever to form in the North Atlantic basin.

    2006  Madrid Barajas International Airport was bombed.

    Barajas overview1.jpg

    2006 Deposed President of Iraq Saddam Hussein, convicted of the executions of 148 Iraqi Shiites, was executed.

    Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia.


    December 25 in history

    December 25, 2009

    On December 25:

    800 Coronation of Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor, in Rome.

    1000 Hungary was established as a Christian kingdom by Stephen I of Hungary.

    1066  William the Conqueror was crowned as king of England, at Westminster Abbey.

    1000 Baldwin of Boulogne is crowned as the first King of Jerusalem in the Church of the Nativity.

    1130  Count Roger II of Sicily was crowned as the first King of Sicily.

     Detail of the mosaic with Roger II receiving the crown by Christ, Martorana, Palermo.

    1223 St. Francis of Assisi assembles the first Nativity scene.

    Painting by Jusepe de Ribera

    1643  Christmas Island was founded and named by Captain William Mynors of the East India Ship Company vessel, the Royal Mary.

    1814 At Oihi Beach in the Bay of Islands, Samuel Marsden preached in English to a largely Maori gathering, launching the Christian missionary phase of New Zealand history. Marsden’s service was translated by the Nga Puhi leader Ruatara.

    NZ's first Christian service?

    1818 The first performance of “Silent Night” took place in the church of St. Nikolaus in Oberndorf, Austria.

     Autograph of the carol by  Franz Xaver Gruber.

    1821  Clara Barton, founder of the American Red Cross, was born.

       

     1865 Evangeline Booth, the 4th General of The Salvation Army, was born.

     

    1870 Helena Rubinstein, Polish-born American cosmetics industrialist, was born.

    1887 Conrad Hilton, American hotelier, was born.

    1889 Lila Bell Wallace, American magazine publisher (Reader’s Digest), was born.

    1890  Robert Ripley, collector of odd facts, was born.

     Ripley’s Odditorium in Hollywood

    1899 Humphrey Bogart, American actor, was born.

    1908 Quentin Crisp, English author, was born.

    1913  Tony Martin, American singer and actor, was born.

    1914 James Muir Cameron Fletcher, New Zealand industrialist, was born.

    1918 Anwar Sadat, President of Egypt, Nobel laureate, was born.

    1918 Ahmed Ben Bella, politician, first President of Algeria, was born.

     Ben Bella (right) after his arrest by the French army

    1932  A magnitude 7.6 earthquake in Gansu, China kills ~70,000 people.

    1941 Battle of Hong Kong ended, beginning the Japanese Occupation of Hong Kong.

    1944 Kenny Everett, British entertainer, was born.

    Kenny Everett.jpg

    1947 The Constitution of the Republic of China went into effect.

    1949  Nawaz Sharif, Prime Minister of Pakistan was born.

    1949 Sissy Spacek, American actress, was born.

    1950 The Stone of Scone, traditional coronation stone of British monarchs, was taken from Westminster Abbey by Scottish nationalist students.

     

    1950 Karl Rove, former American presidential advisor, was born.

    1954 Annie Lennox, Scottish singer, was born.

    1963 Turkish Cypriot Bayrak Radio began transmitting in Cyprus after Turkish Cypriots were forcibly excluded from Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation.

    1968 Apollo 8 performed the  first successful Trans Earth Injection (TEI) maneouver, sending the crew and spacecraft on a trajectory back to Earth from Lunar orbit.

    1989  Nicolae Ceauşescu, former communist dictator of Romania and his wife Elena are condemned to death and executed under a wide range of charges.

     

    1990 The first successful trial run of the system which would become the World Wide Web.
     The Web’s historic logo designed by Robert Cailliau
     
    1991  Mikhail Gorbachev resigned as president of the Soviet Union (the union itself is dissolved the next day).
     
    1991 Ukraine‘s referendum was finalized and Ukraine officially left the Soviet Union.
     
  • 2003 – The ill-fated Beagle 2 probe, released from the Mars Express Spacecraft on December 19, disappeared shortly before its scheduled landing.
  • Beagle 2 replica.jpg
       

    Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia.


    August 20 in history

    August 20, 2009

    On August 20:

    1000 Hungary was established as a kingdom.

     

     

     

     

    1858 Charles Darwin first published histheory of evolution.

    1923 US singer Jim Reeves was born.

     

    1940 the New Zealand shipping freighter Turakina was sunk by a German raider in the Tasman.

    1941 India’s 7th Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi was born.

    1991 Estonia seceded from the USSR.

     

    Sourced from NZ History Online and Wikipedia.


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