306 Maxentius was proclaimed Roman Emperor.
312 Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine I defeated Maxentius, becoming the sole Roman Emperor.
1466 Desiderius Erasmus, Dutch humanist and theologian, was born (d. 1536).
1510 Francis Borgia, Spanish duke and Jesuit priest, was born (d. 1572).
1516 Battle of Yaunis Khan: Turkish forces under the Grand Vizier Sinan Pasha defeated the Mameluks near Gaza.
1531 Battle of Amba Sel: Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi again defeated the army of Lebna Dengel, Emperor of Ethiopia.
1538 The first university in the New World, the Universidad Santo Tomás de Aquino, was established.
1628 The 14-month Siege of La Rochelle ended with the surrender of the Huguenots.
1636 A vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony established the first college in what became the United States, today known as Harvard University.
1664 The Duke of York and Albany’s Maritime Regiment of Foot, later to be known as the Royal Marines, was established.
1707 The 1707 Hōei earthquake caused more than 5,000 deaths in Honshu, Shikoku and Kyūshū.
1776 American Revolutionary War: Battle of White Plains – British Army forces arrived at White Plains, attacked and captured Chatterton Hill from the Americans.
1834 The Battle of Pinjarra in the Swan River Colony – between 14 and 40 Aborigines were killed by British colonists.
1848 The first railway in Spain – between Barcelona and Mataró – was opened.
1885 Thomas Twyford built the first porcelain toilet.
1886 President Grover Cleveland dedicated the Statue of Liberty.
1890 – New Zealand’s first Labour Day celebrations were held.
1891 The Mino-Owari Earthquake, the largest earthquake in Japan’s history, struck Gifu Prefecture.
1903 Evelyn Waugh, English writer, was born (d. 1966)
1918 Czechoslovakia was granted independence from Austria-Hungary marking the beginning of independent Czechoslovak state, after 300 years.
1918 – New Polish government in Western Galicia was established.
1919 The U.S. Congress passed the Volstead Act over President Woodrow Wilson’s veto, paving the way for Prohibition to begin the following January.
1922 March on Rome: Italian fascists led by Benito Mussolini marched on Rome and take over the Italian government.
1929 Black Monday, major stock market upheaval during the Wall Street Crash of 1929.
1936 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt rededicated the Statue of Liberty on its 50th anniversary.
1940 World War II: Greece rejected Italy’s ultimatum. Italy invaded Greece through Albania, marking Greece’s entry into World War II.
1941 Hank Marvin, English guitarist (The Shadows) was born.
1942 The Alaska Highway (Alcan Highway) is completed through Canada to Fairbanks.
1948 Swiss chemist Paul Müller was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the insecticidal properties of DDT.
1954 The modern Kingdom of the Netherlands is re-founded as a federal monarchy.
1955 Bill Gates, American software executive, was born.
1960 Landon Curt Noll, Astronomer, Cryptographer and Mathematician: youngest to hold the world record for the largest known prime 3 times, was born.
1962 Cuban Missile Crisis: Soviet Union leader Nikita Khrushchev announced he had ordered the removal of Soviet missile bases in Cuba.
1965 Nostra Aetate, the “Declaration on the Relation of the Church with Non-Christian Religions” of the Second Vatican Council, was promulgated by Pope Paul VI; it absolved the Jews of responsibility for the death of Jesus, reversing Innocent III’s 760 year-old declaration.
1965 – Construction on the St. Louis Arch was completed.
1967 Julia Roberts, American actress, was born.
1971 Britain launched its first satellite, Prospero, into low Earth orbit atop a Black Arrow carrier rocket.
1982 Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party won elections, leading to first Socialist government in Spain after death of Franco. Felipe Gonzalez became Prime Minister-elect.
1985 Sandinista Daniel Ortega became president of Nicaragua.
1995 289 people were killed and 265 injured in Baku Metro fire.
1998 An Air China jetliner was hijacked by disgruntled pilot Yuan Bin and flown to Taiwan.
2006 Funeral service for those executed at Bykivnia forest, outside Kiev, Ukraine. 817 Ukrainian civilians (out of some 100,000) executed by Bolsheviks at Bykivnia in 1930s – early 1940s were reburied.
2009 The 28 October 2009 Peshawar bombing killed 117 and wounds 213.
2009 – NASA successfully launched the Ares I-X mission, the only rocket launch for its later-cancelled Constellation programme.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia