The freedom of the press works in such a way that there is not much freedom from it. – Grace Kelly (Princess Grace of Monaco) who was born on this day in 1929.
764 – Tibetan troops occupied Chang’an, the capital of the Chinese Tang Dynasty.
1028 – Future Byzantine empress Zoe married Romanus Argyrus.
1439 – Plymouth, became the first town incorporated by the English Parliament.
1555 – The English Parliament re-established Catholicism.
1651 Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, Mexican mystic and author, was born (d. 1695).
1729 Louis Antoine de Bougainville, French explorer, was born (d. 1811).
1793 – Jean Sylvain Bailly, the first Mayor of Paris, was guillotined.
1840 Auguste Rodin, French sculptor, was born (d. 1917).
1847 – Sir James Young Simpson, a British physician, was the first to use chloroform as an anaesthetic.
1866 Sun Yat-sen, the 1st President of the Republic of China was born (d. 1925).
1892 – William “Pudge” Heffelfinger became the first professional American football player on record.
1893 – The treaty of the Durand Line was signed between present day Pakistan and Afghanistan.
1905 – Norway held a referendum in favor of monarchy over republic.
1912 Striking worker Fred Evans was fatally injured in a clash with police and strikebreakers during the bitter six-month-long dispute at the goldmining town of Waihi.
1912 – The frozen bodies of Robert Scott and his men were found on the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica.
1918 – Austria became a republic.
1920 – Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes signed the Treaty of Rapallo.
1929 Princess Grace of Monaco (Grace Kelly), was born (d. 1982).
1933 – Hugh Gray took the first known photos of the Loch Ness Monster.
1934 Charles Manson, American cult leader, was born.
1936 – The San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge opened to traffic.
1938 – Hermann Göring proposed plans to make Madagascar the “Jewish homeland”.
1941 – World War II: Temperatures around Moscow dropped to -12 ° C and the Soviet Union launcheed ski troops for the first time against the freezing German forces near the city.
1941 – World War II: The Soviet cruiser Chervona Ukraina was destroyed during the Battle of Sevastopol.
1942 – World War II: The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal began.
1943 Bjorn Waldegard, Swedish rally driver, was born.
1944 – World War II: The Royal Air Force launched 29 Avro Lancaster bombers in one of the most successful precision bombing attacks of war and sinks the German battleship Tirpitz, with 12,000 lb Tallboy bombs.
1944 Booker T. Jones, American musician and songwriter (Booker T and the MG’s), was born.
1945 Neil Young, Canadian singer and musician, was born.
1948 – An international war crimes tribunal sentenced seven Japanese military and government officials, including General Hideki Tojo, to death for their roles in World War II.
1958 – A team of rock climbers led by Warren Harding completed the first ascent of The Nose on El Capitan in Yosemite Valley.
1962 Naomi Wolf, American author and feminist, was born.
1969 – Vietnam War: Independent investigative journalist Seymour Hersh broke the My Lai story.
1970 – The Oregon Highway Division attempted to destroy a rotting beached Sperm whale with explosives, leading to the now infamous “exploding whale” incident.
1979 – Iran hostage crisis: In response to the hostage situation in Tehran, US President Jimmy Carter ordered a halt to all petroleum imports into the United States from Iran.
1980 – The NASA space probe Voyager I made its closest approach to Saturn and takes the first images of its rings.
1982 – Yuri Andropov became the general secretary of the Soviet Communist Party’s Central Committee, succeeding Leonid I. Brezhnev.
1982 – Lech Wałęsa, was released from a Polish prison after eleven months.
1990 – Crown Prince Akihito was formally installed as Emperor Akihito of Japan, becoming the 125th Japanese monarch.
1990 – Tim Berners-Lee published a formal proposal for the World Wide Web.
1991 – Dili Massacre, Indonesian forces opened fire on a crowd of student protesters in Dili.
1996 – A Saudi Arabian Airlines Boeing 747 and a Kazakh Ilyushin Il-76 cargo plane collided in mid-air near New Delhi, killing 349. The deadliest mid-air collision to date.
1997 – Ramzi Yousef was found guilty of masterminding the 1993 World Trade Center bombing.
1998 – Vice President Al Gore signed the Kyoto Protocol.
1999 – The Düzce earthquake struck Turkey with a magnitude of 7.2 on the Richter scale.
2001 – American Airlines Flight 587, an Airbus A300 en route to the Dominican Republic, crashed minutes after takeoff from John F. Kennedy International Airport, killing all 260 on board and five on the ground.
2001 – Taliban forces abandoned Kabul, Afghanistan, ahead of advancing Afghan Northern Alliance troops.
2003 – Iraq war: In Nasiriya, Iraq, at least 23 people, among them the first Italian casualties of the 2003 Iraq war, were killed in a suicide bomb attack on an Italian police base.
2003 – Shanghai Transrapid set a new world speed record (501 kilometres per hour (311 mph)) for commercial railway systems.
2006 – The region of South Ossetia held a referendum on independence from Georgia.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikiepdia
On April 19:
1587 Francis Drake sank the Spanish fleet in Cádiz harbour.
1713 With no living male heirs, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, issued the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 to ensure that Habsburg lands and the Austrian throne would be inherited by his daughter, Maria Theresa of Austria (not actually born until 1717).
1770 Captain James Cook sighted Australia.
1775 American Revolutionary War began at the Battle of Lexington and Concord.
1782 John Adams secured the Dutch Republic’s recognition of the United States as an independent government. The house which he had purchased in The Hague, became the first American embassy.
1809 An Austrian corps was defeated by the forces of the Duchy of Warsaw in the Battle of Raszyn, part of the struggles of the Fifth Coalition.
1809 The Austrian main army was defeated by a First French Empire Corps led by Louis-Nicolas Davout at the Battle of Teugen-Hausen in Bavaria; part of a four day campaign which ended in a French victory.
1810 Venezuela achieved home rule: Vicente Emparan, Governor of the Captaincy General was removed by the people of Caracas and a Junta was installed.
1839 The Treaty of London established Belgium as a kingdom.
1847 New portico at British Museum opened
1855 Visit of Napoleon III to Guildhall, London.
1861 American Civil War: Baltimore riot of 1861, a pro-Secession mob in Baltimore, Maryland, attacked United States Army troops marching through the city.
1892 Charles Duryea claimed to have driven the first automobile in the United States.
1893 The Liberals subdivided the Cheviot Estate.
1919 Leslie Irvin of the United States made the first successful voluntary free-fall parachute jump using a new kind of self-contained parachute.
1928 The 125th and final fascicle of the Oxford English Dictionary was published.
1935 Dudley Moore, English actor, comedian and composer, was born.
1936 First day of the Great Uprising in Palestine.
1937 – Joseph Estrada, actor and 13th President of the Philippines, was born.
1941 Alan Price, English musician (The Animals, The Alan Price Set), was born.
1942 World War II: In Poland, the Majdan-Tatarski ghetto was established, situated between the Lublin Ghetto and a Majdanek subcamp.
1943 World War II: German troops enter the Warsaw ghetto to round up the remaining Jews, beginning the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.
1943 Eve Graham, Scottish singer (The New Seekers), was born.
1946 Tim Curry, British actor, was born.
1951 – General Douglas MacArthur retired from the military.
1954 – Constituent Assembly of Pakistan decided Urdu and Bengali to be national languages of Pakistan.
1961 The Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba ended in success for the defenders.
1971 Siaka Stevens became first president of Sierra Leone Republic.
1971 – Vietnam War: Vietnam Veterans Against the War begia a five-day demonstration in Washington, DC.
1971 – Launch of Salyut 1, the first space station.
1975 India’s first satellite Aryabhata was launched.
1984 Advance Australia Fair was proclaimed as Australia’s national anthem, and green and gold as the national colours.
1987 The Simpsons premiered as a short cartoon on The Tracey Ullman Show.
1989 A gun turret explodesd on the USS Iowa, killing 47 sailors.
1993 The 51-day siege of the Branch Davidian building outside Waco, Texas, ended when a fire broke out. Eighty-one people died.
1993 – South Dakota governor George Mickelson and seven others were killed when a state-owned aircraft crashed in Iowa.
1995 Oklahoma City bombing: The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, was bombed, killing 168.
1997 – The Red River Flood of 1997 overwhelms the city of Grand Forks, ND. Fire breaks out and spreads in downtown Grand Forks, but high water levels hamper efforts to reach the fire, leading to the destruction of 11 buildings.
1999 The German Bundestag returned to Berlin.
2005 Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger elected Pope Benedict XVI on the second day of the Papal conclave.
2008 Bowie Seamount on the coast of British Columbia became a Marine Protected Area.
Sourced from NZ History Online and Wikipedia