April 25 in history

April 25, 2010

On April 25:

1214  King Louis IX of France was born (d. 1270).

1228 Conrad IV of Germany was born (d. 1254).

 

1284 King Edward II of England was born (d. 1327).

1599 Oliver Cromwell, English statesman, was born (d. 1658).

 

1607 Eighty Years’ War: The Dutch fleet destroyed the anchored Spanish fleet at Gibraltar.

1707 The Habsburg army was defeated by Bourbon army at Almansa in the War of the Spanish Succession.

Armas de Carlos I de España.svgGrand Royal Coat of Arms of France.svg

1775 Charlotte of Spain, Spanish Infanta and queen of Portugal, was born (d. 1830).

1792  Highwayman Nicolas J. Pelletier became the first person executed by guillotine.

1792 – La Marseillaise was composed by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle.

Pils - Rouget de Lisle chantant la Marseillaise.jpg

1829 Charles Fremantle arrived in the HMS Challenger off the coast of modern-day Western Australia prior to declaring the Swan River Colony for the United Kingdom.

 

1846 Thornton Affair: Open conflict began over the disputed border of Texas, triggering the Mexican-American War.

1847 The last survivors of the Donner Party were out of the wilderness.

 

1849 The Governor General of Canada, Lord Elgin, sigeds the Rebellion Losses Bill, outraging Montreal’s English population and triggering the Montreal Riots.

1859 British and French engineers broke ground for the Suez Canal.

 

1861nAmerican Civil War: The Union Army arrived in Washington, D.C.

1862  American Civil War: Forces under Union Admiral David Farragut captured the Confederate city of New Orleans, Louisiana.

1864 American Civil War: The Battle of Marks’ Mills.

1873 Walter de la Mare, English poet, was born (d. 1956).

 

1898 Spanish-American War: The United States declared war on Spain.

1901 New York became the first U.S. state to require automobile license plates.

1905 George Nepia, New Zealand rugby player was born (d. 1986).

George Nepia.jpg

1915 New Zealand troops landed at Gallipoli.

NZ troops land at Gallipoli
The start of the Battle of Gallipoli – trrops from Australia, Britain and France were also part of the landings at  Anzac Cove and Cape Helles..
  
1916 Easter Rebellion: The United Kingdom declared martial law in Ireland.
 

1916 – Anzac Day was commemorated for the first time, on the first anniversary of the landing at Anzac Cove.

1917 Ella Fitzgerald, American singer, was born (d. 1996).

1927 Albert Uderzo, French cartoonist, was born.

1929  Yvette Williams First New Zealander woman to win an Olympic gold medal, was born.

1932 Foundation of the Korean People’s Army of North Korea. “4.25” appeared on the flags of the KPA Ground Force and the KPA Naval Force.

The flag of the Korean People's Army

1932 William Roache, British television actor (Coronation Street), was born.

K Barlow 2008.jpg

1938 U.S. Supreme Court delivereds opinion in Erie Railroad Co. v. Tompkins and overturned a century of federal common law.

1939  DC Comics published its second major superhero in Detective Comics #27; – Batman.

 

1940  Al Pacino, American actor, was born.

 

1943 The Demyansk Shield for German troops in commemoration of Demyansk Pocket was instituted.

Demjanskschild.jpg

1944 The United Negro College Fund was incorporated.

UNCF.svg

1945 Elbe Day: United States and Soviet troops met in Torgau along the River Elbe, cutting the Wehrmacht in two, a milestone in the approaching end of World War II in Europe.

 

1945 – The Nazi occupation army surrendered and left Northern Italy after a general partisan insurrection by the Italian resistance movement; the puppet fascist regime dissolved and Mussolini tried to escape. This day is taken as symbolic of the Liberation of Italy.

 

1945 – Fifty nations gathered in San Francisco to begin the United Nations Conference on International Organisations.

1945 Last German troops retreated from Finland’s soil in Lapland, ending the Lapland War.

 

1948 Yu Shyi-kun, former Premier of Taiwan, was born.

1953 Francis Crick and James D. Watson published Molecular structure of nucleic acids: a structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid describing the double helix structure of DNA.

FirstSketchOfDNADoubleHelix.jpg

1959  The St. Lawrence Seaway, linking the North American Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean, officially opened to shipping.

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1961 Robert Noyce was granted a patent for an integrated circuit.

 

1966 The city of Tashkent was destroyed by a huge earthquake.

Memorial to victims of the earthquake

1972  Vietnam War: Nguyen Hue Offensive – The North Vietnamese 320th Division forced 5,000 South Vietnamese troops to retreat and traps about 2,500 others northwest of Kontum.

1974 Carnation Revolution: A leftist military coup in Portugal restored democracy after more than forty years as a corporate authoritarian state.

 Prime Minister Marcelo Caetano, overthrown in the Carnation Revolution (Revolução dos Cravos).

1975 As North Vietnamese forces closed in on the South Vietnamese capital Saigon, the Australian Embassy was closed and evacuated, almost ten years to the day since the first Australian troop commitment to South Vietnam.

1976 Chicago Cubs’ outfielder, Rick Monday, rescued the American flag from two protestors who had run on to the field at Dodger Stadium. The two people covered the flag In lighter fluid but before the match was put to the flag, Monday, sprinted in and grabbed it away from them.

 

1981  More than 100 workers were exposed to radiation during repairs of a nuclear power plant in Tsuruga.

1982 Israel completed its withdrawal from the Sinai peninsula per the Camp David Accords.

1983 American schoolgirl Samantha Smith was invited to visit the Soviet Union by its leader Yuri Andropov after he read her letter in which she expressed fears about nuclear war.

1983 – Pioneer 10 traveled beyond Pluto’s orbit.

Pioneer 10 at Jupiter.gif

1986  Mswati III was crowned King of Swaziland, succeeding his father Sobhuza II.

1988 In Israel, John Demjanuk was sentenced to death for war crimes committed in World War II.

1990  The Hubble Telescope was deployed into orbit from the Space Shuttle Discovery.

HST-SM4.jpeg

2003 The Human Genome Project came to an end 2.5 years before first anticipated.

 

2005 The final piece of the Obelisk of Axum was returned to Ethiopia after being stolen by the invading Italian army in 1937.

 

2005 Bulgaria and Romania signed accession treaties to join the European Union.

Circle of 12 gold stars on a blue background.

2005 – 107 died in Amagasaki rail crash in Japan.

Fukuchiyama joko20051.jpg

2007  Boris Yeltsin‘s funeral – the first to be sanctioned by the Russian Orthodox Church for a head of state since the funeral of Emperor Alexander III in 1894.

 

Sourced from NZ History Online & WIkipedia


January 9 in history

January 9, 2010

On January 9:

1349 The Jewish population of Basel, Switzerland, believed by the residents to be the cause of the ongoing Black Death, was rounded up and incinerated.

1431 Judges’ investigations for the trial of Joan of Arc began in Rouen, France, the seat of the English occupation government.

 Joan interrogated in her prison cell by Cardinal Winchester. By Hippolyte Delaroche.

1768  Philip Astley staged the first modern circus in London.

1793  Jean-Pierre Blanchard became the first person to fly in a balloon in the United States.

1799 British Prime Minister William Pitt introduced income tax to raise funds for the war against Napoleon.

1806 – Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson received a state funerll and was interred in St Paul’s Cathedral.

Nelson’s coffin in the crossing of St Paul’s during the funeral service, with the dome hung with captured French and Spanish flags.

1816 Sir Humphry Davy tested the Davy lamp for miners at Hebburn Colliery.

1822  Portuguese prince Pedro I of Brazil decides to stay in Brazil against the orders of the Portuguese king João VI, starting the Brazilian independence process.

1839 The French Academy of Sciences announced the Daguerreotype photography process.

1854 Jennie Jerome, American society beauty and mother of Winston Churchill, was born.

1859 Carrie Chapman Catt, American suffragist leader, was born.

1861  The “Star of the West” incident occurs near Charleston, South Carolina. It is considered by some historians to be the “First Shots of the American Civil War”.

 Steamship Star of the West approaching Fort Sumter. Illustration from Frank Leslie’s Weekly

1878  Umberto I became King of Italy.

1880 – The Great Gale of 1880 devastated parts of Oregon and Washington with high wind and heavy snow.

1894 New England Telephone and Telegraph installed the first battery-operated telephone switchboard in Lexington, Massachusetts.

1896 Warwick Braithwaite, New Zealand-born British conductor, was born.

1898  Gracie Fields, English music hall performer, was born.

1902 Saint Josemaría Escrivá, Spanish Catholic priest and founder of Opus Dei, was born.

1903  Hallam Tennyson, 2nd Baron Tennyson, son of the poet Alfred Tennyson, became the second Governor-General of Australia.

1905 According to the Julian Calendar which was used at the time, Russian workers staged a march on the Winter Palace that ended in the massacre by Tsarist troops known as Bloody Sunday, setting off the Russian Revolution of 1905.

1908  Simone de Beauvoir, French author, was born.

1913  Richard Nixon, 37th President of the United States, was born.

1916 World War I: The Battle of Gallipoli concluded with an Ottoman Empire victory when the last Allied forces were evacuated from the peninsula.

1916 Peter Twinn, English World War II code-breaker, was born.

1918 Battle of Bear Valley: The last battle of the American Indian Wars.

 Yaqui people, c1910
1920 Clive Dunn, British actor, was born.
Clive Dunn-1973.png

1923 Katherine Mansfield died.

Death of Katherine Mansfield

 1928  Judith Krantz, American author, was born.

1933 Wilbur Smith, Zambian-British novelist, was born.

1939 Susannah York, British actress, was born.

1941 Joan Baez, American singer and activist, was born.

1942 Lee Kun-hee, Korean industrialist, chairman of Samsung, was born.

1944  Jimmy Page, British musician and producer (Led Zeppelin), was born.

1948 Bill Cowsill, American singer (The Cowsills, was born.

1951  Crystal Gayle, American singer, was born.

1951 – The United Nations headquarters officially opened in New York City.

1953 Morris Gleitzman, British-Australian children’s author, was born.

1978 AJ McLean, American singer (Backstreet Boys), was born.

1980 Sergio García, Spanish golfer, was born.

SergioGarciaTPCChampion2008 1.jpg

2005  Rawhi Fattouh succeeded  Yasser Arafat as head of the Palestine Liberation Organization . 

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


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