March 6 in history

March 6, 2010

On March 6:

1454 Thirteen Years’ War: Delegates of the Prussian Confederation pledged allegiance to King Casimir IV of Poland who agreed to commit his forces in aiding the Confederation’s struggle for independence from the Teutonic Knights.

1475 Michelangelo, Italian artist, was born.

1521 Ferdinand Magellan arrived at Guam.

1788 The First Fleet arrived at Norfolk Island in order to found a convict settlement.

1806 Elizabeth Barrett Browning, was born.

 

1820 The Missouri Compromise was signed into law by President James Monroe  allowing Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state, but made the rest of the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase territory slavery-free.

1836 Battle of the Alamo – After a thirteen day siege by an army of 3,000 Mexican troops, the 187 Texas volunteers defending the Alamo were defeated and the fort was captured.

The crumbling facade of a stone building is missing its roof and part of its second floor. A pile of stone rubble sits in the courtyard. In front of the building are a horse-drawn carriage and several people in 1850s-style clothing: women in long dresses with full skirts and men in suits with top hats.

1853 Giuseppe Verdi‘s opera La Traviata receives its premiere performance in Venice.

1857Supreme Court of the United States ruled in the Dred Scott v. Sandford case that people of African descent imported into the United States and held as slaves, or their descendants —whether or not they were slaves—were not protected by the Constitution and could never be citizens of the United States..

1869 Dmitri Mendeleev presented the first periodic table to the Russian Chemical Society.

1899 Bayer registered aspirin as a trademark.

1917 Frankie Howerd, English comedian, was born.


 

1921 Portuguese Communist Party was founded as the Portuguese Section of the Communist International.

Portuguese Communist Party official symbol.png

1926 Alan Greenspan, American economist, 13th Chairman of the Federal Reserve, was born.

 

1927 Gabriel García Márquez, Colombian writer, Nobel Prize laureate, was born.

1944  Kiri Te Kanawa, New Zealander singer, was born.

1944  Mary Wilson, American singer (The Supremes), was born.

1946 David Gilmour, British musician (Pink Floyd), was born.

1947  Kiki Dee, British singer, was born.

1947 Dick Fosbury, American athlete, was born.

A man in an athletic uniform is jumping over the high jump bar headfirst and backwards. His legs trail behind his body as he clears the bar. A high jumper performing a Fosbury flop, curving his body over the bar as he goes over it head-first and backwards

 1945 Communist-dominated government under Petru Groza assumed power in Romania.

1945 Cologne was captured by American Troops.

1946  Ho Chi Minh signed an agreement with France which recognizes Vietnam as an autonomous state in the Indochinese Federation and the French Union.

1947 The New Zealand Symphony Orchestra made its debut performance – opening the concert in Wellington’s Town Hall with God Save The King the performing selections from Dvorak, Brahms, Butterworth, Enesco, Wagner and Richard Strauss.

Debut performance of NZ Symphony Orchestra

1951 – The trial of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg for conspiracy to commit espionage in the USA began.

1953 Georgy Maksimilianovich Malenkov succeeded Joseph Stalin as Premier of the Soviet Union and First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.


 

1957 British colonies Gold Coast and British Togoland became the independent Republic of Ghana.

1964 Nation of Islam’s Elijah Muhammad officially gave boxing champion Cassius Clay the name Muhammad Ali.

Muhammad Ali NYWTS.jpg

1964 Constantine II became King of Greece.

 

1967  Joseph Stalin’s daughter Svetlana Alliluyeva defected to the United States.

1975 For the first time, ever, the Zapruder film of the Kennedy assassination was shown in motion to a national TV audience by Robert J. Groden and Dick Gregory.

 Frame 150 from the Zapruder Film

1975 – Algiers Accord: Iran and Iraq announce a settlement of their border dispute.

1981 After 19 years of presenting the CBS Evening News, Walter Cronkite signed off for the last time.

Cronkitenasa.PNG

1983 The first United States Football League game was played.

1987 The British ferry MS Herald of Free Enterprise capsized in about 90 seconds killing 193.

Herald of Free Enterprise.jpg
 

1988 Three Provisional Irish Republican Army terrorists are killed by Special Air Service in  Gibraltar in the conclusion of Operation Flavius.

1992 Michelangelo computer virus began to affect computers.

2006 South Dakota Governor Mike Rounds signed legislation banning most abortions in the state.

2008 A Palestinian gunman shot and killed 8 students and critically injured 11 in the library of the Mercaz HaRav yeshiva, in Jerusalem.

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


January 20 in history

January 20, 2010

On January 20:

  • Emperor Decius began a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Pope Fabian was martyred.
  • Emperor Traianus Decius (Mary Harrsch).jpg

    1265 In Westminster, the first English parliament conducts its first meeting held by Simon de Montfort in the Palace of Westminster.

    Looking down from some height, a large stone building in the Gothic style lies by a river with its long side parallel to it. It is internally organised around a number of courtyards, and its various wings feature grey roofs and multiple=

    1356 Edward Balliol abdicated as King of Scotland.

    1523 Christian II was forced to abdicate as King of Denmark and Norway.

    1649 Charles I of England went on trial for treason and other “high crimes”.

    1788 The third and main part of First Fleet arrived at Botany Bay. Arthur Phillip decided that Botany Bay is unsuitable for location of a penal colony, and decides to move to Port Jackson.

    ArthurPhilip.jpg

    1840  Dumont D’Urville discovered Adélie Land, Antarctica.

    Dumont d'Urville00.jpg

     

    1840 – Willem II became King of the Netherlands.

    1841  Hong Kong Island was occupied by the British.

    1885  L.A. Thompson patented the roller coaster.

     Thompson’s Switchback Railway

     1887  The United States Senate allowed the Navy to lease Pearl Harbor as a naval base.

    1892  At the YMCA in Springfield, Massachusetts, the first official basketball game was played.

     The first basketball court: Springfield College.

    1896  George Burns, American actor, comedian, was born.

    1899  Clarice Cliff, English ceramic, was born.

    1910 Joy Adamson, Austrian naturalist and writer, was born.

    1921 The first Constitution of Turkey was adopted, making fundamental changes in the source and exercise of sovereignty by consecrating the principle of national sovereignty.

    1926 Patricia Neal, American actress, was born.

    1929  In Old Arizona, the first full-length talking motion picture filmed outdoors, was released.

    1930  Buzz Aldrin, American astronaut, was born.

    Aldrin.jpg

    1934  Tom Baker, British actor, was born.

    1936  Edward VIII became King of the United Kingdom.

     

    1937 Franklin Roosevelt was inaugurated for a second term as President of the United States. This was the first inauguration scheduled on January 20, following adoption of the 20th Amendment. Previous inaugurations were scheduled on March 4.

    1950  Liza Goddard, British actress, was born.

    1952 Paul Stanley, American musician (Kiss), was born.

    1957 Scott Base opened in Antarctica.

    Scott Base opened in Antarctica

    1959 The first flight of the Vickers Vanguard.

    1960 Hendrik Verwoerd announces a plebiscite on whether South Africa should become a Republic.

    1961  John F. Kennedy is inaugurated as the youngest man, and first-ever Roman Catholic, to become elected President of the United States.

    1965   Sophie, The Countess of Wessex, was born.

    1981 Irann released 52 American hostages twenty minutes after Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as U.S. President, the oldest man to be inaugurated at 69.

    1987  Church of England envoy Terry Waite was kidnapped in Lebanon.

    1990  Black January – crackdown of Azerbaijani pro-independence demonstrations by Soviet army in Baku.

     Soviet tanks in Baku during Black January.

    1991 Sudan‘s government imposed Islamic law nationwide, worsening the civil war between the country’s Muslim north and Christian south.

    2001  Philippine president Joseph Estradawas ousted in a nonviolent 4-day revolution, and was succeeded by Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.

    2009 Barack Obama was inaugurated as the 44th President of the United States of America – the United States’ first African-American president.

    Portrait of Barack Obama

    Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia.


    January 19 in history

    January 19, 2010

    On January 19:

    1607 San Agustin Church in Manila, now the oldest church in the Philippines, was officially completed.

    1736 James Watt, Scottish inventor, was born.

    1764  John Wilkes was expelled from the British House of Commons for seditious libel.

    1788  Second group of ships of the First Fleet arrives at Botany Bay.

    1795  Batavian Republic was proclaimed in the Netherlands. End of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.

     

     

     

     

    1806 – The United Kingdom occupied the Cape of Good Hope.

    1807  Robert E. Lee, American Confederate general, was born.

    Robert Edward Lee.jpg

    1809 Edgar Allan Poe, American writer and poet, was born.

    1817 An army of 5,423 soldiers, led by General José de San Martín, crossed the Andes from Argentina to liberate Chile and then Peru.

    1829 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe‘s Faust Part 1 premiered.

    1839  Paul Cézanne, French painter, was born.

    1839 The British East India Company captured Aden.

     The Company flag, after 1707 

     

     

     1840 Captain Charles Wilkes circumnavigated Antarctica, claiming what became known as Wilkes Land for the United States.

    1845 Hone Heke cut down the British flag pole for the third time.

    Hone Heke cuts down the British flagstaff -  again
    1848 Matthew Webb, English swimmer/diver  first man to swim English Channel without artifical aids, was born.
     

    1853Giuseppe Verdi‘s opera Il Trovatore premiered in Rome.

    1883  The first electric lighting system employing overhead wires, built by Thomas Edison, began service at Roselle, New Jersey.

    1893 Henrik Ibsen‘s play The Master Builder premiered in Berlin.

    1899Anglo-Egyptian Sudan was formed.

    1915  Georges Claude patented the neon discharge tube for use in advertising.

    1915  German zeppelins bombed the cities of Great Yarmouth and King’s Lynn killing more than 20, in the first major aerial bombardment of a civilian target.

    1917 German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmermann sent the Zimmermann Telegram to Mexico, proposing a German-Mexican alliance against the United States.

    1917 – Silvertown explosion: 73 killed and 400 injured in an explosion in a munitions plant in London.

    1918 Finnish Civil War: The first serious battles between the Red Guards and the White Guard.

    1923 Jean Stapleton, American actress, was born.

    All in the family.jpg

    1935 Coopers Inc.  sold the world’s first briefs.

    1935  Johnny O’Keefe, Australian singer, was born.

    1937 Howard Hughes set a new air record by flying from Los Angeles, California to New York City in 7 hours, 28 minutes, 25 seconds.

    1939 Phil Everly, American musician, was born.

    1942  Michael Crawford, British singer and actor, was born.

    1943 Janis Joplin, American singer, was born.

    1943  Princess Margriet of the Netherlands, was born.

    1945  Soviet forces liberate the Łódź ghetto. Out more than 200,000 inhabitants in 1940, less than 900 had survived the Nazi occupation.

    1946  Dolly Parton, American singer and actress, was born.

    1946 General Douglas MacArthur established the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Tokyo to try Japanese war criminals.

    1947 Rod Evans, British musician (Deep Purple), was born.

    1951  Dewey Bunnell, American singer and songwriter (America), was born.

    1953 68% of all television sets in the United States were tuned in to I Love Lucy to watch Lucy give birth to Desi Arnaz, Jr., American actor.

    ILoveLucyTitleScreen.jpg

    1966 Indira Gandhi was elected Prime Minister of India.

    1972 – Princess Kalina of Bulgaria, was born.

    Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Bulgaria

    1977 – Snow fell in Miami, Florida for the only time time in the history of the city.

    1978  The last Volkswagen Beetle made in Germany left VW’s plant in Emden.

    Volkswagen Beetle .jpg

    1981 United States and Iranian officials signed an agreement to release 52 American hostages after 14 months of captivity.

    1983  Nazi war criminal Klaus Barbie was arrested in Bolivia.

    1983 – The Apple Lisa, the first commercial personal computer from Apple Inc. to have a graphical user interface and a computer mouse, was announced.

    Apple Lisa.jpg

    1993 – IBM announced a $4.97 billion loss for 1992, the largest single-year corporate loss in United States history.

    1996  The barge North Cape oil spill occurred as an engine fire forced the tugboat Scandia ashore on Moonstone Beach in South Kingstown, Rhode Island.

     Tug Scandia and tank barge North Cape

    1997 Yasser Arafat returned to Hebron after more than 30 years and joined celebrations over the handover of the last Israeli-controlled West Bank city.

    2006 – The New Horizons probe was launched by NASA on the first mission to Pluto.

    New Horizons

    Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia.


    January 18 in history

    January 18, 2010

    On January 18:

    1535  Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro founded Lima, the capital of Peru.

    1591 King Naresuan of Siam killed Crown Prince Minchit Sra of Burma in single combat,  this date is now observed marked as Royal Thai Armed Forces day.

    1670  Henry Morgan captured Panama.

    Morgan,Henry.jpg

    1778 James Cook was the first known European to discover the Hawaiian Islands, which he named the “Sandwich Islands“.

    1779 Peter Mark Roget, British lexicographer, was born.

    Roget P M.jpg

    1788 The first elements of the First Fleet carrying 736 convicts from England to Australa arrived at Botany Bay.

    The Charlotte at Portsmouth before departure in May 1787

    1813 Joseph Glidden, American farmer who patented barbed wire, was born.

    1849  Sir Edmund Barton, 1st Prime Minister of Australia, was born.

    1854 Thomas Watson, American telephone pioneer, was born.

    1871 – Wilhelm I of Germany was proclaimed the first German Emperor in the ‘Hall of Mirrors’ of the Palace of Versailles towards the end of the Franco-Prussian War. The empire was known as the Second Reich to Germans.

    1882 A. A. Milne, English author, was born.

    Monochrome head-and-shoulders portrait photo of A. A. Milne in coat and tie, with pipe dangling from lips

    1884 Dr. William Price attempted to cremate the body of his infant son, Jesus Christ Price, setting a legal precedent for cremation in the United Kingdom.

    1886 Modern field hockey was born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England.

    1889 Thomas Sopwith, British aviation pioneer, was born.
    1892  Oliver Hardy, American comedian and actor, was born.
    1896 The X-ray machine was exhibited for the first time.

    1903  President Theodore Roosevelt sent a radio message to King Edward VII: the first transatlantic radio transmission originating in the United States.

    1904 Cary Grant, English actor, was born.

    1911 Eugene B. Ely landed on the deck of the USS Pennsylvania stationed in San Francisco harbor, the first time an aircraft landed on a ship.

    Eugeneely.jpg

    1913  Danny Kaye, American actor, was born.

    1916  A 611 gram chondrite type meteorite struck a house near the village of Baxter in Stone County, Missouri.

    1919  The Paris Peace Conference opened in Versailles.

    “The Big Four” during the Paris Peace Conference (from left to right, David Lloyd George, Vittorio Orlando, Georges Clemenceau, Woodrow Wilson)

    1919  Ignacy Jan Paderewski became Prime Minister of the newly independent Poland.

    1919 Bentley Motors Limited was founded.

    Bentley logo.svg

    1933 Ray Dolby, American inventor (Dolby noise reduction system), was born.

    Dolby (left)  inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.

    1943  Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: The first uprising of Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto.

    A group of SS men on the street of Warsaw Ghetto during the uprising

    1944 Paul Keating, twenty-fourth Prime Minister of Australia, was born.

    Paul Keating in 1979

    1944 The Metropolitan Opera House in New York City hosted a jazz concert for the first time. The performers were Louis Armstrong, Benny Goodman, Lionel Hampton, Artie Shaw, Roy Eldridge and Jack Teagarden.

    1944 – Soviet forces liberate Leningrad, effectively ending a three year Nazi siege, known as the Siege of Leningrad.

    Blokada Leningrad diorama.jpg
    Diorama of the Siege of Leningrad, in the Museum of the Great Patriotic War, in Moscow

    1945 Liberation of the Budapest ghetto by the Red Army.

    1954  Tom Bailey, English musician (Thompson Twins), was born.

    1955  Battle of Yijiangshan.

    1958 – Willie O’Ree, the first African Canadian National Hockey League player, makes his NHL debut.

    1969  United Airlines Flight 266 crashes into Santa Monica Bay resulting in the loss of all 32 passengers and six crew members.

    1974 A Disengagement of Forces agreement was signed between the Israei and Egyptian governments, ending conflict on the Egyptian front of the Yom Kippur War.

    1977  Scientists identified a previously unknown bacterium as the cause of the mysterious Legionnaires’ disease.

    1977 – Australia’s worst rail disaster at Granville, Sydney killed 83.

    1978  The European Court of Human Rights found the United Kingdom government guilty of mistreating prisoners in Northern Ireland, but not guilty of torture.

    1980 Upper Hutt’s Jon Stevens made it back-to-back No.1 singles when ‘Montego Bay’ bumped ‘Jezebel’ from the top of the New Zealand charts.

    'Montego Bay' hits number one
    1994 The Cando event, a possible bolide impact in Cando, Spain. Witnesses claimed to have seen a fireball in the sky lasting for almost one minute.
    1997  Boerge Ousland of Norway becomes the first person to cross Antarctica alone and unaided.

    1998 Lewinsky scandal: Matt Drudge broke the Bill Clinton-Monica Lewinsky affair story on his website The Drudge Report.

    2000 The Tagish Lake meteorite hit the Earth.

    Tagish Lake meteorite.jpg

    A 159 gram fragment of the Tagish Lake meteorite

    2002 Sierra Leone Civil War declared over.

    2003 A bushfire killed 4 people and destroys more than 500 homes in Canberra, Australia.

    2005 The Airbus A380,, the world’s largest commercial jet, was unveiled at a ceremony in Toulouse.

    2007 The strongest storm in the United Kingdom in 17 years killed 14 people, Germany’s worst storm since 1999 with 13 deaths. Hurricane Kyrill, caused at least 44 deaths across 20 countries in Western Europe. Other losses included the Container Ship MSC Napoli destroyed by the storm off the coast of Devon.

    Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


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