523 – John I became the new Pope after the death of Pope Hormisdas.
582 – Maurice became Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.
1521 Tenochtitlán (present day Mexico City) fell to conquistador Hernán Cortés.
1536 Buddhist monks from Kyōto’s Enryaku Temple set fire to 21 Nichiren temples throughout Kyoto in the Tenbun Hokke Disturbance.
1553 Michael Servetus was arrested by John Calvin in Geneva as a heretic.
1704 War of the Spanish Succession: Battle of Blenheim – English and Austrians won against French and Bavarians.
1790 William Wentworth, Australian explorer and politician, was born (d. 1872).
1792 Louis XVI of France was formally arrested by the National Tribunal, and declared an enemy of the people.
1814 The Convention of London, a treaty between the United Kingdom and the United Provinces, was signed in London.
1818 Lucy Stone, American suffragette, was born (d. 1893).
1831 Nat Turner saw a solar eclipse, which he believed was a sign from God.
1852 (1855 or 1856 – exact date unknown) – Caroline Freeman, teacher, school principal and owner, and first female to graduate from the University of Otago, was born (d. 1914).
1860 Annie Oakley, American sharpshooter, was born. (d. 1926)
1888 John Logie Baird, Scottish television pioneer, was born (d. 1946).
1899 Alfred Hitchcock, English film director, was born (d. 1980).
1907 Sir Basil Spence, Scottish architect, was born (d. 1976).
1913 Otto Witte, an acrobat, was purportedly crowned King of Albania.
1913 First production in the UK of stainless steel by Harry Brearley.
1914 – Sapper Robert Arthur Hislop was guarding Parnell railway bridge in Auckland when he accidentally fell, dying from his injuries six days later, becoming the first New Zealand casualty of World War I.
1918 Opha Mae Johnson became the first woman to enlist in the United States Marine Corps.
1918 Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW) established as a public company.
1920 Polish-Soviet War: Battle of Warsaw began.
1926 Fidel Castro, Cuban revolutionary and politician, was born.
1937 Battle of Shanghai began.
1940 Battle of Britain began.
1951 Dan Fogelberg, American singer/songwriter, was born (d. 2007).
1960 The Central African Republic declared independence from France.
1961 The German Democratic Republic closed the border between the eastern and western sectors of Berlin, to thwart its inhabitants’ attempts to escape to the West.
1969 The Apollo 11 astronauts were released from a three-week quarantine to enjoy a ticker-tape parade in New York. That evening, at a state dinner in Los Angeles, they were awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Richard Nixon.
1978 150 Palestinians in Beirut were killed in a terrorist attack.
1979 The roof of the uncompleted Rosemont Horizon near Chicago, Illinois collapsed, killing 5 workers and injuring 16.
2004 Hurricane Charley, a Category 4 storm, struck Punta Gorda, Florida.
2004 156 Congolese Tutsi refugees massacred at the Gatumba refugee camp in Burundi.
2005 Former NZ Prime Minister David Lange died.
2008 Michael Phelps set the Olympic record for most the gold medals won by an individual in Olympic history with his win in the men’s 200m butterfly.
2011 – The main stage collapsed at the Indiana State Fair during a hurricane-force wind gust ahead of an approaching severe thunderstorm, killing 7 and injuring 45.
2015 – At least 76 people were killed and 212 others wounded in a truck bombing in Baghdad, Iraq.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia