April 9 in history

April 9, 2010

On April 9:

 32 Jesus Christ ascended into Jerusalem on the first Palm Sunday.

 

193 Septimius Severus was proclaimed Roman Emperor by the army in Illyricum.

Septimius Severus busto-Musei Capitolini.jpg

475 yzantine Emperor Basiliscus issued a circular letter (Enkyklikon) to the bishops of his empire, supporting the Monophysite christological position.

Solidus Basiliscus-RIC 1003.jpg

1241  Battle of Liegnitz: Mongol forces defeated the Polish and German armies.

Legnica.JPG

1413  Henry V was crowned King of England.

1440 Christopher of Bavaria was appointed King of Denmark.

1682 Robert Cavelier de La Salle discovered the mouth of the Mississippi River, claimed it for France and namesdit Louisiana.

Cavelier de la salle.jpg

1860 The oldest audible sound recording of a human voice was made.

1865 American Civil War: Robert E. Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia (26,765 troops) to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, effectively ending the war.

Robert Edward Lee.jpgUlysses S. Grant in a formal black and white photo. Grant is seated with arms folded. Grant looks weary and his beard is greying.  This is the photo used for the $50.00 bill.

1865 Birth of Charles Proteus Steinmetz,  German-American mathematician and electrical engineer.

 

1867 Chris Watson, third Prime Minister of Australia, was born.

1867  Alaska purchase: Passing by a single vote, the United States Senate ratified a treaty with Russia for the purchase of Alaska.

1898 Paul Robeson, American singer and activist, was born.

1909 The U.S. Congress passed the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act.

1916  World War I: The Battle of Verdun – German forces launched their third offensive of the battle.

 

1917 World War I: The Battle of Arras  started with Canadian Corps executing a massive assault on Vimy Ridge.

 

1918 World War I: The Battle of the Lys – the Portuguese Expeditionary Corps was crushed by the German forces during the Spring Offensive on the Belgian region of Flanders.

 

1926 Hugh Hefner, American entrepreneur and publisher, was born.

1932 Unemployed workers in Dunedin reacted angrily to the refusal of the Hospital Board to offer assistance, protesters stoned the mayor’s relief depot and tried to storm the Hospital Board’s offices, before being dispersed by police batons.

 Unemployed disturbances in Dunedin

1934 Bill Birch, New Zealand politician, was born.

1937 The Kamikaze arrived at Croydon Airport – the first Japanese-built aircraft to fly to Europe.

1939 Marian Anderson sang at the Lincoln Memorial, after being denied the right to sing at the Daughters of the American Revolution’s Constitution Hall.

 

1940 World War II: Germany invadesd Denmark and Norway.

1942 World War II: The Battle of Bataan/Bataan Death March – United States forces surrendered on the Bataan Peninsula. The Japanese Navy launched an air raid on Trincomalee; Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Hermes and Royal Australian Navy Destroyer HMAS Vampire were sunk off the island’s east coast.

JapaneseTroopsBataan1942.jpg

1945 World War II: The German pocket battleship Admiral Scheer was sunk.

Admiral Scheer in Gibraltar.jpg

1945 – World War II: The Battle of Königsberg, in East Prussia, ended.

 

1945 – The United States Atomic Energy Commission was formed.

 

1947 The Glazier-Higgins-Woodward tornadoes killed 181 and injured970 in Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas.

1947 – The Journey of Reconciliation, the first interracial Freedom Ride  started through the upper South in violation of Jim Crow laws. The riders wanted enforcement of the United States Supreme Court’s 1946 Irene Morgan decision that banned racial segregation in interstate travel.

1948 Jorge Eliécer Gaitán’s assassination provoked a violent riot (El Bogotazo) in Bogotá, and a further ten years of violence in Colombia known as La violencia.

Bogotazo.jpg

1948 – Massacre at Deir Yassin.

1952 Hugo Ballivian’s government was overthrown by the Bolivian National Revolution, starting a period of agrarian reform, universal suffrage and the nationalisation of tin mines.

 

1957 The Suez Canal in Egypt was cleared and opened to shipping.

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1959 Mercury program: NASA announced the selection of the United States’ first seven astronauts,-  the “Mercury Seven“.

 

1965 Astrodome opened and the first indoor baseball game was played.
Reliant Astrodome.jpg

1967 The first Boeing 737 (a 100 series) made its maiden flight.

1968 Martin Luther King’s funeral

1969 The “Chicago Eight” pled not guilty to federal charges of conspiracy to incite a riot at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, Illinois.

 

1969 The first British-built Concorde 002 makes its maiden flight from Filton to RAF Fairford.

 

1975 The first game of the Philippine Basketball Association, the second oldest professional basketball league in the world.

Pbalogo league.png

1978  Rachel Stevens, English singer (S Club), was born.

1989  The April 9 tragedy in Tbilisi, Georgian SSR an anti-Soviet peaceful demonstration and hunger strikes, demanding restoration of Georgian independence was dispersed by the Soviet army, resulting in 20 deaths and hundreds of injuries.

 Photos of the April 9, 1989 Massacre victims (mostly young women) on billboard in Tbilisi

1991 Georgia declared its independence from the Soviet Union.

1992 A U.S. Federal Court found former Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega guilty of drug and racketeering charges. He was sentenced to 30 years in prison.

1992 John Major‘s Conservative Party won an unprecedented fourth general election victory.

John Major 1996.jpg

1999  Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara, President of Niger, was assassinated.

2002 The funeral of Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother at Westminster Abbey.

 

2003 2003 invasion of Iraq: Baghdad fell to American forces.

2005 Charles, Prince of Wales married Camilla Parker Bowles.

 

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


March 27 in history

March 27, 2010

On March 27:

196 BC  Ptolemy V ascended to the throne of Egypt.

 

1306 Robert The Bruce was crowned King of Scotland at Scone.

1309  Pope Clement V excommunicated Venice and all its population.

Papst klemens v.jpg

1329  Pope John XXII issued his In Agro Dominico condemning some writings of Meister Eckhart as heretical.

Painting of a young cleanshaven man wearing golden robes and a tall conical hat with elaborate designs.  He is holding a large book in his lap, but looking towards the viewer.

1613  The first English child born in Canada at Cuper’s Cov, Newfoundland to Nicholas Guy.

1625  Charles I beccame King of England, Scotland and Ireland as well as claiming the title King of France.

1782 Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

1794 The United States Government established a permanent navy and authorized the building of six frigates.

United States Department of the Navy Seal.svg

1794 Denmark and Sweden formed a neutrality compact.

1814 War of 1812: Forces under General Andrew Jackson defeated the Creek at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.

Battle of Horseshoe Bend.jpg

1836 Texas Revolution: Goliad massacre – Antonio López de Santa Anna ordered the Mexican army to kill about 400 Texans at Goliad, Texas.

1836 Kirtland Temple in Ohio was dedicated in an 8 hour long service led by Joseph Smith, Jr. and Sidney Rigdon.

KirtlandTemple Ohio USA.jpg

1846  Mexican-American War: Siege of Fort Texas.

Siege of Fort Texas.gif

1851 irst reported sighting of the Yosemite Valley by Europeans.

 

1854 Crimean War: The United Kingdom declared war on Russia.

Malakhov1.jpg

1863 Sir Henry Royce, English automobile pioneer, was born.

 

1871 The first international rugby football match, England v. Scotland, was played in Edinburgh at Raeburn Place.

1881 Rioting took place in Basingstoke in protest against the daily vociferous promotion of rigid Temperance by the Salvation Army.

1883 English Salvation Army officers, Captain George Pollard and Lieutenant Edward Wright, arrived at Port Chalmers on a mission to establish a New Zealand branch of the quasi-military Christian evangelical movement, which had been founded in the slums of London’s East End in 1865.

The 'Sallies' come to New Zealand

1886 Apache warrior, Geronimo, surrenders to the U.S. Army, ending the main phase of the Apache Wars.

1899 Gloria Swanson, American actress, was born.

  1906 The Alpine Club of Canada was founded in Winnipeg, Manitoba.

Alpine Club of Canada

1910 A fire during a barn-dance in Ököritófülpös, Hungary, killed 312.

1912 James Callaghan, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, was born.

1917  Cyrus Vance, American politician, was born.

1918 Moldova and Bessarabia joined Romania.

1924 Sarah Vaughan, American singer, was born.

1931 David Janssen, American actor, was born.

The Futgitive title screen.png

1938  The Battle of Taierzhuang.

Taierzhuang.jpg

1941 Yugoslavian Air Force officers toppled the pro-axis government in a bloodless coup.

1943  Battle of the Komandorski Islands – In the Aleutian Islands battle started when United States Navy forces intercepted Japanese attempting to reinforce a garrison at Kiska.

USS Salt Lake City

1945 Operation Starvation, the aerial mining of Japan’s ports and waterways began.

1950 Tony Banks, English musician (Genesis), was born.

1958  Nikita Khrushchev became Premier of the Soviet Union.

A portrait shot of an older, bald man with bifocal glasses. He is wearing a blazer over a collared shirt and tie. In his hands, he is holding a set of papers.

1959 Andrew Farriss, Australian musician (INXS), was born.

1963  Beeching axe: Dr. Richard Beeching issued a report calling for huge cuts to the United Kingdom’s rail network.

1964  The Good Friday Earthquake, the most powerful earthquake in U.S. history at a magnitude of 9.2 struck South Central Alaska, killing 125 people and inflicting massive damage to the city of Anchorage.

 

1969 Mariner 7  was launched.

Mariner 67.gif

1970 Concorde made its first supersonic flight.

 

1975 Construction of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System began.

Trans-Alaska Pipeline System Luca Galuzzi 2005.jpg

1975  Fergie, American pop singer (The Black Eyed Peas), was born.

1976 The first 4.6 miles of the Washington Metro subway system opened.

Black and white Washington Metro logo with a big white M above smaller white letters spelling Metro

1977 Tenerife disaster: Two Boeing 747 airliners collided on a foggy runway on Tenerife in the Canary Islands, killing 583 (all 248 on KLM and 335 on Pan Am). 61 survived on the Pan Am flight.

1980 The Norwegian oil platform Alexander Kielland collapsed in the North Sea, killing 123 of its crew of 212.

 

1980 Silver Thursday: A steep fall in silver prices, resulting from the Hunt Brothers attempting to corner the market in silver, led to panic on commodity and futures exchanges.

1984 Ernie Abbott, the caretaker at Wellington’s Trades Hall, was killed instantly when he moved a booby-trapped suitcase.

Trades Hall bombing

1986 A car bomb exploded at Russell Street Police HQ in Melbourne, killing 1 police officer and injuring 21 people.

1990 The United States begins broadcasting TV Martí to Cuba in an effort to bridge the information blackout imposed by the Castro regime.

1993  Jiang Zemin was appointed President of the People’s Republic of China.

1993 – Italian former minister and Christian Democracy leader Giulio Andreotti was accused of mafia allegiance by the tribunal of Palermo.

1994 – One of the biggest tornado outbreaks in recent memory hit the Southeastern United States. One tornado slammed into a church in Piedmont, Alabama during Palm Sunday services killing 20 and injuring 90.

1994 – The Eurofighter took its first flight in Manching, Germany.

1998 The Food and Drug Administration approved Viagra for use as a treatment for male impotence.

1999 An F-117 Nighthawk was shot down during the Kosovo War.

2002 – Passover Massacre: A Palestinian suicide bomber kills 29 people partaking of the Passover meal in Netanya, Israel.

2004 HMS Scylla (F71), a decommissioned Leander class frigate, was sunk as an artificial reef off Cornwall, the first of its kind in Europe.

Scylla - Odinn scrap.jpg

2009  Situ Gintung, an artificial lake in Indonesia, failed killing at least 99 people.

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


March 4 in history

March 4, 2010

On March 4:

51 Nero, was given the title princeps iuventutis (head of the youth).

Nero 1.JPG

303 or 304  Martyrdom of Saint Adrian of Nicomedia.

852  Croatian Duke Trpimir I issued a statute, a document with the first known written mention of the Croats name in Croatian sources.

932  Translation of the relics of martyr Wenceslaus I, Duke of Bohemia, Prince of the Czechs.

1152 Frederick I Barbarossa was elected King of the Germans.

 

1215 King John of England made an oath to the Pope as a crusader to gain the support of Innocent III.

                         Innozenz3.jpg

1238 The Battle of the Sit River was fought between the Mongol Hordes of Batu Khan and the Russians under Yuri II of Vladimir-Suzdal during the Mongol invasion of Russia.

After the Battle of the Sit River (Vereshagin).jpgBishop Cyril finds headless body of Grand Duke Yuri 

1351 Ramathibodi became King of Siam.

1386 Władysław II Jagiełło (Jogaila) is crowned King of Poland.

1394  Henry the Navigator, was born.

1461 Wars of the Roses: Lancastrian King Henry VI was deposed by his Yorkist cousin, who then became King Edward IV.

1492 King James IV of Scotland concluded an alliance with France against England.

1493  Christopher Columbus arrived back in Lisbon aboard his ship Niña from his voyage to what is now The Bahamas and other islands in the Caribbean.

 

1519 Hernán Cortes arrived in Mexico in search of the Aztec civilization and their wealth.

1570 King Philip II of Spain banned foreign Dutch students.

1611 George Abbot is appointed Archbishop of Canterbury.

1629 Massachusetts Bay Colony was granted a Royal charter.

1665 King Charles II declared war on the Netherlands which marks the start of the Second Anglo-Dutch War.

Storck, Four Days Battle.jpg

1675 John Flamsteed was appointed the first Astronomer Royal of England.

1678  Antonio Vivaldi, Italian composer, was born.

 

1681 Charles II granted a land charter to William Penn for the area that became Pennsylvania.

 

1756 Sir Henry Raeburn, Scottish painter, was born.

 The Reverend Robert Walker Skating on Duddingston Loch, better known as The Skating Minister (1790s)

1778 The Continental Congress voted to ratify both the Treaty of Amity and Commerce  and the Treaty of Alliance with France – the first treaties entered into by the United States government.

 

1789 In New York City, the first United States Congress met, putting the Constitution of the United States into effect.

Page one of the original copy of the Constitution

1790 France was divided into 83 départements, which cuts across the former provinces in an attempt to dislodge regional loyalties based on ownership of land by the nobility.

1791 – A Constitutional Act iwa introduced by the British House of Commons which envisaged the separation of Canada into Lower Canada (Quebec) and Upper Canada (Ontario).

1793 French troops conquered Geertruidenberg, Netherlands.

1794 The 11th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was passed by the U.S. Congress.

1797 In the first ever peaceful transfer of power between elected leaders in modern times, John Adams was sworn in as President of the United States, succeeding George Washington.

A painted portrait of a man with greying hair, looking left.

1804 Castle Hill Rebellion: Irish convicts rebel against British colonial authority in the Colony of New South Wales.

Battle of VinegarHill.jpg

1813 Russian troops fighting the army of Napoleon reaced Berlin  and the French garrison evacuated the city without a fight.

1814 Americans defeated the British at the Battle of Longwoods .

1824 The “National Institution for the Preservation of Life from Shipwreck” was founded in the United Kingdom, later to be renamed The Royal National Lifeboat Institution in 1858.

1837 Chicago was incorporated as a city.

1848 Carlo Alberto di Savoia signed the Statuto Albertino that became the first constitution of the Regno d’Italia

1855 Sheep rustler James Mackenzie was caught in the Upper Waitaki with 1000 sheep from the Levels Station near Timaru.

Legendary sheep rustler James Mackenzie caught

 1861  First national flag of the Confederate States of America (the ‘Stars and Bars’) was adopted.

1877 Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky‘s ballet Swan Lake received its première performance at the Bolshoi Theatre.

 

1882 Britain‘s first electric trams run in East London.

1887 Gottlieb Daimler unveiled his first automobile.

 

1890 – The longest bridge in Great Britain, the Forth Railway Bridge in Scotland, measuring 1,710 feet (520 m) long, was opened by Edward the Prince of Wales.

1891 Lois Wilson, founder of Al-Anon, was born.

1893 The army of Francis, Baron Dhanis attacked the Lualaba, enabling him to transport his troops across the Upper Congo and, capture Nyangwe almost without an effort.

1894 Great fire in Shanghai. Over 1,000 buildings are destroyed.

1899 Cyclone Mahina swept in north of Cooktown, Queensland, with a 12 metre (39 ft) wave that reached up to 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) inland, killing over 300.

1902 The American Automobile Association was established.

 

1908 The Collinwood School Fire, Collinwood, Ohio, killed 174 people.

 

1911 Victor Berger (Wisconsin) became the first socialist congressman in U.S.

1917 Jeannette Rankin of Montana became the first female member of the United States House of Representatives.

1917 – Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich’s renunciation of the throne was made public, and Tsar Nicholas II publicly issued his abdication manifesto. The victory of the February Revolution.

1918 The first case of Spanish flu occurred, the start of a devastating worldwide pandemic.

 

1925 Calvin Coolidge became the first President of the United States to have his inauguration broadcast on radio.

1928 Alan Sillitoe, English writer, was born.

1929 Charles Curtis becomes the first native-American Vice President of the United States.

1930 Floods ransacked Languedoc and the surrounding area in south-west France, resulting in twelve départements being submerged by water and causing the death of over 700 people.

1931 The British Viceroy of India, Governor-General Edward Frederick Lindley Wood and Mohandas Gandhi (Mahatma Gandhi) met to sign an agreement envisaging the release of political prisoners and allowing salt to be freely used by the poorest members of the population.

 

1933 Frances Perkins became United States Secretary of Labor, the first female member of the United States Cabinet.

1933 – The Parliament of Austria was suspended because of a quibble over procedure – Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss initiated authoritarian rule by decree.

1941 The United Kingdom launched Operation Claymore on the Lofoten Islands.

HMS Legion Lofoten raids.jpg

1944 Michael “Mick” Wilson, drummer (Dave Dee, Dozy, Beaky, Mick & Tich), was born.

1945 Princess Elizabeth, joined the Women’s Auxiliary Territorial Service as a driver.

Young lady wearing overalls and a cap kneels on the ground to change the front-left wheel of a military truck 

1945 – Lapland War: Finland declared war on Nazi Germany.

1948 Lindy Chamberlain, who maintained a dingo stole her baby and whose conviction for murdering the baby was overturned, was born.

1948 Chris Squire, English bassist (Yes), was born.

1949 Carroll Baker, Canadian country singer and songwriter, was born.

1954 Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, announces the first successful kidney transplant.

1957 The S&P 500 stock market index is introduced, replacing the S&P 90.

1960 French freighter ‘La Coubre’ exploded in Havana, killing 100.

1962 The United States Atomic Energy Commission announced that the first atomic power plant at McMurdo Station in Antarctica was in operation.

1966  Canadian Pacific Air Lines DC-8-43 exploded on landing at Tokyo International Airport, killing 64 people.

1970 French submarine Eurydice exploded.

1976 The Northern Ireland Constitutional Convention was formally dissolved resulting in direct rule of Northern Ireland from London via the British parliament.

1976 – The last flight of the second Concorde prototype aircraft to the Fleet Air Arm Museum at the Royal Naval Air Station, Yeovilton.

 

1976 – The first Cray-1 supercomputer was shipped to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico.

 

1977 The 1977 Bucharest Earthquake in southern and eastern Europe killed more than 1,500.

 

1979 The first encyclical written by Pope John Paul II, Redemptor Hominis (“The Redeemer of Man”) was promulgated.

Pope John Paul II on 12 August 1993 in Denver (Colorado)

1980 Nationalist leader Robert Mugabe won a sweeping election victory to become Zimbabwe‘s first black prime minister.

1982 NASA launched the Intelsat V-508 satellite.

1983 Bertha Wilson was appointed the first woman to sit on the Supreme Court of Canada.

1985 The Food and Drug Administration approved a blood test for AIDS. 

1986 The Soviet Vega 1 began returning images of Comet Halley and the first images ever of its nucleus.

1991 Sheikh Saad Al-Abdallah Al-Salim Al-Sabah, the Prime Minister of Kuwait, returns to his country for the first time since Iraq‘s invasion.

1994 Space shuttle STS-62 (Columbia 16) launched into orbit.

Sts-62-patch.png

1994 – Bosnia’s Bosniaks and Croats signed an agreement to form a federation in a loose economic union with Croatia.

1997 U.S. President Bill Clinton banned federally funded human cloning research.

1998 Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services: The Supreme Court of the United States ruled that federal laws banning on-the-job sexual harassment also apply when both parties are the same sex.

2001 4 March 2001 BBC bombing: a massive car bomb explodes in front of the BBC Television Centre  seriously injuring 11 people. The attack was attributed to the Real IRA.

2001 Hintze Ribeiro disaster, a bridge collapses in northern Portugal, killing up to 70 people.

2002 Canada bans human embryo cloning but permits government-funded scientists to use embryos left over from fertility treatment or abortions.

2002 Multinational Force in Afghanistan: Seven American Special Operations Forces soldiers are killed as they attempt to infiltrate the Shahi Kot Valley on a low-flying helicopter reconnaissance mission.

2005 The car of released Italian hostage Giuliana Sgrena was fired on by US soldiers after it ran a roadblock in Iraq, causing the death of an Italian Secret Service Agent and injuring two passengers.

2007 Approximately 30,000 voters took advantage of electronic voting in Estonia, the world’s first nationwide voting where part of the votecasting is allowed in the form of remote electronic voting via the Internet.

2009 – The International Criminal Court (ICC) issues an arrest warrant for Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir for war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur – the first sitting head of state to be indicted by the ICC since its establishment in 2002.

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


March 2 in history

March 2, 2010

On March 2:

1986 Louis V became King of the Franks.

1127 Assassination of Charles the Good, Count of Flanders.

1316  Robert II of Scotland, was born.
Robert II of Scotland.png
1545 Thomas Bodley, English diplomat and library founder, was born.
1578 George Sandys, English colonist and poet, was born.
1717 The Loves of Mars and Venus was the first ballet performed in England.

1791 Long-distance communication speeds up with the unveiling of a semaphore machine in Paris.

1793 Sam Houston, President of the Republic of Texas, was born.

1807  The U.S. Congress passes an act to “prohibit the importation of slaves into any port or place within the jurisdiction of the United States… from any foreign kingdom, place, or country.”

1808 The inaugural meeting of the Wernerian Natural History Society, a Scottish learned society, was held in Edinburgh.

 Robert Jameson, founder and life president of the Wernerian Society

1815 Signing of Kandyan treaty by British invaders and Sri Lankan King.

1836 Texas Revolution: Declaration of independence of the Republic of Texas from Mexico.

 

1842 The Grand National steeplechase at Aintree was won by Gaylad, ridden by Tom Olliver who won two other Grand national winners.

1855 Alexander II became Tsar of Russia.

1861 Tsar Alexander I signed the emancipation reform into law, abolishing Russian serfdom.

1863 The U.S. Congress authorizes track width of 4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm) for Union Pacific Railroad.

1865 The Volkner Incident: Missionary Carl Völkner was hanged from a willow tree  near his church at Opotiki during the East Cape War.

Missionary Carl Volkner killed at Opotiki

1877 Just two days before inauguration, the U.S. Congress declares Rutherford B. Hayes the winner of the election even though Samuel J. Tilden had won the popular vote on November 7, 1876.

1888 The Convention of Constantinople was signed, guaranteeing free maritime passage through the Suez Canal during war and peace.

1901 The U.S. Congress passed the Platt amendment, limiting the autonomy of Cuba as a condition for the withdrawal of American troops.

 

1903 In New York City the Martha Washington Hotel opened, becoming the first hotel exclusively for women.

1904 Dr. Seuss (Theodor Seuss Geisel), American author, was born.

1917 The enactment of the Jones-Shafroth Act  granted Puerto Ricans United States citizenship.

1917 Desi Arnaz, Cuban-born actor and bandleader, was born.

1917 Nicholas II of Russia abdicated the throne in favor of his brother Michael II.

 

1919 The first Communist International meets in Moscow.

1923 George Basil Cardinal Hume, Archbishop of Westminster,, was born.

 

1931 Mikhail Gorbachev, President of the Soviet Union and Nobel laureate, was born.

1931 Tom Wolfe, American author, was born.

1933 The film King Kong opened at New York’s Radio City Music Hall.

 

1937  The Steel Workers Organizing Committee signed a surprise collective bargaining agreement with U.S. Steel, leading to unionization of the United States steel industry.

1938 Ricardo Lagos, President of Chile, was born.

1938 Lawrence Payton, American singer and songwriter (The Four Tops), was born.

 

1939 Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli was elected Pope and took the name Pius XII.

Pacelli12.jpg

1942  Lou Reed, American singer and guitarist, was born.

1943  Tony Meehan, English drummer (The Shadows), was born.

1946 Ho Chi Minh was elected the President of North Vietnam.

1948 Rory Gallagher, Irish guitarist, was born.

1949 Captain James Gallagher landed his B-50 Superfortress Lucky Lady II in Fort Worth, after completing the first non-stop around-the-world aeroplane flight in 94 hours and one minute.

 

1949 – The first automatic street light was installed in New Milford, Conn..

1950 Karen Carpenter, American singer and drummer (The Carpenters), was born.

1953 The Academy Awards were first broadcast on television by NBC.

1955 King Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia abdicated the throne in favor of his father, King Norodom Suramarit.

 

1955  Jay Osmond, American musician (The Osmonds), was born.

1956 John Cowsill, American musician (The Cowsills), was born.

 

1956 Mark Evans, Australian bassist (AC/DC), was born.

1956 Morocco declared its independence from France.

1962 Jon Bon Jovi, American musician (Bon Jovi), was born.

1962 In Burma, the army led by General Ne Win seized power in a coup d’état.

1968 Daniel Craig, English actor, was born.

1969 The first test flight of the Anglo-French Concorde was conducted.

 

1970 Rhodesia declared itself a republic.

1972  The Pioneer 10 space probe was launched from Cape Canaveral.

Pioneer 10 at Jupiter.gif

1977 Chris Martin, English musician (Coldplay), was born.

1978 Czech Vladimír Remek becomes the first non-Russian or non-American to go into space aboard Soyuz 28.

VladimirRemek.jpg

1989 Twelve European Community nations agreed to ban the production of all chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) by the end of the century.

1990  Nelson Mandela elected deputy President of the African National Congress.

Nelson Mandela on his 90th birthday in 2008.

1991 Battle at Rumaila Oil Field brings an end to the 1991 Gulf War.

1992 Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, San Marino, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan joined the United Nations.

2004  Al Qaeda carried out the Ashoura Massacre, killing 170 and wounding over 500.

Sourced from NZ History On Line & WIkipedia


January 21 in history

January 21, 2010

On January 21:

1189 – Philip II of France and Richard I of England began to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade.

Siege of Acre.jpg

1525 – The Swiss Anabaptist Movement is born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptize each other in the home of Manz’s mother in Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union.

1643 Abel Tasman was the first European to reach Tonga.

Fragment of “Portrait of Abel Tasman, his wife and daughter” attributed to Jacob Gerritsz Cuyp,

1749 – The Verona Philharmonic Theatre was destroyed by fire.

1789 The first American novel, The Power of Sympathy or the Triumph of Nature Founded in Truth, was printed in Boston, Massachusetts.

  • 1793 – After being found guilty of treason by the French Convention, Louis XVI of France was executed by guillotine.
  • 1824   Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, American, Confederate army general was born.

    Stonewall Jackson.jpg

    1864 – The Tauranga Campaign started during the New Zealand Land Wars.

    1887 – Brisbane received a daily rainfall of 465 millimetres (18.3 inches), a record for any Australian capital city.

    1893 – The Tati Concessions Land, formerly part of Matabeleland, was formally annexed to the Bechuanaland Protectorate, which is now Botswana.

    1899 – Opel manufactured its first automobile.

    Opel logo.svg

    1905 Christian Dior, French fashion designer, was born.

    Christian Dior
    Christian Dior - book cover.jpg

    1908 – New York City passed the Sullivan Ordinance, making it illegal for women to smoke in public, but the measure was vetoed by the mayor.

    1911 – The first Monte Carlo Rally.

    1915 – Kiwanis International  was founded in Detroit, Michigan.

     
    Kiwanis-logo.png

    1919 – Meeting of the First Dáil Éireann in the Mansion House Dublin. Sinn Féin adopted Ireland’s first constitution. The first engagement of Irish War of Independence, Sologhead Beg, County Tipperary.

    1921 The Italian Communist Party was founded at Livorno.

    1924 Benny Hill, English actor, comedian, and singer, was born.

    1925  Albania declared itself a republic.

    1938 Wolfman Jack, American disk jockey and actor, was born.

    1940  Jack Nicklaus, American golfer, was born.

    JackNicklaus.cropped.jpg

    1941 Plácido Domingo, Spanish tenor, was born.

     

    1942,  Mac Davis, American musician, was born.


    1944 New Zealand & Australia signed the Canberra Pact, which was an undertaking by both countries to co-operate on international matters, especially in the Pacific.

    NZ and Australia sign the Canberra Pact

    1950 Billy Ocean, West Indian musician, was born.

     1953 Paul Allen, American entrepreneur, co-founder of Microsoft, was born.

    1954 – The first nuclear-powered submarine, the USS Nautilus (SSN-571), was launched in Groton, Connecticut by Mamie Eisenhower, the First Lady of the United States.

    1958 – The last Fokker C.X in military service, the Finnish Air Force FK-111 target tower, crashed, killing the pilot and winch-operator.

    1960 – Miss Sam, a female rhesus monkey, lifted off from Wallops Island, Virginia, aboard Little Joe 1B – an unmanned test of the Mercury spacecraft.

     

    1968 Battle of Khe Sanh – One of the most publicised and controversial battles of the Vietnam War began.

    1974 Rove McManus, Australian television host and comedian, was born.

    1976 – Commercial service of Concorde began with London-Bahrain and Paris-Rio routes.

    1976 Emma Bunton, English singer (Spice Girls), was born.

    1977 – President Jimmy Carter pardoned nearly all American Vietnam War draft evaders.

    1981 – Tehran released United States hostages after 444 days.

    1997 – Newt Gingrich became the first leader of the United States House of Representatives to be internally disciplined for ethical misconduct.

    1999 – War on Drugs: In one of the largest drug busts in American history, the United States Coast Guard intercepted a ship with over 4,300 kg (9,500 lb) of cocaine on board.

    2002 – The Canadian Dollar set all-time low against the US Dollar (US$0.6179).

    2008 – Black Monday in worldwide stock markets. FTSE 100 had its biggest ever one-day points fall, European stocks closed with their worst result since 11 September 2001, and Asian stocks dropped as much as 15%.

    Sourced from NZ hisotry Online & Wikipedia.


    November 26 in history

    November 26, 2009

    On November 26:

    43 BC The Second Triumvirate alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (“Octavian”, later “Caesar Augustus”), Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, and Mark Antony was formed.

     

    1731 William Cowper, English poet, was born.

     

    1778 Captain James Cook became the first European to visit Maui.

    1789  A national Thanksgiving Day was observed in the United States as recommended by President George Washington and approved by Congress.

    Thanksgiving
    The First Thanksgiving, painting by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris (1863–1930)

    1842 – The University of Notre Dame was founded.

    1876  Willis Carrier, American engineer and inventor, was born.

    1895 Bill Wilson, American co-founder of Alcoholics Anonymous, was born.

    1922 Charles M. Schulz, American cartoonist, was born.

     

    1923  Pat Phoenix, English actress, was born.

    ElsieTanner1961.jpg

    1924  George Segal, American Pop Sculptor, was born.

    1939 Tina Turner, American singer and actress, was born.

    1941  U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a bill establishing the fourth Thursday in November as Thanksgiving Day in the United States.

    1960 Keith Holyoake began his 12 year service as Prime Minister.

    1970 In Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, 1.5 inches (38.1 mm) of rain fell in a minute, the heaviest rainfall ever recorded.

    Basse-Terre.PNG

    1998  Tony Blair became the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom to address the Republic of Ireland‘s parliament.

     

    2003 Concorde made its final flight, over Bristol, England.

     

    Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia.


    November 22 in history

    November 22, 2009

    On November 22:

    1574 Discovery of the Juan Fernández Islands off Chile.

    1718 Pirate Edward Teach (best known as “Blackbeard“) was killed in battle with a boarding party led by Lieutenant Robert Maynard.

    Blackbeard.gif

    1808  Thomas Cook, British travel entrepreneur, was born.

    1819  George Eliot, (Mary Ann Evans) British novelist, was born.

    1859  Charles Darwin‘s book On the Origin of Species was first offered for sale, in London.

    Origin of Species title page.jpg

    1899 Hoagy Carmichael, American composer, was born.

    1890 Charles de Gaulle, President of France (, was born.

    1913 Benjamin Britten, British composer, was born.

    1914 Peter Townsend, British Equerry and air pilot, was born.
    1919 – Máire Drumm, Irish civil rights activist, was born.
    1928 The premier performance of Ravel‘s Boléro took place in Paris.

     

    Ida Rubinstein, the inspiration behind Bolero. Portrait by Valentin Serov.
    1932 – Robert Vaughn, American actor, was born.
    1939 General Bernard Freyburg took command of the New Zealand Expeditionary force.
    1943  Billie Jean King, American tennis player, was born.
    Billie Jean King by David Shankbone.jpg

    1943  Lebanon gained independence from France.

    1958  Jamie Lee Curtis, American actress, was born.

    1963  US President John F. Kennedy was killed and Texas Governor John B. Connally is seriously wounded by Lee Harvey Oswald.

    1975 Juan Carlos was declared King of Spain following the death of Francisco Franco.

    1977 British Airways inaugurated a regular London to New York City supersonic Concorde service.

     

    1998  British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher withdrew from the Conservative Party leadership election, confirming the end of her premiership.

    1995 Toy Story was released as the first feature-length film created completely using computer-generated imagery.

    Film poster showing a toy cowboy anxiously holding onto a smiling toy astronaut (with wings) as he flies in a kid's room. Below them sitting on a bedare various smiling toys watching the pair, including a Mr. Potato Head, a piggy bank, and a toy dinosaur. In the lower right center of the image is the film's title. The background shows the cloud wallpaper featured in the bedroom.

    2005 Angela Merkel became the first female Chancellor of Germany.

    Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia.


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