May 9 in history

May 9, 2010

On May 9:

1457 BC – Battle of Megiddo  between Thutmose III and a large Canaanite coalition under the King of Kadesh – the first battle to have been recorded in what is accepted as relatively reliable detail.

Thutmosis III statue in Luxor Museum

1012 BC – Solar Eclipse seen at Ugarit, 6:09–6:39 PM.

328  Athanasius was elected Patriarch bishop of Alexandria.

1092  Lincoln Cathedral was consecrated.

Lincoln Cathedral from Castle Hill.jpg

1450  ‘Abd al-Latif (Timurid monarch) was assassinated.

1502 Christopher Columbus left Spain for his fourth and final journey to the New World.

 

1671  Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempted to steal England’s Crown Jewels from the Tower of London.

 

1726  Five men arrested during a raid on Mother Clap‘s molly house in London were executed at Tyburn.

1800 John Brown, American abolitionist was born(d. 1859).

1837 Adam Opel, German engineer and industrialist was born (d. 1895).

1860 1860J. M. Barrie, Scottish author, was born (d. 1937).

 

1868 The city of Reno, Nevada, was founded.

1873 Der Krach: Vienna stock market crash heralded the Long Depression.

1874  The first horse-drawn bus made its début in the city of Mumbai, traveling two routes.

1877 Mihail Kogălniceanu read, in the Chamber of Deputies, the Declaration of Independence of Romania. This day became the Independence Day of Romania.

 

1887  Buffalo Bill Cody’s Wild West Show opens in London.

 

1893 William Moulton Marston, American psychologist, writer, was born (co-creator, Wonder Woman) (d. 1947).

WonderWomanV5.jpg

1901 Australia opened its first parliament in Melbourne.

 

1904 The steam locomotive City of Truro became the first steam engine in Europe to exceed 100mph.

 

1907 The first School Journal was published.

First School Journal published

1911 The works of Gabriele D’Annunzio placed by the Vatican in the Index of Forbidden Books.

 

1914 Hank Snow, American country music singer and songwriter, was born (d. 1999).

1915 World War I: Second Battle of Artois between German and French forces.

Capture of Carency aftermath 1915 1.jpg

1919  Arthur English, English actor and comedian, was born (d. 1995).

1920 Richard Adams, English author, was born.

 

1920 Polish-Soviet War: The Polish army under General Edward Rydz-Śmigły celebrated its capture of Kiev with a victory parade on Khreschatyk.

Edward Rydz-Smigly.jpg

1926 Admiral Richard E. Byrd and Floyd Bennett claimed to have flown over the North Pole (later discovery of Byrd’s diary seemed to indicate that this did not happen).

   Floyd Bennett.jpg

1927  The Australian Parliament first convened in Canberra.

1929 Kay Dotrice, British actress, was born (d. 2007)

1930  Joan Sims, British actress, was born (d. 2001)

1932  Geraldine McEwan, English actress, was born.

1933  About 25,000 books were burned by the Nazis in Germany.

1933  Jessica Steele, English romance novelist, was born,

 

1934Alan Bennett, British author, was born.

1935 – Roger Hargreaves, English children’s author (Mr. Men) was born (d. 1988)

 

1936  Albert Finney, British actor was born.

 

1936 – Glenda Jackson, English actress and politician was born.

 

1936 Italy formally annexed Ethiopia.

1937Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy took to the airwaves becoming an overnight radio sensation.

1940  World War II: The German submarineU-9 sank the French coastal submarine Doris near Den Helder.

U-9 IWM HU 1012.jpg

1941  World War II: The German submarine U-110 was captured by the Royal Navy. On board was the latest Enigma cryptography machine which Allied cryptographers later used to break coded German messages.

U-110 and HMS Bulldog

1942 Holocaust: The SS murdered 588 Jewish residents of the Podolian town of Zinkiv (Khmelnytska oblast, Ukraine). The Zoludek Ghetto was destroyed and all its inhabitants murdered or deported.

1945  World War II: Ratification in Berlin-Karlshorst of the German unconditional surrender of May 8 in Rheims, France, with the signatures of Marshal Georgy Zhukov for the Soviet Union, and for the Western Headquarters Sir Arthur Tedder, British Air Marshal and Eisenhower’s deputy, and for the German side of Colonel-General Hans-Jürgen Stumpff as the representative of the Luftwaffe, Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel as the Chief of Staff of OKW, and Admiral Hans-Georg von Friedeburg as Commander-in-Chief of the Kriegsmarine.

 

1945 New Zealand celebrated victory in Europe.

NZ celebrates Victory in Europe

Steve Katz, American musician (Blood, Sweat & Tears), was born.

 

1946 – King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy abdicated and was succeeded by Humbert II.

 Candice Bergen, American actress, was born.

1949 Rainier III  becames Prince of Monaco.

 

1949 Billy Joel, American musician, was born.

1950  Robert Schuman presented his proposal on the creation of an organized Europe, indispensable to the maintenance of peaceful relations.

1950 – L. Ron Hubbard‘s Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health was released.

Dianetics.JPG

1955 Cold War: West Germany joined NATO.

1955 Sam and Friends debuted on a local United States television channel, marking the first television appearance of both Jim Henson and what would become Kermit the Frog and The Muppets.

Tv sam and friends.jpg

1960  The FDA announced it would approve birth control as an additional indication for Searle’s Enovid, making Enovid the world’s first approved oral contraceptive pill.

Pilule contraceptive.jpg

1961  Jim Gentile of the Baltimore Orioles became the first player in baseball history to hit grand slams in consecutive innings.

1962 David Gahan, English singer (Depeche Mode), was born.

1964 Ngo Dinh Can, de facto ruler of central Vietnam under his brother President Ngo Dinh Diem before the family’s toppling, was executed.

Tall Caucasian man standing in profile at left in a white suit and tie shakes hands with a smaller black-haired Asian man in a white shirt, dark suit and tie. 

1969 Carlos Lamarca led the first urban guerrilla action against the military dictatorship of Brazil in São Paulo, by robbing two banks.

1970 Vietnam War: In Washington, D.C., 75,000 to 100,000 war protesters demonstrated in front of the White House.

 Paul McGuigan, English bassist (Oasis), was born.

1974  Watergate Scandal: The United States House of Representatives Judiciary Committee opened formal and public impeachment hearings against President Richard Nixon.

1980 Liberian freighter MV Summit Venture collided with the Sunshine Skyway Bridge over Tampa Bay, making a 1,400-ft. section of the southbound span collapse. 35 people in six cars and a Greyhound bus fell 150 ft. into the water.

 

1980 – In Norco, California, five masked gunman hold up a Security Pacific bank, leading to a violent shoot-out and one of the largest pursuits in California history. Two of the gunmen and one police officer were killed and thirty-three police and civilian vehicles destroyed in the chase.

1987 A Polish LOT Ilyushin IL-62M “Tadeusz Kościuszko” (SP-LBG) crashed after takeoff in Warsaw killing 183 people.

1988 The new Australian Parliament House opened in Canberra.

 

1992 Armenian forces captured Shusha, marking a major turning point in the Karabakh War.

Tank memorial Stepanakert.JPG

2001   Accra Sports Stadium Disaster: 129 football fans died in a stampede (caused by the firing of teargas by police personnel at the stadium)that followed a controversial decision by the referee handling a crucial match between arch-rivals Accra Hearts of Oak and Kumasi Asante Kotoko.

logo

2002  The 38-day stand-off in the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem ended when the Palestinians inside agree to have 13 suspected militants among them deported to several different countries.

2002 – In Kaspiysk, Russia, a remote-controlled bomb exploded during a holiday parade killing 43 and injuring at least 130.

2004 Chechen president Akhmad Kadyrov was killed in a land mine bomb blast under a VIP stage during a World War II memorial victory parade in Grozny.

2006 Estonia ratified the European Constitution.

 Ratifications in member states and candidate countries

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


May 4 in history

May 4, 2010

On May 4:

1008 Khajeh Abdollah Ansari, The Persian Sufi was born (d. 1088).

 Tomb in Herat

1256  The mendicant Order of Saint Augustine was constituted at the Lecceto Monastery when Pope Alexander IV issued a papal bull Licet ecclesiae catholicae.

1343 The four Estonian kings were murdered at the negotiations with the Livonian Order.

1415 Religious reformers John Wycliffe and Jan Hus were condemned as heretics at the Council of Constance.

 

1471  Wars of the Roses: The Battle of Tewkesbury: Edward IV defeatsed a LancastrianArmy and killed Edward, Prince of Wales.

MS Ghent - Battle of Tewkesbury.jpg

1493 Pope Alexander VI gave most of the New World to Spain via the papal bull Inter caetera.

 

1494 Christopher Columbus landed in Jamaica.

1626  Dutch explorer Peter Minuit arrived in New Netherland (present day Manhattan Island) aboard the See Meeuw.

1655 Bartolomeo Cristofori, Italian maker of musical instruments, was born (d. 1731).

 

1675  King Charles II  ordered the construction of the Royal Greenwich Observatory.

 

1715 Richard Graves, English writer, was born (d. 1804).

1722 French explorer Marion du Fresne arrived in the Bay of Islands.

Marion du Fresne arrives in Bay of Islands

1776  Rhode Island became the first American colony to renounce allegiance to King George III.

Flag of Rhode Island State seal of Rhode Island

1799 Fourth Anglo-Mysore War: The Battle of Seringapatam: The siege of Seringapatam ended when the city was assaulted and the Tipu Sultan killed by the besieging British army, under the command of General George Harris.

Tipu death.jpg

1814 Emperor Napoleon I of France arrivesdat Portoferraio on the island of Elba to begin his exile.

Cartoon of Napoleon sitting back to front on a donkey with a broken sword and two soldiers in the background drumming 

1814 – King Ferdinand VII of Spain signed the Decrete of the 4th of May, returning Spain to absolutism.

1855  William Walker departed from San Francisco with about 60 men to conquer Nicaragua.

1859  The Cornwall Railway opened across the Royal Albert Bridge linking the counties of Devon and Cornwall.

The Royal Albert Bridgethat carries the Cornwall Railway across the River Tamar

1863  American Civil War: The Battle of Chancellorsville ended with a Union retreat.

 Battle of Chancellorsville.png

1869 – The Naval Battle of Hakodate took place in Japan.

Naval battle of Hakodate

1886 Haymarket Square Riot: A bomb was thrown at policemen trying to break up a labor rally in Chicago, killing eight and wounding 60.

 

1904  The United States began construction of the Panama Canal.

{{{alt}}}

1904  Charles Stewart Rolls met Frederick Henry Royce at the Midland Hotel in Manchester.

 

1910 The Royal Canadian Navy was created.

Canadian Blue Ensign.svg

1912  Italy occupied the Greek sland of Rhodes.

 
Palace of the Grand Master in the city of Rhodes

1919  May Fourth Movement: Student demonstrations in Tiananmen Squarein Beijing protesting the Treaty of Versailles, which transferred Chinese territory to Japan.

 

1932  Mobster Al Capone began serving an eleven-year prison sentence for tax evasion.

1942 World War II: The Battle of the Coral Sea began with an attack by aircraft from the United States aircraft carrier USS Yorktown on Japanese naval forces at Tulagi Island in the Solomon Islands.

An explosion aboard USS Lexington

1945 World War II: British forces liberated Neuengamme concentration camp near Hamburg.

 

1945 – World War II: The North Germany Army surrendered to Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery.

Bernard Law Montgomery.jpg

1946  U.S. Marines stopped a two-day riot t which killed five people at Alcatraz federal prison .

1949 The  Torino football team (except for one player who did not take the trip due to an injury) was killed in a plane crash at the Superga hill at the edge of Turin, Italy.

 

1953  Ernest Hemingway was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for The Old Man and the Sea.

Original book cover

1961 American civil rights movement: The “Freedom Riders” begin a bus trip through the South.

1970 Vietnam War:  Kent State shootings: the Ohio National Guard, sent to Kent State University after disturbances in the city of Kent the weekend before, opened fire killing four students and wounding nine others.

 

1972 The Don’t Make A Wave Committee, a fledgling environmental organisation founded in Canada in 1971, officially changed its name to “Greenpeace Foundation“.

Greenpeace.svg

1974 An all-female Japanese team reached the summit of Manaslu, becoming the first women to climb an 8,000-meter peak.

1979 Margaret Thatcher beccame the first female Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

A professional photograph of a lady with ginger-blonde hair, sitting in a traditional style and wearing jewellery.

1980  President Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia diedin Ljubljana at the age of 87.

1982  Twenty sailors were killed when the British Type 42 destroyer HMS Sheffield was hit by an Argentinian Exocet missile during the Falklands War.

HMS Sheffield (D80).jpg

1987 United States Supreme Court building was designated a National Historic Landmark.

1988 The PEPCON disaster rocked  Henderson, Nevada, as tons of space shuttle fuel detonates during a fire.

 

1989  Iran-Contra Affair: Former White House aide Oliver North was convicted of three crimes and acquitted of nine other charges. The convictions are, however, later overturned on appeal.

OliverNorth.JPG

1990  Latvia proclaimed the renewal of its independence after the Soviet occupation.

1994  Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO leader Yasser Arafat signed the Oslo accords regarding Palestinian self-rule in the Gaza Strip and Jericho.

Palestinian territories
Palestinians
Israel

1996 José María Aznar was elected Prime Minister of Spain, ending 13 years of Socialist rule.

1998 Unabomber” Theodore Kaczynski  ws given four life sentences plus 30 years after Kaczynski accepted a plea agreement sparing him from the death penalty.

A man in a jacket with handcuffs

2000  Ken Livingstone became he first Mayor of London.

2001 – The Milwaukee Art Museum addition, the first Santiago Calatrava-designed structure in the United States, openedto the public.

 

2002  An EAS Airlines BAC 1-11-500 crashed in a suburb of Kano, Nigeria shortly after takeoff killing more than 148 people.

2007  Greensburg, Kansas was almost completely destroyed by a 1.7mi wide EF-5 tornado.

2007 –The Scottish National Party wonthe Scottish general election and became the largest party in the Scottish Parliament for the first time ever.

Yellow ribbon logo.

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


May 3 in history

May 3, 2010

On May 3:

1469 Niccolò Machiavelli, Italian historian and political author was born (d. 1527).

1491  Kongo monarch Nkuwu Nzinga was baptised by Portuguese missionaries, adopting the baptismal name of João I.

 

1494  Christopher Columbus first sighted what is now known as Jamaica.

1715 Edmund Halley’s total solar eclipse.

1768 Charles Tennant, Scottish chemist and industrialist, was born (d. 1838).

1791  The Constitution of May 3 (the first modern constitutionin Europe)  was proclaimed by the Sejm of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

 

1802  Washington, D.C. was incorporated as a city.

1808  Finnish War: Sweden lost the fortress of Sveaborg to Russia.

1808 Peninsular War: The Madrid rebels were fired upon near Príncipe Pío hill.

 The Third of May 1808 by Francisco Goya

1815 Neapolitan War: Joachim Murat, King of Naples was defeated by the Austrians at the Battle of Tolentino, the decisive engagement of the war.

Battle of Tolentino.jpg

1820 Missionary John Butler turned the first furrow at Kerikeri, becoming the first to use a European plough in New Zealand.

First European plough used in NZ

1830  The Canterbury and Whitstable Railway was opened – the first steam hauled passenger railway to issue season tickets and include a tunnel.

 

1837  The University of Athens was founded.

 
Uoa-logo.jpg

1844 Richard D’Oyly Carte, English theatrical impresario was born (d. 1901).

 

1849  The May Uprising in Dresden began – the last of the German revolutions of 1848.

Barricades - 1848 Germany.jpg

1860 Charles XV of Sweden-Norway was crowned king of Sweden.  

1867 The Hudson’s Bay Company gave up all claims to Vancouver Island.

 

1877  Labatt Park, the oldest continually operating baseball grounds in the world had its first game.

World's oldest ball park.jpg

1887 Margaret Cruickshank became the first woman to be registered as a doctor in New Zealand.

NZ's first woman doctor registered

1898  Golda Meir, Prime Minister of Israel, was born(d. 1978).

1901 The Great Fire of 1901 began in Jacksonville, Florida.

 

1903  Bing Crosby, American singer and actor, was born  (d. 1977).

1913  Raja Harishchandra the first full-length Indian feature film was released.

1915 The poem In Flanders Fields was written by Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae.

1916 The leaders of the Easter Rising were executed in Dublin.

 

1919 Pete Seeger, American singer, was born.

1920 A Bolshevik coup failsedin the Democratic Republic of Georgia.

1921 Sugar Ray Robinson, American boxer was born (d. 1989).

Sugarrayrobinson.jpg

1921 Joe Ames, American singer, was born (d. 2007).

1926  Ann B. Davis, American actress Alice on The Brady Bunch, was born.

1928  Japanese atrocities in Jinan, China.

1933  Nellie Tayloe Ross becomes the first woman to head the United States Mint.

1933 James Brown, American singer and dancer, was born (d. 2006).

1934 Frankie Valli, American singer (The Four Seasons), was born.

1937  Gone with the Wind, by Margaret Mitchell, won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction.

Gone with the Wind cover.jpg

1942  World War II: Japanese naval troops invaded Tulagi Island in the Solomon Islands during the first part of Operation Mo .

1945 World War II: Sinking of the prison ships Cap Arcona, Thielbek and Deutschland by the Royal Air Force in Lübeck Bay.

1946 International Military Tribunal for the Far East began in Tokyo with twenty-eight Japanese military and government officials accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity.

 

1947 New post-war Japanese constitution went into effect.

 

1948  The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that covenants prohibiting the sale of real estate to blacks and other minorities were legally unenforceable.

1951  London’s Royal Festival Hall openedwith the Festival of Britain.

 

1951 The United States Senate Armed Services and Foreign Relations Committees begin their closed door hearings into the dismissal of General Douglas MacArthur by U.S. President Harry Truman.

1951 – The Kentucky Derby was televised for the first time.

Kentucky Derby.svg

1951 Christopher Cross, American musician, was born.

1952  Lieutenant Colonels Joseph O. Fletcher and William P. Benedict landed a plane at the North Pole.

 

1960  The Off-Broadway musical comedy, The Fantasticks, openedin Greenwich Village, eventually becoming the longest-running musical of all time.

Fantasticks.jpg

1960 – The Anne Frank House opensedin Amsterdam.

 

1963 The police force in Birmingham, Alabama switches tactics and responded with violent force to stop the “Birmingham campaign” protesters.

Three black high school students, two boys and a girl, facing into a storefront window to avoid being hurt by a water cannon striking one boy at his back; all three are dripping with water 

1973 The Sears Tower in Chicago was topped out as the world’s tallest building.

Sears Tower ss.jpg

1978  The first unsolicited bulk commercial e-mail (later  known as “spam“) was sent by a Digital Equipment Corporation marketing representative to every ARPANET address on the west coast of the United States.

1986  Twenty-one people were killed and forty-one are injured after a bomb exploded in an airliner (Flight UL512) at Colomb  airport in Sri Lanka.

1991 The Declaration of Windhoek was signed.

1999  Oklahoma City was slammed by an F5 tornado killing forty-two people, injuring 665, and causing $1 billion in damage. One of 66 from the 1999 Oklahoma tornado outbreak, this was the strongest tornado ever recorded with wind speeds of up to 318 mph.

2000  The sport of geocaching began, with the first cache placed and the coordinates from a GPS posted on Usenet.

 

2002 A military MiG-21 aircraft crashed into the Bank of Rajasthan in India, killing eight.

2003  New Hampshire’s famous Old Man of the Mountain collapsed.

 

2006 Armavia Flight 967 crashed into the Black Sea, killing 113 people on board, with no survivors.

Sourced from NZ History Online & WIkipedia


April 30 in history

April 30, 2010

On April 30:

313  Roman emperor Licinius unified the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule.

 
132 Licinius.jpg

1006  Supernova SN 1006, the brightest supernova in recorded history, appeared in the constellation Lupus.

 

1315 Enguerrand de Marigny was hanged on the public gallows at Montfaucon.

1492 Spain gave Christopher Columbus his commission of exploration.

1513  Edmund de la Pole, Yorkist pretender to the English throne, was executed on the orders of Henry VIII.

John de la Pole, 1st Earl of Lincoln.jpg

1651 Jean-Baptiste de la Salle, French educational reformer, Catholic saint, was born (d. 1719).

1662 Queen Mary II of England was born (d. 1694).

1671  Petar Zrinski, the Croatian Ban from the Zrinski family, was executed.

Petar Zrinski (1621-1671)
 

1789  George Washington took the oath of office to become the first elected President of the United States.

 

1794  The Battle of Boulou was fought, in which French forces defeated the Spanish under General Union.

Bataille de Boulou.jpg

1803  Louisiana Purchase: The United States purchased the Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million, more than doubling the size of the young nation.

Location of Louisiana Purchase

1838  Nicaragua declared independence from the Central American Federation.

1864  Pai Marire warriors were defeated at Sentry Hill.

Pai Marire defeated at Sentry Hill Taranaki

1865 ex-Governor Robert Fitzroy committed suicide.

Ex-Governor FitzRoy commits suicide

1871 The Camp Grant Massacre took place in Arizona Territory.

1894 Coxey’s Army reached Washington, D.C. to protest the unemployment caused by the Panic of 1893.

 

1900 Hawaii became a territory of the United States, with Sanford B. Dole as governor.

1900  Casey Jones died in a train wreck in Vaughn, Mississippi, while trying to make up time on the Cannonball Express.

 

1904 The Louisiana Purchase Exposition World’s Fair opened in St. Louis, Missouri.

1907  Honolulu, Hawaii became an independent city.

1909  Queen Juliana of the Netherlands (d. 2004), was born.

 

1925 Dodge Brothers, Inc was sold to Dillon, Read & Company for $146 million plus $50 million for charity.

Dodge Logo

1927  The Federal Industrial Institute for Women, opened in Alderson, West Virginia, as the first women’s federal prison in the United States.

Alderson Federal Prison Camp entrance.jpg
 

1927 – Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford became the first celebrities to leave their footprints in concrete at Grauman’s Chinese Theater in Hollywood.

Grauman's Chinese Theatre, by Carol Highsmith fixed & straightened.jpg

1933 Willie Nelson, American musician, was born.

1937  The Philippines held a plebiscite for Filipino women on whether they should be extended the right to suffrage; more than 90% voted in the affirmative.

1938  The animated cartoon short Porky’s Hare Hunt debuted in movie theatres, introducing Happy Rabbit.

1938 The first televised FA Cup Final took place between Huddersfield Town and Preston North End.

1939  The 1939-40 New York World’s Fair opened

 

1939  NBC inaugurated its regularly scheduled television service in New York City, broadcasting President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s World’s Fair opening day ceremonial address.

NBC logo.svg

1943  World War II: Operation Mincemeat: The submarine HMS Seraph surfaced in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Spain to deposit a dead man planted with false invasion plans and dressed as a British military intelligence officer.

 

1945 World War II: Fuehrerbunker: Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun committed suicide after being married for one day. Soviet soldiers raised the Victory Banner over the Reichstag building.

 

1946 King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, was born.

1947 The Boulder Dam was renamed Hoover Dam a second time.

Hoover Dam

1948 The Organization of American States was established.

1949 António Guterres, former Prime Minister of Portugal, was born.

1953  In Warner Robins, Georgia, an F4 tornado killed 18 people.

1953 Merrill Osmond, American musician (The Osmonds), was born.

1954 Jane Campion, New Zealand film director, was born.

1956 Former Vice President and Senator Alben Barkley died during a speech in Virginia. He collapsed after proclaiming “I would rather be a servant in the house of the lord than sit in the seats of the mighty.”

1959 Stephen Harper, Prime Minister of Canada, was born.

1973  Watergate Scandal: U.S. President Richard Nixon announced that top White House aids H.R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman and others had resigned.

1975 Fall of Saigon: Communist forces gained control of Saigon. The Vietnam War formally ended with the unconditional surrender of South Vietnamese president Duong Van Minh.

1980 Accession of Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands.

1988 Queen Elizabeth II officially opened World Expo ’88 in Brisbane, Australia.

 

1993  CERN announced World Wide Web protocols will be free.

1993 Virgin Radio broadcast for the first time in the United Kingdom.

 

1995 U.S. President Bill Clinton became the first President to visit Northern Ireland.

1999 Cambodia joined the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) bringing the number of members to 10.

2004 U.S. media release graphic photos of American soldiers abusing and sexually humiliating Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison.

2008  Two skeletal remains found near Ekaterinburg, Russia were confirmed by Russian scientists to be the remains of Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia and one of his sisters Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna.

2009 Chrysler  filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.

Chrysler LLC logo.svg
 

Sourced from NZ History Online & WIkipedia


April 17 in history

April 17, 2010

On April 17:

 1397  Geoffrey Chaucer told the Canterbury Tales for the first time at the court of Richard II.

 

1492 Spain and Christopher Columbus signed the Capitulations of Santa Fe for his voyage to Asia to acquire spices.

 

1521 Martin Luther spoke to the assembly at the Diet of Worms, refusing to recant his teachings.

1524 Giovanni da Verrazzano reached New York harbour.

 

1555 After 18 months of siege, Siena surrendered to the Florentine-Imperial army. The Republic of Siena was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.

1620 Marguerite Bourgeoys, founder of the Congregation of Notre Dame, was born.

1797  Sir Ralph Abercromby attacked San Juan, Puerto Rico in what became one of the largest invasions of the Spanish territories in America.

Sir Ralph Abercromby by John Hoppner.jpg

1820 Alexander Joy Cartwright, Inventor of the Modern Game of Baseball, was born.

 

1837  J. P. Morgan, American financier, was born.

1861 American Civil War: Virginia seceded from the United States.

1864 American Civil War: The Battle of Plymouth began.

Capture of Plymouth, North Carolina.jpg

1865 Mary Surratt was arrested as a conspirator in the assassination of Abraham Lincoln.

1880 New Zealand’s first inter-city brass band contest was hled.

First inter-city brass band contest

1885 Karen Blixen (Isak Dinesen), Danish author, was born.

 

1895 The Treaty of Shimonoseki between China and Japan was signed. This marked the end of the First Sino-Japanese War, the defeated Qing Empire was forced to renounce its claims on Korea and to concede the southern portion of the Fengtien province, Taiwan and the Pescadores Islands to Japan.

 

1905 The Supreme Court of the United States decided Lochner v. New York which held that the “right to free contract” was implicit in the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution.

1907 The Ellis Island immigration centre processed 11,747 people, more than on any other day.

1918 William Holden, American actor, was born.

1924Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios was formed by the merger of Metro Pictures, Goldwyn Pictures, and the Louis B. Mayer Company.

MGM logo.png

1929 James Last, German band leader, was born.

 

1941 World War II: The Kingdom of Yugoslavia surrendered to Germany.

1942 French prisoner of war General Henri Giraud escaped from his castle prison in Festung Königstein.

Henri Giraud 1943Jan19.gif

194 Brazilian forces liberate the town of Montese, Italy, from German forces.

1949 At midnight 26 Irish counties officially left the British Commonwealth. A 21-gun salute on O’Connell Bridge, Dublin, ushered in the Republic of Ireland.

1957  Nick Hornby, English author, was born.

1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion: A group of CIA financed and trained Cuban refugees landed at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba with the aim of ousting Fidel Castro.

 

1964 The Ford Motor Company unveiled the Ford Mustang at the New York World’s Fair.

 

1964  Jerrie Mock became the first woman to circumnavigate the world by air.

 

1969 Sirhan Sirhan was convicted of assassinating Robert F. Kennedy.

1969 Czechoslovakian Communist Party chairman Alexander Dubček was deposed.

1970 Apollo 13 returned to Earth safely.

Apollo 13-insignia.png

1971 The People’s Republic of Bangladesh formed, under Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.

1971  Sierra Leone became a republic.

1973 German counter-terrorist unit GSG 9 founded.

1974 Victoria Beckham, English singer (Spice Girls), was born.

1975  The Cambodian Civil War ended. The Khmer Rouge captureed the capital Phnom Penh and Cambodian government forces surrendered.

Cambodia sm04.png

1982 Patriation of the Canadian constitution in Ottawa.

1984  Police Constable Yvonne Fletcher was killed by gunfire from the Libyan People’s Bureau in London during a small demonstration outside the embassy. Ten others were wounded.

 YvonneFletcher.jpg

1986 The Three Hundred and Thirty Five Years’ War between the Netherlands and the Isles of Scilly ended.

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


March 15 in history

March 15, 2010

On March 15:

44 BC Julius Ceasar was stabbed to death by Marcus Junius Brutus, Gaius Cassius Longinus, Decimus Junius Brutus and several other Roman senators on the Ides of March.

 

221 Liu Bei, a Chinese warlord and member of the Han royal house, declares himself emperor of Shu-Han and claims his legitimate succession to the Han Dynasty.

Liu Bei Tang.jpg

351 Constantius II elevated his cousin Gallus to Caesar, and puts him in charge of the Eastern part of the Roman Empire.

Solidus-Constantius Gallus-thessalonica RIC 149.jpg

933  After a ten-year truce, German King Henry I defeated a Hungarian army at the Battle of Riade.

1311 Battle of Halmyros: The Catalan Company defeated Walter V of Brienne to take control of the Duchy of Athens

1493  Christopher Columbus returned to Spain after his first trip to the Americas.

 

1545 First meeting of the Council of Trent.

 

1672 Charles II issued the Royal Declaration of Indulgence.

1767  Andrew Jackson, 7th President of the United States, was born.

1776 South Carolina became the first American colony to declare its independence from Great Britain and set up its own government.

Flag of South Carolina State seal of South Carolina

1779 Lord Melbourne, (William Lamb) Prime Minister of the United Kingdom,, was born.

1781 Battle of Guilford Courthouse: 1,900 British troops under General Charles Cornwallis defeated an American force numbering 4,400.

Battle of Guiliford Courthouse 15 March 1781.jpg

1783 George Washington asked his officers not to support the Newburgh Conspiracy. The plea was successful and the threatened coup d’état never eventuated.

 The Newburgh Address.

1809 Joseph Jenkins Roberts, first President of Liberia, was born.

1844 The New Zealand Company ended its colonising efforts.

New Zealand Company ends colonising efforts

1848 Revolution broke out in Hungary.

 

1877 The first cricket test started between England and Australia.

England and Wales Cricket Board.svgAustralia national cricket team logo

1906 Rolls-Royce Limited was incorporated.

Rollsroyce1905.jpg

1916 President Woodrow Wilson sent 12,000 United States troops over the U.S.-Mexico border to pursue Pancho Villa.

1917 Czar Nicholas II of Russia abdicated the Russian throne and his brother the Grand Duke Michael becomes Tsar.

1922  Fuad I becomes King of Egypt.

1926 The dictator Theodoros Pangalos was elected President of Greece without opposition.

 

1931 SS Viking exploded off Newfoundland, killing 27 of the 147 on board.

1933 Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss kept members of the National Council from convening, starting the austrofascist dictatorship.

1939 German troops occupied the remaining part of Bohemia and Moravia; Czechoslovakia ceased to exist.

1941 Mike Love, American musician (The Beach Boys), was born.

1943  Third Battle of Kharkov – Germans retook the city of Kharkov from the Soviet armies in bitter street fighting.

 

1944 Sly Stone, American musician, was born.

1944 New Zealand forces captured Castle Hill  during the Battle of Monte Cassino.

NZ forces capture Castle Hill at Cassino

 1952 In Cilaos, Réunion, 1870 mm (73 inches) of rain falls in one day, setting a new world record.

1961 South Africa withdraws from the Commonwealth of Nations.

1965 President Lyndon B. Johnson, responding to the Selma crisis, told U.S. Congress “We shall overcome” while advocating the Voting Rights Act.

Voting Rights Act - first page (hi-res).jpg

1985 The first Internet domain name is registered (symbolics.com).

1988 The Halabja poison gas attack of the Iran–Iraq War began.

1990 Iraq hung British journalist Farzad Bazoft for spying.

1990 Mikhail Gorbachev was elected as the first executive president of the Soviet Union.

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


March 4 in history

March 4, 2010

On March 4:

51 Nero, was given the title princeps iuventutis (head of the youth).

Nero 1.JPG

303 or 304  Martyrdom of Saint Adrian of Nicomedia.

852  Croatian Duke Trpimir I issued a statute, a document with the first known written mention of the Croats name in Croatian sources.

932  Translation of the relics of martyr Wenceslaus I, Duke of Bohemia, Prince of the Czechs.

1152 Frederick I Barbarossa was elected King of the Germans.

 

1215 King John of England made an oath to the Pope as a crusader to gain the support of Innocent III.

                         Innozenz3.jpg

1238 The Battle of the Sit River was fought between the Mongol Hordes of Batu Khan and the Russians under Yuri II of Vladimir-Suzdal during the Mongol invasion of Russia.

After the Battle of the Sit River (Vereshagin).jpgBishop Cyril finds headless body of Grand Duke Yuri 

1351 Ramathibodi became King of Siam.

1386 Władysław II Jagiełło (Jogaila) is crowned King of Poland.

1394  Henry the Navigator, was born.

1461 Wars of the Roses: Lancastrian King Henry VI was deposed by his Yorkist cousin, who then became King Edward IV.

1492 King James IV of Scotland concluded an alliance with France against England.

1493  Christopher Columbus arrived back in Lisbon aboard his ship Niña from his voyage to what is now The Bahamas and other islands in the Caribbean.

 

1519 Hernán Cortes arrived in Mexico in search of the Aztec civilization and their wealth.

1570 King Philip II of Spain banned foreign Dutch students.

1611 George Abbot is appointed Archbishop of Canterbury.

1629 Massachusetts Bay Colony was granted a Royal charter.

1665 King Charles II declared war on the Netherlands which marks the start of the Second Anglo-Dutch War.

Storck, Four Days Battle.jpg

1675 John Flamsteed was appointed the first Astronomer Royal of England.

1678  Antonio Vivaldi, Italian composer, was born.

 

1681 Charles II granted a land charter to William Penn for the area that became Pennsylvania.

 

1756 Sir Henry Raeburn, Scottish painter, was born.

 The Reverend Robert Walker Skating on Duddingston Loch, better known as The Skating Minister (1790s)

1778 The Continental Congress voted to ratify both the Treaty of Amity and Commerce  and the Treaty of Alliance with France – the first treaties entered into by the United States government.

 

1789 In New York City, the first United States Congress met, putting the Constitution of the United States into effect.

Page one of the original copy of the Constitution

1790 France was divided into 83 départements, which cuts across the former provinces in an attempt to dislodge regional loyalties based on ownership of land by the nobility.

1791 – A Constitutional Act iwa introduced by the British House of Commons which envisaged the separation of Canada into Lower Canada (Quebec) and Upper Canada (Ontario).

1793 French troops conquered Geertruidenberg, Netherlands.

1794 The 11th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was passed by the U.S. Congress.

1797 In the first ever peaceful transfer of power between elected leaders in modern times, John Adams was sworn in as President of the United States, succeeding George Washington.

A painted portrait of a man with greying hair, looking left.

1804 Castle Hill Rebellion: Irish convicts rebel against British colonial authority in the Colony of New South Wales.

Battle of VinegarHill.jpg

1813 Russian troops fighting the army of Napoleon reaced Berlin  and the French garrison evacuated the city without a fight.

1814 Americans defeated the British at the Battle of Longwoods .

1824 The “National Institution for the Preservation of Life from Shipwreck” was founded in the United Kingdom, later to be renamed The Royal National Lifeboat Institution in 1858.

1837 Chicago was incorporated as a city.

1848 Carlo Alberto di Savoia signed the Statuto Albertino that became the first constitution of the Regno d’Italia

1855 Sheep rustler James Mackenzie was caught in the Upper Waitaki with 1000 sheep from the Levels Station near Timaru.

Legendary sheep rustler James Mackenzie caught

 1861  First national flag of the Confederate States of America (the ‘Stars and Bars’) was adopted.

1877 Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky‘s ballet Swan Lake received its première performance at the Bolshoi Theatre.

 

1882 Britain‘s first electric trams run in East London.

1887 Gottlieb Daimler unveiled his first automobile.

 

1890 – The longest bridge in Great Britain, the Forth Railway Bridge in Scotland, measuring 1,710 feet (520 m) long, was opened by Edward the Prince of Wales.

1891 Lois Wilson, founder of Al-Anon, was born.

1893 The army of Francis, Baron Dhanis attacked the Lualaba, enabling him to transport his troops across the Upper Congo and, capture Nyangwe almost without an effort.

1894 Great fire in Shanghai. Over 1,000 buildings are destroyed.

1899 Cyclone Mahina swept in north of Cooktown, Queensland, with a 12 metre (39 ft) wave that reached up to 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) inland, killing over 300.

1902 The American Automobile Association was established.

 

1908 The Collinwood School Fire, Collinwood, Ohio, killed 174 people.

 

1911 Victor Berger (Wisconsin) became the first socialist congressman in U.S.

1917 Jeannette Rankin of Montana became the first female member of the United States House of Representatives.

1917 – Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich’s renunciation of the throne was made public, and Tsar Nicholas II publicly issued his abdication manifesto. The victory of the February Revolution.

1918 The first case of Spanish flu occurred, the start of a devastating worldwide pandemic.

 

1925 Calvin Coolidge became the first President of the United States to have his inauguration broadcast on radio.

1928 Alan Sillitoe, English writer, was born.

1929 Charles Curtis becomes the first native-American Vice President of the United States.

1930 Floods ransacked Languedoc and the surrounding area in south-west France, resulting in twelve départements being submerged by water and causing the death of over 700 people.

1931 The British Viceroy of India, Governor-General Edward Frederick Lindley Wood and Mohandas Gandhi (Mahatma Gandhi) met to sign an agreement envisaging the release of political prisoners and allowing salt to be freely used by the poorest members of the population.

 

1933 Frances Perkins became United States Secretary of Labor, the first female member of the United States Cabinet.

1933 – The Parliament of Austria was suspended because of a quibble over procedure – Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss initiated authoritarian rule by decree.

1941 The United Kingdom launched Operation Claymore on the Lofoten Islands.

HMS Legion Lofoten raids.jpg

1944 Michael “Mick” Wilson, drummer (Dave Dee, Dozy, Beaky, Mick & Tich), was born.

1945 Princess Elizabeth, joined the Women’s Auxiliary Territorial Service as a driver.

Young lady wearing overalls and a cap kneels on the ground to change the front-left wheel of a military truck 

1945 – Lapland War: Finland declared war on Nazi Germany.

1948 Lindy Chamberlain, who maintained a dingo stole her baby and whose conviction for murdering the baby was overturned, was born.

1948 Chris Squire, English bassist (Yes), was born.

1949 Carroll Baker, Canadian country singer and songwriter, was born.

1954 Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, announces the first successful kidney transplant.

1957 The S&P 500 stock market index is introduced, replacing the S&P 90.

1960 French freighter ‘La Coubre’ exploded in Havana, killing 100.

1962 The United States Atomic Energy Commission announced that the first atomic power plant at McMurdo Station in Antarctica was in operation.

1966  Canadian Pacific Air Lines DC-8-43 exploded on landing at Tokyo International Airport, killing 64 people.

1970 French submarine Eurydice exploded.

1976 The Northern Ireland Constitutional Convention was formally dissolved resulting in direct rule of Northern Ireland from London via the British parliament.

1976 – The last flight of the second Concorde prototype aircraft to the Fleet Air Arm Museum at the Royal Naval Air Station, Yeovilton.

 

1976 – The first Cray-1 supercomputer was shipped to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico.

 

1977 The 1977 Bucharest Earthquake in southern and eastern Europe killed more than 1,500.

 

1979 The first encyclical written by Pope John Paul II, Redemptor Hominis (“The Redeemer of Man”) was promulgated.

Pope John Paul II on 12 August 1993 in Denver (Colorado)

1980 Nationalist leader Robert Mugabe won a sweeping election victory to become Zimbabwe‘s first black prime minister.

1982 NASA launched the Intelsat V-508 satellite.

1983 Bertha Wilson was appointed the first woman to sit on the Supreme Court of Canada.

1985 The Food and Drug Administration approved a blood test for AIDS. 

1986 The Soviet Vega 1 began returning images of Comet Halley and the first images ever of its nucleus.

1991 Sheikh Saad Al-Abdallah Al-Salim Al-Sabah, the Prime Minister of Kuwait, returns to his country for the first time since Iraq‘s invasion.

1994 Space shuttle STS-62 (Columbia 16) launched into orbit.

Sts-62-patch.png

1994 – Bosnia’s Bosniaks and Croats signed an agreement to form a federation in a loose economic union with Croatia.

1997 U.S. President Bill Clinton banned federally funded human cloning research.

1998 Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services: The Supreme Court of the United States ruled that federal laws banning on-the-job sexual harassment also apply when both parties are the same sex.

2001 4 March 2001 BBC bombing: a massive car bomb explodes in front of the BBC Television Centre  seriously injuring 11 people. The attack was attributed to the Real IRA.

2001 Hintze Ribeiro disaster, a bridge collapses in northern Portugal, killing up to 70 people.

2002 Canada bans human embryo cloning but permits government-funded scientists to use embryos left over from fertility treatment or abortions.

2002 Multinational Force in Afghanistan: Seven American Special Operations Forces soldiers are killed as they attempt to infiltrate the Shahi Kot Valley on a low-flying helicopter reconnaissance mission.

2005 The car of released Italian hostage Giuliana Sgrena was fired on by US soldiers after it ran a roadblock in Iraq, causing the death of an Italian Secret Service Agent and injuring two passengers.

2007 Approximately 30,000 voters took advantage of electronic voting in Estonia, the world’s first nationwide voting where part of the votecasting is allowed in the form of remote electronic voting via the Internet.

2009 – The International Criminal Court (ICC) issues an arrest warrant for Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir for war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur – the first sitting head of state to be indicted by the ICC since its establishment in 2002.

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


%d bloggers like this: