April 26 in history

26/04/2010

On April 26:

570 Muhammed, founder of Islam, was born according to the Shi’a sect. Other sources suggest April 20.

 

1336 Francesco Petrarca (Petrarch) ascended  Mont Ventoux.

1478 The Pazzi attacked Lorenzo de’ Medici and killed his brother Giuliano during High Mass in the Duomo of Florence.

Portrait by Agnolo Bronzino

1564 Birthday of William Shakespeare, English poet and playwright (based on date of his baptism) (d. 1616).

1607  English colonists of the Jamestown settlement made landfall at Cape Henry, Virginia.

 

1802 Napoleon Bonaparte signed a general amnesty to allow all but about 1,000 of the most notorious émigrés of the French Revolution to return to France, as part of a reconciliary gesture with the factions of the Ancien Regime and to eventually consolidate his own rule.

Three-quarter length depiction of Bonaparte, with black tunic and leather gloves, holding a standard and sword, turning backwards to look at his troops 

1805 United States Marines captured Derne, Tripoli, under the command of First Lieutenant Presley O’Bannon.

PresleyOBannon.jpg

1856 Sir Joseph Ward, 17th Prime Minister of New Zealand (d. 1930), was born.

1865  American Civil War: Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston surrendered his army to General William Tecumseh Sherman at the Bennett Place near Durham, North Carolina.

Joseph Johnston.jpgWilliam-Tecumseh-Sherman.jpg

1865 Union cavalry troopers cornered and shot dead John Wilkes Booth, assassin of President Lincoln.

1879 Owen Willans Richardson, British physicist, Nobel laureate, was born (d. 1959).

1888 Anita Loos, American writer was born, (d. 1981).

1889 Ludwig Wittgenstein, Austrian-born philosopher, was born (d. 1951).

1894 Rudolf Hess, Nazi official was born (d. 1987).

1900 Charles Richter, American geophysicist was born (d. 1985).

1916 Morris West, Australian writer was born  (d. 1999).

1925  Paul von Hindenburg defeated Wilhelm Marx in the second round of the German presidential election to become the first directly elected head of state of the Weimar Republic.

1933 Carol Burnett, American comedian, was born.

1933 The Gestapo, the official secret police force of Nazi Germany, was established.

1937  Spanish Civil War: Guernica, was bombed by German Luftwaffe.

 

1943 The Union Steam Ship Company freighter Limerick was topedoed in the Tasman.

  NZ ship torpedoed in Tasman

1945 World War II: Battle of Bautzen – last successful German tank-offensive of the war and last noteworthy victory of the Wehrmacht.

GedenksteinBautzen.jpg

1946 Father Divine, a controversial religious leader who claimed to be God, married the much-younger Edna Rose Ritchings, a celebrated anniversary in the International Peace Mission movement.

1954 The Geneva Conference, an effort to restore peace in Indochina and Korea, began.

 

1956 First container ship left Port Newark,  for Houston.

 

1956 Koo Stark, American actress, was born.

1960 Roger Taylor, English musician (Duran Duran), was born.

1962 NASA’s Ranger 4 spacecraft crashed into the Moon.

Ranger 4

1963 Amendments to the constitution transformed Libya into one national unity and allowed for female participation in elections.

1964 Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form Tanzania.

1965 A Rolling Stones concert in London, Ontario was shut down by police after 15 minutes due to rioting.

1966  An earthquake of magnitude 7.5 destroys Tashkent.

1966  A new government was formed in the Republic of Congo, led by Ambroise Noumazalaye.

1970 The Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization entered into force

1982 57 people were killed by former police officer Woo Bum-kon in a shooting spree in Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea.

1982 Jon Lee, British singer (S Club), was born.

1986 A nuclear reactor accident occured at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant.

 

1991 Seventy tornadoes broke out in the central United States.

1994 – A China Airlines Airbus A300-600R crashed at Nagoya Airport, Japan killing all but seven passengers, with a death toll amounting to 264. See also China Airlines flight 140.

1994  Physicists announced first evidence of the top quark subatomic particle.

Top antitop quark event.svg

2002 Robert Steinhäuser infiltrated and kills 17 at Gutenberg-Gymnasium in Erfurt, Germany before dying of a self-inflicted gunshot.

 

2005 – Under international pressure, Syria withdrew the last of its 14,000 troop military garrison in Lebanon, ending its 29-year military domination of that country.

2005 Civil unions came into effect in New Zealand.

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


December 15 in history

15/12/2009

On December 15:

37 Nero, Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, was born.

Nero 1.JPG

1791  The United States Bill of Rights became law when ratified by the Virginia General Assembly.

United States Bill of Rights

1832 Gustave Eiffel, French engineer and architect (Eiffel tower), was born.

1863 The mountain railway from Anina to Oravita in Romania was used for the first time.

1891  James Naismith introduced the first version of basketball, with thirteen rules, a peach basket nailed to either end of his school’s gymnasium, and two teams of nine players.

 
1892 J. Paul Getty, American oil tycoon, was born.
As I See It, J. Paul Getty’s Autobiography
1905 The Pushkin House is established in St. Petersburg to preserve the cultural heritage of Alexander Pushkin.
 
 
  • 1906 – The London Underground‘s Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway opened.
  •   

    1915 – World War I: Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig replaced John French, 1st Earl of Ypres as Commander-in-Chief of the British Expeditionary Force.

    Douglas Haig.jpg

    1930 Edna O’Brien, Irish novelist and short story writer, was born.

    1933  – Donald Woods, South African journalist and anti-apartheid activist, was born.

    1939 Cindy Birdsong, American singer (The Supremes), was born.

     The Supremes Jean Terrell (left), Cindy Birdsong (center), Mary Wilson (right) circa 1970

    1939  Gone with the Wind received its première at Loew’s Grand Theater in Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

     

    1944 The Finance Act (No. 3) abolished the Chinese poll tax, introduced in 1881, which was described by Minister of Finance Walter Nash as a ‘blot on our legislation’.

    Poll tax on Chinese immigrants abolished

    1951 The towering Belmont railway viaduct, which bridged a deep gully at Paparangi, northeast of Johnsonville, Wellington, built in 1885 by the Wellington and Manawatu Railway Company, was demolished by Territorial Army engineers.

    Belmont viaduct blown up

    1955  Jens Olsen’s World Clock started by Swedish King Frederick IX and Jens Olsen’s youngest grandchild Birgit.

     The back of Jens Olsen’s World Clock

    1965  Gemini 6A, crewed by Wally Schirra and Thomas Stafford, was launched from Cape Kennedy, Florida. Four orbits later, it achieved the first space rendezvous with Gemini 7.

    Ge06Patch emb.png

    1973  John Paul Getty III, grandson of American billionaire J. Paul Getty, was found alive near Naples, Italy, after being kidnapped by an Italian gang on July 10, 1973.

    1978  President Jimmy Carter announced that the United States will recognize the People’s Republic of China and cut off all relations with Taiwan.

    1997 The Treaty of Bangkok was signed allowing the transformation of Southeast Asia into a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone.

    2000 The 3rd reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was shut down due to foreign political pressure.

    Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station, viewed from the roof of a building in Prypiat, Ukraine.   Fourth reactor

    2001 The Leaning Tower of Pisa reopened after 11 years and $27,000,000 to fortify it, without fixing its famous lean.

    2006  First flight of the F-35 Lightning II.

    Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia.

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