176 – Emperor Marcus Aurelius granted his son Commodus the rank of Imperator and made him Supreme Commander of the Roman legions.
1095 – Pope Urban II declared the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont.
1703 – The first Eddystone Lighthouse was destroyed in the Great Storm of 1703.
1815 – Adoption of Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland.
1830 – St. Catherine Laboure experienced a vision of the Blessed Virgin standing on a globe, crushing a serpent with her feet, and emanating rays of light from her hands.
1839 – The American Statistical Association was founded.
1856 – The Coup of 1856 led to Luxembourg’s unilateral adoption of a new, reactionary constitution.
1868 – Indian Wars: Battle of Washita River – United States Army Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer led an attack on Cheyenne living on reservation land.
1874 Chaim Weizmann, 1st President of Israel, was born.
1895 – Alfred Nobel signed his last will and testament, setting aside his estate to establish the Nobel Prize.
1901 – The U.S. Army War College was established.
1912 – Spain declared a protectorate over the north shore of Morocco.
1924 – In New York City, the first Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade was held.
1934 – Bank robber Baby Face Nelson died in a shoot-out with the FBI.
1940 – The 16,712-ton New Zealand Shipping Company liner MV Rangitane was sunk by two German ‘auxiliary cruisers’ (armed merchant raiders), the Orion and Komet, 300 nautical miles off East Cape.
1940 – World War II: At the Battle of Cape Spartivento, the Royal Navy engaged the Regia Marina.
1940 Bruce Lee, American actor and martial artist, was born.
1942 Jimi Hendrix, American guitarist, was born.
1942 – World War II: At Toulon, the French navy scuttled its ships and submarines to keep them out of Nazi hands.
1944 – World War II: An explosion at a Royal Air Force ammunition dump at Fauld, Staffordshire killed seventy people.
1963 – The Convention on the Unification of Certain Points of Substantive Law on Patents for Invention iwa signed at Strasbourg.
1964 – Cold War Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru appealed to the United States and the Soviet Union to end nuclear testing and to start nuclear disarmament, stating that such an action would “save humanity from the ultimate disaster”.
1971 – The Soviet space programme’s Mars 2 orbiter released a descent module which malfunctioned and crashed, but was the first man-made object to reach the surface of Mars.
1975 – The Provisional IRA assassinated Ross McWhirter, after a press conference in which McWhirter had announced a reward for the capture of those responsible for multiple bombings and shootings across England.
1978 – The Kurdish party PKK was founded in the city of Riha (Urfa) in Turkey.
1983 – Avianca Flight 011, a Boeing 747 crashed near Madrid’s Barajas Airport, killing 181.
1984 – Under the Brussels Agreement signed between the governments of the United Kingdom and Spain, the former agreed to enter into discussions with Spain over Gibraltar, including sovereignty.
1991 – The United Nations Security Council adoptsedSecurity Council Resolution 721, leading the way to the establishment of peacekeeping operations in Yugoslavia.
1992 – For the second time in a year, military forces tried to overthrow president Carlos Andres Perez in Venezuela.
1997 – Twenty-five were killed in the second Souhane massacre in Algeria.
1999 – The Labour Party took control of the New Zealand government with leader Helen Clark, the country’s second female PM.
2001 – A hydrogen atmosphere was discovered on the extrasolar planet Osiris by the Hubble Space Telescope, the first atmosphere detected on an extrasolar planet.
2004 – Pope John Paul II returned the relics of Saint John Chrysostom to the Eastern Orthodox Church.
2006 – The Canadian House of Commons endorsed Prime Minister Stephen Harper‘s motion to declare Quebec a nation within a unified Canada.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia