Caliphate – an Islamic state led by a caliph, a political and religious leader who is a successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and whose power and authority is absolute; the office or jurisdiction of a caliph.
On March 3:
1284 The Statute of Rhuddlan incorporated the Principality of Wales into England.
1776 The first amphibious landing of the United States Marine Corps began the Battle of Nassau.
1803 Colégio Militar is founded in Portugal by Colonel Teixeira Rebello.
1820 The U.S. Congress passed the Missouri Compromise.
1831 George Pullman, American inventor and industrialist, was born.
1845 – For the first time the U.S. Congress passed legislation overriding a presidential veto.
1847 Alexander Graham Bell, Scottish-Canadian inventor, was born.
1849 – The U.S. Congress passed the Gold Coinage Act allowing the minting of gold coins.
1857 Second Opium War: France and the United Kingdom declared war on China.
The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited
1873 The U.S. Congress enacted the Comstock Law, making it illegal to send any “obscene, lewd, or lascivious” books through the mail.
1875 – The first ever organized indoor game of ice hockey was played in Montreal.
1879 The United States Geological Survey was created.
1882 Charles Ponzi, Italian fraud convict, was born.
1885 The American Telephone and Telegraph Company was incorporated in New York.
1893 Beatrice Wood, American artist and ceramicist, was born.
1910 Rockefeller Foundation: J.D. Rockefeller Jr. announced his retirement from managing his businesses so that he can devote full time to being a philanthropist.
1911 Jean Harlow, American actress, was born.
1918 Germany, Austria and Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk ending Russia’s involvement in World War I, and leading to the independence of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland.
1920 Ronald Searle, British illustrator, was born.
1923 TIME magazine is published for the first time.
1930 Ion Iliescu, President of Romania, was born.
1931 The United States officially adopted The Star-Spangled Banner as its national anthem.
1938 Oil was discovered in Saudi Arabia.
1939 In Mumbai, Mohandas Gandhi began to fast in protest at the autocratic rule in India.
1940 Five people were killed in an arson attack on the offices of the communist newspaper Norrskensflamman in Luleå, Sweden.
1942 Ten Japanese warplanes raided the town of Broome, Western Australia killing more than 100 people.
1953 A Canadian Pacific Airlines De Havilland Comet crashed in Karachi, killing 11.
1958 Miranda Richardson, British actress, was born.
1960 Barry Crump’s novel A Good Keen Man was published.
1961 Hassan II became King of Morocco.
1969 NASA launched Apollo 9 to test the lunar module.
1972 Mohawk Airlines Flight 405 crashed as a result of a control malfunction and insufficient training in emergency procedures.
1974 Turkish Airlines Flight 981 crashes at Ermenonville near Paris, killing all 346 aboard.
1976 Five workers were killed by the police in a demonstration in Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain.
1991 An amateur video captured the beating of Rodney King by Los Angeles police officers.
1991 United Airlines Flight 585 crashed on approach into Colorado Springs, killing 25.
1997 The tallest free-standing structure in the Southern Hemisphere, Sky Tower in downtown Auckland opened after two-and-a-half years of construction.
2004 Belgian brewer Interbrew and Brazilian rival AmBev agree to merge in a $11.2 billion deal that formed InBev, the world’s largest brewer.
2005 James Roszko murdered four Royal Canadian Mounted Police constables during a drug bust at his property in Rochfort Bridge, Alberta, then commits suicide.
2005 Steve Fossett became the first person to fly an airplane non-stop around the world solo without refueling.
2009 The Sri Lankan cricket team was attacked by terrorists while on their way to the Gaddafi Stadium, Lahore for a Test match against Pakistan.
2009 – The building of the Historisches Archiv der Stadt Köln (Historical Archives) in Cologne, Germany, collapsed.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia
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