April 11 in history

April 11, 2010

On April 11:

491 Flavius Anastasius became Byzantine Emperor, with the name of Anastasius I.

Semissis-Anastasius I-sb0007.jpg

1079 Bishop Stanislaus of Krakow waexecuted by order of Bolesław II of Poland.

1241 Batu Khan defeated Béla IV of Hungary at the Battle of Muhi.

 

1512 War of the League of Cambrai: French forces led by Gaston de Foix won the Battle of Ravenna.

The Death of Gaston de Foix in the Battle of Ravenna.jpg

1689 William III and Mary II were crowned as joint sovereigns of Britain.

  

1713  War of the Spanish Succession (Queen Anne’s War): Treaty of Utrecht was signed.

First edition of the Treaty of Utrecht

1775 The last execution for witchcraft in Germany took place.

1814 The Treaty of Fontainebleau ended the War of the Sixth Coalition against Napoleon Bonaparte, and forces him to abdicate unconditionally for the first time.

1828  Foundation of Bahia Blanca.

1856 Battle of Rivas: Juan Santamaria burned down the hostel where William Walker’s filibusters were holed up.

1865 President Abraham Lincoln made his last public speech.

 

1868 The Shogunate was abolished in Japan.

1873 Edward Lawson, Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross, was born.

 

1876  The Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks was organised.

 

1888 The Concertgebouw in Amsterdam was inaugurated.

 

1899 Spain ceded Puerto Rico to the United States.

1905 Albert Einstein revealsed his Theory of Relativity (special relativity).

 

1907 Ivor Spencer-Thomas, English farmer and entrepreneur, was born.

1908 Jane Bolin, first African-American woman judge, was born.

 

1908 Masaru Ibuka, Japanese industrialist (Sony), was born.

Tobei.gif
 

1919 Soldiers’ votes over turned initial results of a referendum which had shown a majority of 13,000 favouring prohibition.

Soldiers' votes derail prohibition campaign

1919 The International Labour Organisation was founded.

ILO logo.svg

1921 The Emirate of Transjordan was created.

1945 World War II: American forces liberated the Buchenwald concentration camp.

 

1951  Korean War: President Harry Truman relieved General Douglas MacArthur of overall command in Korea.

MacArthur Manila.jpg

1951 The Stone of Scone, the stone upon which Scottish monarchs were traditionally crowned, was found on the site of the altar of Arbroath Abbey. It had been taken by Scottish nationalist students from its place in Westminster Abbey.

 

1952 The Battle of Nanri Island took place.

1953 Guy Verhofstadt, former Prime Minister of Belgium, was born.

1955 The Air India Kashmir Princess was bombed and crashed in a failed assassination attempt on Zhou Enlai by the Kuomintang.

1957 Britain agreed to Singaporean self-rule.

1960 Jeremy Clarkson, British journalist, was born.

 

1961  The trial of Adolf Eichmann began in Jerusalem.

EichmannAdolfSS.jpg

1963 Billy Bowden, New Zealand umpire, was born.

Billy Bowden.jpg

1965 The Palm Sunday tornado outbreak of 1965: Fifty-one tornadoes hit in six Midwestern states, killing 256 people.

1968 President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1968, prohibiting discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing.

 

1970 Apollo 13 was launched.

 

1976 The Apple I was created.

Apple I computer

1979 Ugandan dictator Idi Amin was deposed.

 Caricature by Edmund S. Valtman

1981 A massive riot in Brixton, South London, resulted in almost 300 police injuries and 65 serious civilian injuries.

1986 The FBI Miami shootout between eight Federal Bureau of Investigation agents and two heavily-armed and well-trained gunmen.

 

1987 The London Agreement was secretly signed between Israeli Foreign Affairs Minister Shimon Peres and King Hussein of Jordan.

1990 Customs officers in Middlesbrough,  said they had seized what they believed to be the barrel of a massive gun on a ship bound for Iraq.

1993 450 prisoners rioted at the Southern Ohio Correctional Facility in Lucasville, Ohio, and continued to do so for ten days, citing grievances related to prison conditions, as well as the forced vaccination of Nation of Islam prisoners (for tuberculosis) against their religious beliefs.

2001 The crew of a United States EP-3E aircraft that landed in Hainan, China after a collision with an J-8 fighter was released.

2002 The Ghriba synagogue bombing by Al Qaeda killed 21 in Tunisia.

 

2002 – An attempted coup d’état in Venezuela against President Hugo Chávez took place.

2006 Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad announced that Iran had successfully enriched uranium.

Two hands in brown gloves holding a gray disk with a number 2068 hand-written on it

2007  2007 Algiers bombings: Two bombings in the Algerian capital of Algiers, killed 33 people and wounded a further 222 others.

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia.


March 4 in history

March 4, 2010

On March 4:

51 Nero, was given the title princeps iuventutis (head of the youth).

Nero 1.JPG

303 or 304  Martyrdom of Saint Adrian of Nicomedia.

852  Croatian Duke Trpimir I issued a statute, a document with the first known written mention of the Croats name in Croatian sources.

932  Translation of the relics of martyr Wenceslaus I, Duke of Bohemia, Prince of the Czechs.

1152 Frederick I Barbarossa was elected King of the Germans.

 

1215 King John of England made an oath to the Pope as a crusader to gain the support of Innocent III.

                         Innozenz3.jpg

1238 The Battle of the Sit River was fought between the Mongol Hordes of Batu Khan and the Russians under Yuri II of Vladimir-Suzdal during the Mongol invasion of Russia.

After the Battle of the Sit River (Vereshagin).jpgBishop Cyril finds headless body of Grand Duke Yuri 

1351 Ramathibodi became King of Siam.

1386 Władysław II Jagiełło (Jogaila) is crowned King of Poland.

1394  Henry the Navigator, was born.

1461 Wars of the Roses: Lancastrian King Henry VI was deposed by his Yorkist cousin, who then became King Edward IV.

1492 King James IV of Scotland concluded an alliance with France against England.

1493  Christopher Columbus arrived back in Lisbon aboard his ship Niña from his voyage to what is now The Bahamas and other islands in the Caribbean.

 

1519 Hernán Cortes arrived in Mexico in search of the Aztec civilization and their wealth.

1570 King Philip II of Spain banned foreign Dutch students.

1611 George Abbot is appointed Archbishop of Canterbury.

1629 Massachusetts Bay Colony was granted a Royal charter.

1665 King Charles II declared war on the Netherlands which marks the start of the Second Anglo-Dutch War.

Storck, Four Days Battle.jpg

1675 John Flamsteed was appointed the first Astronomer Royal of England.

1678  Antonio Vivaldi, Italian composer, was born.

 

1681 Charles II granted a land charter to William Penn for the area that became Pennsylvania.

 

1756 Sir Henry Raeburn, Scottish painter, was born.

 The Reverend Robert Walker Skating on Duddingston Loch, better known as The Skating Minister (1790s)

1778 The Continental Congress voted to ratify both the Treaty of Amity and Commerce  and the Treaty of Alliance with France – the first treaties entered into by the United States government.

 

1789 In New York City, the first United States Congress met, putting the Constitution of the United States into effect.

Page one of the original copy of the Constitution

1790 France was divided into 83 départements, which cuts across the former provinces in an attempt to dislodge regional loyalties based on ownership of land by the nobility.

1791 – A Constitutional Act iwa introduced by the British House of Commons which envisaged the separation of Canada into Lower Canada (Quebec) and Upper Canada (Ontario).

1793 French troops conquered Geertruidenberg, Netherlands.

1794 The 11th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was passed by the U.S. Congress.

1797 In the first ever peaceful transfer of power between elected leaders in modern times, John Adams was sworn in as President of the United States, succeeding George Washington.

A painted portrait of a man with greying hair, looking left.

1804 Castle Hill Rebellion: Irish convicts rebel against British colonial authority in the Colony of New South Wales.

Battle of VinegarHill.jpg

1813 Russian troops fighting the army of Napoleon reaced Berlin  and the French garrison evacuated the city without a fight.

1814 Americans defeated the British at the Battle of Longwoods .

1824 The “National Institution for the Preservation of Life from Shipwreck” was founded in the United Kingdom, later to be renamed The Royal National Lifeboat Institution in 1858.

1837 Chicago was incorporated as a city.

1848 Carlo Alberto di Savoia signed the Statuto Albertino that became the first constitution of the Regno d’Italia

1855 Sheep rustler James Mackenzie was caught in the Upper Waitaki with 1000 sheep from the Levels Station near Timaru.

Legendary sheep rustler James Mackenzie caught

 1861  First national flag of the Confederate States of America (the ‘Stars and Bars’) was adopted.

1877 Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky‘s ballet Swan Lake received its première performance at the Bolshoi Theatre.

 

1882 Britain‘s first electric trams run in East London.

1887 Gottlieb Daimler unveiled his first automobile.

 

1890 – The longest bridge in Great Britain, the Forth Railway Bridge in Scotland, measuring 1,710 feet (520 m) long, was opened by Edward the Prince of Wales.

1891 Lois Wilson, founder of Al-Anon, was born.

1893 The army of Francis, Baron Dhanis attacked the Lualaba, enabling him to transport his troops across the Upper Congo and, capture Nyangwe almost without an effort.

1894 Great fire in Shanghai. Over 1,000 buildings are destroyed.

1899 Cyclone Mahina swept in north of Cooktown, Queensland, with a 12 metre (39 ft) wave that reached up to 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) inland, killing over 300.

1902 The American Automobile Association was established.

 

1908 The Collinwood School Fire, Collinwood, Ohio, killed 174 people.

 

1911 Victor Berger (Wisconsin) became the first socialist congressman in U.S.

1917 Jeannette Rankin of Montana became the first female member of the United States House of Representatives.

1917 – Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich’s renunciation of the throne was made public, and Tsar Nicholas II publicly issued his abdication manifesto. The victory of the February Revolution.

1918 The first case of Spanish flu occurred, the start of a devastating worldwide pandemic.

 

1925 Calvin Coolidge became the first President of the United States to have his inauguration broadcast on radio.

1928 Alan Sillitoe, English writer, was born.

1929 Charles Curtis becomes the first native-American Vice President of the United States.

1930 Floods ransacked Languedoc and the surrounding area in south-west France, resulting in twelve départements being submerged by water and causing the death of over 700 people.

1931 The British Viceroy of India, Governor-General Edward Frederick Lindley Wood and Mohandas Gandhi (Mahatma Gandhi) met to sign an agreement envisaging the release of political prisoners and allowing salt to be freely used by the poorest members of the population.

 

1933 Frances Perkins became United States Secretary of Labor, the first female member of the United States Cabinet.

1933 – The Parliament of Austria was suspended because of a quibble over procedure – Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss initiated authoritarian rule by decree.

1941 The United Kingdom launched Operation Claymore on the Lofoten Islands.

HMS Legion Lofoten raids.jpg

1944 Michael “Mick” Wilson, drummer (Dave Dee, Dozy, Beaky, Mick & Tich), was born.

1945 Princess Elizabeth, joined the Women’s Auxiliary Territorial Service as a driver.

Young lady wearing overalls and a cap kneels on the ground to change the front-left wheel of a military truck 

1945 – Lapland War: Finland declared war on Nazi Germany.

1948 Lindy Chamberlain, who maintained a dingo stole her baby and whose conviction for murdering the baby was overturned, was born.

1948 Chris Squire, English bassist (Yes), was born.

1949 Carroll Baker, Canadian country singer and songwriter, was born.

1954 Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, announces the first successful kidney transplant.

1957 The S&P 500 stock market index is introduced, replacing the S&P 90.

1960 French freighter ‘La Coubre’ exploded in Havana, killing 100.

1962 The United States Atomic Energy Commission announced that the first atomic power plant at McMurdo Station in Antarctica was in operation.

1966  Canadian Pacific Air Lines DC-8-43 exploded on landing at Tokyo International Airport, killing 64 people.

1970 French submarine Eurydice exploded.

1976 The Northern Ireland Constitutional Convention was formally dissolved resulting in direct rule of Northern Ireland from London via the British parliament.

1976 – The last flight of the second Concorde prototype aircraft to the Fleet Air Arm Museum at the Royal Naval Air Station, Yeovilton.

 

1976 – The first Cray-1 supercomputer was shipped to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico.

 

1977 The 1977 Bucharest Earthquake in southern and eastern Europe killed more than 1,500.

 

1979 The first encyclical written by Pope John Paul II, Redemptor Hominis (“The Redeemer of Man”) was promulgated.

Pope John Paul II on 12 August 1993 in Denver (Colorado)

1980 Nationalist leader Robert Mugabe won a sweeping election victory to become Zimbabwe‘s first black prime minister.

1982 NASA launched the Intelsat V-508 satellite.

1983 Bertha Wilson was appointed the first woman to sit on the Supreme Court of Canada.

1985 The Food and Drug Administration approved a blood test for AIDS. 

1986 The Soviet Vega 1 began returning images of Comet Halley and the first images ever of its nucleus.

1991 Sheikh Saad Al-Abdallah Al-Salim Al-Sabah, the Prime Minister of Kuwait, returns to his country for the first time since Iraq‘s invasion.

1994 Space shuttle STS-62 (Columbia 16) launched into orbit.

Sts-62-patch.png

1994 – Bosnia’s Bosniaks and Croats signed an agreement to form a federation in a loose economic union with Croatia.

1997 U.S. President Bill Clinton banned federally funded human cloning research.

1998 Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services: The Supreme Court of the United States ruled that federal laws banning on-the-job sexual harassment also apply when both parties are the same sex.

2001 4 March 2001 BBC bombing: a massive car bomb explodes in front of the BBC Television Centre  seriously injuring 11 people. The attack was attributed to the Real IRA.

2001 Hintze Ribeiro disaster, a bridge collapses in northern Portugal, killing up to 70 people.

2002 Canada bans human embryo cloning but permits government-funded scientists to use embryos left over from fertility treatment or abortions.

2002 Multinational Force in Afghanistan: Seven American Special Operations Forces soldiers are killed as they attempt to infiltrate the Shahi Kot Valley on a low-flying helicopter reconnaissance mission.

2005 The car of released Italian hostage Giuliana Sgrena was fired on by US soldiers after it ran a roadblock in Iraq, causing the death of an Italian Secret Service Agent and injuring two passengers.

2007 Approximately 30,000 voters took advantage of electronic voting in Estonia, the world’s first nationwide voting where part of the votecasting is allowed in the form of remote electronic voting via the Internet.

2009 – The International Criminal Court (ICC) issues an arrest warrant for Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir for war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur – the first sitting head of state to be indicted by the ICC since its establishment in 2002.

Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia


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