1034 – Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, King of Scots died. Donnchad, the son of his daughter Bethóc and Crínán of Dunkeld, inherited the throne.
1120 – The White Ship sank in the English Channel, drowning William Adelin, son of Henry I of England.
1177 – Baldwin IV of Jerusalem and Raynald of Chatillon defeated Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard.
1343 – A tsunami, caused by the earthquake in the Tyrrhenian Sea, devastated Naples and the Maritime Republic of Amalfi, among other places.
1491 – The siege of Granada, the last Moorish stronghold in Spain, began.
1667 – A deadly earthquake rocked Shemakha in the Caucasus, killing 80,000 people.
1703 – The Great Storm of 1703, the greatest windstorm ever recorded in the southern part of Great Britain, reached its peak intensity. Winds gusted up to 120 mph, and 9,000 people died.
1755 – King Ferdinand VI of Spain granted royal protection to the Beaterio de la Compañia de Jesus, now known as the Congregation of the Religious of the Virgin Mary.
1758 – French and Indian War: British forces captured Fort Duquesne from French control. Fort Pitt built nearby grew into modern Pittsburgh.
1759 – An earthquake hit the Mediterranean destroying Beirut and Damascus and killing 30,000-40,000.
1778 – Mary Anne Schimmelpenninck, English author and activist, was born (d. 1856).
1783 – American Revolutionary War: The last British troops left New York City three months after the signing of the Treaty of Paris.
1795 – Partitions of Poland: Stanislaus August Poniatowski, the last king of independent Poland, was forced to abdicate and was exiled to Russia.
1826 – The Greek frigate Hellas arrived in Nafplion to become the first flagship of the Hellenic Navy.
1833 – A massive undersea earthquake, estimated magnitude between 8.7-9.2 rocks Sumatra, producing a massive tsunami all along the Indonesian coast.
1835 Andrew Carnegie, British-born industrialist and philanthropist, was born (d. 1919).
1839 – A cyclone in India with high winds and a 40 foot storm surge, destroyed the port city of Coringa. The storm wave swept inland, taking with it 20,000 ships and thousands of people. An estimated 300,000 deaths resulted.
1844 – Karl Benz, German engineer and inventor, was born (d. 1929).
1863 – American Civil War: Battle of Missionary Ridge .
1867 – Alfred Nobel patented dynamite.
1874 – The United States Greenback Party was established consisting primarily of farmers affected by the Panic of 1873.
1880 John Flynn, founder of the Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia, was born (d 1951).
1880 Elsie J. Oxenham, British children’s author, was born (d. 1960).
1890 Isaac Rosenberg, English war poet and artist, was born (d. 1918).
1903 – By winning the world light-heavyweight championship, Timaru boxer Bob Fitzsimmons became the first man ever to be world champion in three different weight divisions.
1905 – The Danish Prins Carl arrived in Norway to become King Haakon VII of Norway.
1909 P. D. Eastman, American author and illustrator, was born (d. 1986).
1914 Joe DiMaggio, American baseball player, was born(d. 1999).
1915 – Augusto Pinochet, Chilean dictator, was born (d. 2006).
1917 – German forces defeated the Portuguese army of about 1200 at Negomano on the border of modern-day Mozambique and Tanzania.
1918 – Vojvodina, formerly Austro-Hungarian crown land, proclaimed its secession from Austria–Hungary to join the Kingdom of Serbia.
1924 – Sybil Stockdale, American activist, co-founded the National League of Families, was born (d. 2015).
1936 – Germany and Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact, agreeing to consult on measures “to safeguard their common interests” in the case of an unprovoked attack by the Soviet Union against either nation.
1940 – World War II: First flight of the deHavilland Mosquito and MartinB-26 Marauder.
1943 – World War II: Statehood of Bosnia and Herzegovina was re-established at the State Anti-Fascist Council for the People’s Liberation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
1947 – Red Scare: The “Hollywood Ten” were blacklisted by Hollywood movie studios.
1947 – New Zealand ratified the Statute of Westminster and thus became independent of legislative control by the United Kingdom.
1950 Alexis Wright, Australian author, was born.
1950 – The “Storm of the Century“, a violent snowstorm, paralysed the northeastern United States and the Appalachians, bringing winds up to 100 mph and sub-zero temperatures. Pickens, West Virginia, recorded 57 inches of snow; 323 people died as a result of the storm.
1952 – Imran Khan, Pakistani cricketer and politician was born.
1952 – Agatha Christie’s murder-mystery play The Mousetrap opened at the Ambassadors Theatre in London later becoming the longest continuously-running play in history.
1958 – French Sudan gained autonomy as a self-governing member of the French Community.
1960 – The Mirabal sisters of the Dominican Republic were assassinated.
1960 – John F. Kennedy Jr., American lawyer, journalist, and publisher, co-founded George Magazine, was born (d. 1999).
1963 – President John F. Kennedy was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
1970 – In Japan, author Yukio Mishima and one compatriot committed ritualistic suicide after an unsuccessful coup attempt.
1973 – George Papadopoulos, head of the military Regime of the Colonelsin Greece, was ousted in a hardliners’ coup led by Brigadier GeneralDimitrios Ioannidis.
1975 – Suriname gained independence from the Netherlands.
1977 – Former Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr. was found guilty by the Philippine Military Commission No. 2 and sentenced to death by firing squad.
1982 – The Minneapolis Thanksgiving Day Fire destroyed an entire city block.
1984 – 36 top musicians recorded Band Aid‘s Do They Know It’s Christmasin order to raise money for famine relief in Ethiopia.
1986 – The King Fahd Causeway was officially opened in the Persian Gulf.
1987 – Typhoon Nina pummelled the Philippines with category 5 winds of 165 mph and a surge that destroys entire villages. At least 1,036 deaths are attributed to the storm.
1988 – German politician Rita Süssmuth became president of the Bundestag.
1992 – The Federal Assembly of Czechoslovakia voted to split the country into the Czech Republic and Slovakia from January 1, 1993.
1996 – An ice storm struck the central U.S. killing 26 people. A powerful windstorm affected Florida and winds gusted over 90 mph.
1999 – The United Nations established the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women to commemorate the murder of three Mirabal Sisters for resistance against the Rafael Trujillo dictatorship in Dominican Republic.
2000 – Baku earthquake.
2005 – Polish Minister of National Defence Radek Sikorski opened Warsaw Pact archives to historians. Maps of possible nuclear strikes against Western Europe, as well as the possible nuclear annihilation of 43 Polish cities and 2 million of its citizens by Soviet-controlled forces, are released.
2008 – A car bomb in St. Petersburg killed three people and injured one.
2009 – A storm brought 3 years worth of rain in 4 hours to Jeddah sparking floods which killed over 150 people and sweep thousands of cars away in the middle of Hajj.
2015 – Pope Francis made his first official visit to Africa.