52 BC Vercingetorix, leader of the Gauls, surrendered to the Romans under Julius Caesar, ending the siege and Battle of Alesia.
42 BC First Battle of Philippi: Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fought a decisive battle with Caesar’s assassins Brutus and Cassius.
1283 Dafydd ap Gruffydd, prince of Gwynedd in Wales, became the first person executed by being hanged, drawn and quartered.
1574 The Siege of Leiden was lifted by the Watergeuzen.
1683 The Qing Dynasty naval commander Shi Lang reached Taiwan to receive the formal surrender of Zheng Keshuang and Liu Guoxuan after theBattle of Penghu.
1712 The Duke of Montrose issued a warrant for the arrest of Rob Roy MacGregor.
1739 The Treaty of Nissa was signed by the Ottoman Empire and Russia at the finish of the Russian-Turkish War, 1736–1739.
1835 The Staedtler Company was founded in Nuremberg.
1837 – Nicolás Avellaneda, Argentinian journalist and politician, 8th President of Argentina, was born (d. 1885).
1849 Edgar Allan Poe, US author, was found delirious in a gutter in Baltimore, Maryland under mysterious circumstances.
1873 Captain Jack and companions were hanged for their part in theModoc War.
1885 – Sophie Treadwell, American playwright and journalist, was born (d. 1970).
1888 The NZ Natives, the first national rugby team to wear the silver fern, played its first game in the UK.
1906 – Natalie Savage Carlson, American author, was born (d. 1997).
1908 The Pravda newspaper was founded by Leon Trotsky, Adolph Joffe, Matvey Skobelev and other Russian exiles in Vienna.
1916 – James Herriot, English vet & author, was born (d 1995).
1918 King Boris III of Bulgaria acceded to the throne.
1925 Gore Vidal, American author, was born (d 2012).
1929 The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was renamed toKingdom of Yugoslavia, “Land of the South Slavs”.
1932 Iraq gained independence from the United Kingdom.
1935 Second Italo-Abyssinian War: Italy invaded Ethiopia under General de Bono.
1941 Chubby Checker, American singer-songwriterwas born.
1942 The first successful launch of a V-2 /A4-rocket from Test Stand VII at Peenemünde, Germany, this was the first man-made object to reach space.
1949 Lindsey Buckingham, American guitarist and singer (Fleetwood Mac), was born.
1950 Korean War: The First Battle of Maryang San, primarily pitting Australian and British forces against communist China, began.
1952 The United Kingdom successfully tested a nuclear weapon.
1955 The Mickey Mouse Club debuted on ABC.
1957 Allen Ginsberg’s Howl and Other Poems was ruled not obscene.
1961 – Rebecca Stephens, English journalist and mountaineer, was born.
1962 Project Mercury: Sigma 7 was launched from Cape Canaveral, with Astronaut Wally Schirra aboard, for a six-orbit, nine-hour flight.
1964 First Buffalo Wings were made at the Anchor Bar in Buffalo, New York.
1971 Kevin Richardson, American singer (Backstreet Boys), was born.
1981 The Hunger Strike by Provisional Irish Republican Army and Irish National Liberation Army prisoners at the Maze Prison in Northern Ireland ended after seven months and ten deaths.
1981 The Communist Party of Namibia was founded at a conference in Angola.
1981 The Space Shuttle Atlantis made its maiden flight. (Mission STS-51-J)
1986 TASCC, a superconducting cyclotron at the Chalk River Laboratories, was officially opened.
1990 German Unity Day: The German Democratic Republic ceased to exist and its territory became part of the Federal Republic of Germany.
1993 Battle of Mogadishu: In an attempt to capture officials of warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid’s organisation in Mogadishu, Somalia, 18 US Soldiers and about 1,000 Somalis were killed in heavy fighting.
1995 O J Simpson was acquitted of the murders of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman.
2008 The $700 billion bailout bill for the US financial system was signed by President Bush.
2009 – The presidents of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkey signed the Nakhchivan Agreement on the Establishment of Turkic Council.
2013 – At least 134 migrants were killed when their boat sank near the Italian island of Lampedusa.
2013 – The Gambia withdrew from the Commonwealth of Nations.
2015 – 42 killed and 33 missing in Kunduz hospital airstrike operated by Médecins Sans Frontières.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia