1364 Battle of Cascina.
1540 Thomas Cromwell was executed at the order of Henry VIII on charges of treason.
1794 Maximilien Robespierre was executed by guillotine.
1809 Peninsular War: Battle of Talavera: Sir Arthur Wellesley’s British, Portuguese and Spanish army defeated a French force under Joseph Bonaparte.
1844 Gerard Manley Hopkins, English poet, was born (d. 1889).
1864 American Civil War: Battle of Ezra Church: Confederate troops made a third unsuccessful attempt to drive Union forces from Atlanta, Georgia.
1865 Welsh settlers arrived at Chubut in Argentina.
1866 Beatrix Potter, English author, was born (d. 1943).
1868 The 14th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States was passed, establishing African-American citizenship and guaranteeing due process of law.
1879 Lucy Burns, American suffragist, was born (d. 1966)
1893 The third massive suffrage petition was presented to Parliament in three years, this one was signed by nearly 32,000 women − almost a quarter of the entire adult European female population of New Zealand.
1901 Rudy Vallee, American entertainer, was born (d. 1986).
1902 Karl Popper, Austrian-born philosopher, was born (d. 1994).
1907 Earl Tupper, American inventor (tupperware) was born(d. 1983).
1909 Malcolm Lowry, English novelist, was born (d. 1957).
1914 World War I: Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia after Serbia rejects the conditions of an ultimatum sent by Austria on July 23 following the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand.
1929 Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, First Lady of the United States, was born (d. 1994).
1935 First flight of the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress.
1936 Garfield Sobers, Barbadian West Indies cricketer, was born.
1942 Soviet leader Joseph Stalin issued Order No. 227 in response to alarming German advances into the Soviet Union. Under the order all those who retreated or otherwise left their positions without orders to do so were to be immediately executed.
1943 : Operation Gomorrah: The British bombed Hamburg causing a firestorm that killed 42,000 German civilians.
1943 Richard Wright, English musician, was born (Pink Floyd) (d. 2008).
1945 Jim Davis, American cartoonist, was born.
1945 – A U.S. Army B-25 bomber crashed into the 79th floor of the Empire State Building killing 14 and injuring 26.
1948 Gerald Casale, American musician and director (founding member of Devo), was born.
1948 The Metropolitan Police Flying Squad foiled a bullion robbery in the “Battle of London Airport”.
1949 Peter Doyle, Australian singer (The New Seekers), was born (d. 2001).
1955 The Union Mundial pro Interlingua was founded at the first Interlingua congress in Tours, France.
1957 Heavy rain and a mudslide in Isahaya, western Kyūshū, Japan, killed 992.
1965 – Vietnam War: U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson announces his order to increase the number of United States troops in South Vietnam from 75,000 to 125,000.
1973 Summer Jam at Watkins Glen: 600,000 people attended a rock festival at the Watkins Glen International Raceway.
1976 The Tangshan earthquake measuring between 7.8 and 8.2 moment magnitude flattened Tangshan, China, killing 242,769 and injuring 164,851.
1996 Kennewick Man, the remains of a prehistoric man, was discovered near Kennewick, Washington.
2001 Australian Ian Thorpe became the first swimmer to win six gold medals at a single World Championships.
2002 Nine coal miners trapped in the flooded Quecreek Mine in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, were rescued after 77 hours underground.
2005 The Provisional Irish Republican Army called an end to its thirty year long armed campaign in Northern Ireland.
2008 – The historic Grand Pier in Weston-super-Mare burned down for the second time in 80 years.
2010 – Airblue Flight 202 crashed into the Margalla Hills north of Islamabad, Pakistan, killing all 152 people aboard. It was the deadliest aviation accident in Pakistan history and the first involving an Airbus A321.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia