531 – Battle of Callinicum: A Byzantine army under Belisarius was defeated by the Persian at Ar-Raqqah (northern Syria).
1012 – Martyrdom of Alphege in Greenwich, London.
1529 At the Second Diet of Speyer, a group of rulers and independent cities protested the reinstatement of the Edict of Worrms, beginning the Protestant Reformation.
1587 – Francis Drake sank the Spanish fleet in Cádiz harbour.
1686 – Vasily Tatishchev, Russian ethnographer and politician was born (d. 1750).
1713 With no living male heirs, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, issued the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 to ensure that Habsburg lands and the Austrian throne would be inherited by his daughter, Maria Theresa of Austria (not actually born until 1717).
1758 – William Carnegie, 7th Earl of Northesk, Scottish admiral was born (d. 1831).
1770 – Captain James Cook sighted Australia.
1775 American Revolutionary War began at the Battle of Lexington and Concord.
1782 John Adams secured the Dutch Republic’s recognition of the United States as an independent government. The house which he had purchased in The Hague, became the first American embassy.
1809 An Austrian corps was defeated by the forces of the Duchy of Warsaw in the Battle of Raszyn, part of the struggles of the Fifth Coalition.
1809 The Austrian main army was defeated by a First French Empire Corps led by Louis-Nicolas Davout at the Battle of Teugen-Hausen in Bavaria; part of a four day campaign which ended in a French victory.
1810 Venezuela achieved home rule: Vicente Emparan, Governor of the Captaincy General was removed by the people of Caracas and a Junta was installed.
1832 – José Echegaray, Spanish poet and playwright, Nobel Prize laureate, was born (d. 1916).
1839 The Treaty of London established Belgium as a kingdom.
1847 New portico at British Museum opened
1855 Visit of Napoleon III to Guildhall, London.
1861 American Civil War: Baltimore riot of 1861, a pro-Secession mob in Baltimore, Maryland, attacked United States Army troops marching through the city.
1884 – Royal honour awarded to NZ woman for first time. – The Royal Red Cross was awarded to Miss Alice Crisp, matron of Auckland Hospital, in a ceremony at Government House, Auckland.
1877 – Ole Evinrude, Norwegian-American engineer, invented the outboard motor, was born (d. 1934).
1892 Charles Duryea claimed to have driven the first automobile in the United States.
1893 The Liberals subdivided the Cheviot Estate.
1894 – Elizabeth Dilling, American author and activist was born (d. 1966).
1907 – Eliot Ness, American law enforcement agent, was born (d. 1957).
1919 Leslie Irvin of the United States made the first successful voluntary free-fall parachute jump using a new kind of self-contained parachute.
1928 The 125th and final fascicle of the Oxford English Dictionary was published.
1930 – Ewan Jamieson, New Zealand air marshal, was born (d. 2013).
1933 – Dickie Bird, English cricketer and umpire was born.
1935 Dudley Moore, English actor, comedian and composer, was born (d. 2002) .
1936 First day of the Great Uprising in Palestine.
1937 – Joseph Estrada, actor and 13th President of the Philippines, was born.
1941 Alan Price, English musician (The Animals, The Alan Price Set), was born.
1942 World War II: In Poland, the Majdan-Tatarski ghetto was established, situated between the Lublin Ghetto and a Majdanek subcamp.
1943 World War II: German troops enter the Warsaw ghetto to round up the remaining Jews, beginning the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.
1943 Eve Graham, Scottish singer (The New Seekers), was born.
1946 Tim Curry, British actor, was born.
1950 – Julia Cleverdon, English businesswoman and philanthropist, was born.
1951 – General Douglas MacArthur retired from the military.
1953 – Ruby Wax, British-based Jewish-American comedian, actress, and screenwriter, was born.
1954 – Constituent Assembly of Pakistan decided Urdu and Bengali to be national languages of Pakistan.
1955 – The German automaker Volkswagen, founded Volkswagen of America in Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
1961 The Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba ended in success for the defenders.
1967 – Dave McKenzie set a new course record of 2 hours 15 minutes 45 seconds and became the first New Zealander to win the Boston marathon.
1971 Siaka Stevens became first president of Sierra Leone Republic.
1971 – Vietnam War: Vietnam Veterans Against the War began a five-day demonstration in Washington, DC.
1971 – Launch of Salyut 1, the first space station.
1975 India’s first satellite Aryabhata was launched.
1984 Advance Australia Fair was proclaimed as Australia’s national anthem, and green and gold as the national colours.
1987 The Simpsons premiered as a short cartoon on The Tracey Ullman Show.
1989 A gun turret exploded on the USS Iowa, killing 47 sailors.
1993 The 51-day siege of the Branch Davidian building outside Waco, Texas, ended when a fire broke out. Eighty-one people died.
1993 – South Dakota governor George Mickelson and seven others were killed when a state-owned aircraft crashed in Iowa.
1995 Oklahoma City bombing: The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, was bombed, killing 168.
1997 – The Red River Flood of 1997 overwhelms the city of Grand Forks, ND. Fire breaks out and spreads in downtown Grand Forks, but high water levels hamper efforts to reach the fire, leading to the destruction of 11 buildings.
1999 The German Bundestag returned to Berlin.
2005 Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger elected Pope Benedict XVI on the second day of the Papal conclave.
2011 – Fidel Castro resigned from the Communist Party of Cuba’s central committee after 45 years of holding the title.
2013 – Boston Marathon bombings suspect Tamerlan Tsarnaev was killed in a shootout with police. His brother Dzhokhar Tsarnaev was captured while hiding in a boat inside a backyard in Watertown, Massachusetts.
Sourced from NZ History Online and Wikipedia