711 BC Emperor Jimmu, Japanese emperor, was born (d. 585 DC).
1322 – The central tower of Ely Cathedral fell on the night of 12th-13th.
1462 – The Treaty of Westminster was finalised between Edward IV of England and the Scottish Lord of the Isles.
1503 Disfida di Barletta challenge between 13 Italian and 13 French knights near Barletta.
1542 – Catherine Howard, the fifth wife of Henry VII , was executed for adultery.
1575 Henry III of France was crowned at Rheims and married Louise de Lorraine-Vaudémont on the same day.
1633 Galileo Galilei arrived in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition.
1692 Massacre of Glencoe: About 78 Macdonalds at were killed early in the morning for not promptly pledging allegiance to the new king, William of Orange.
1728 John Hunter, Scottish surgeon, was born (d. 1793).
1743 Joseph Banks, English botanist and naturalist, was born (d. 1820).
1766 – Thomas Robert Malthus, English economist and scholar, was born (d. 1834).
1815 The Cambridge Union Society was founded.
1849 Lord Randolph Churchill, British statesman, was born (d. 1895).
1869 A Ngati Maniapoto war party led by Wetere Te Rerenga attacked Pukearuhe. They killed Lieutenant Gascoigne, his wife and three children and a Wesleyan missionary John Whiteley.
1880 Work began on the covering of the Zenne, burying Brussels’s primary river and creating the modern central boulevards.
1891 Kate Roberts, Welsh nationalist and writer, was born (d. 1985).
1910 – William Shockley, English-American physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate, was born (d. 1989).
1914 The American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers was established to protect the copyrighted musical compositions of its members.
1920 The Negro National League was formed.
1933 – Paul Biya, Cameroon politician, 2nd President of Cameroon, was born.
1934 The Soviet steamship Cheliuskin sank in the Arctic Ocean.
1942 Peter Tork, American musician and actor (The Monkees), was born.
1944 Jerry Springer, American television host, was born.
1945 The siege of Budapest concluded with the unconditional surrender of German and Hungarian forces to the Red Army.
1945 World War II: Royal Air Force bombers were dispatched to Dresden to attack the city with a massive aerial bombardment.
1947 – Kevin Bloody Wilson, Australian singer-songwriter and guitarist, was born.
1950 Peter Gabriel, English musician (Genesis), composer and humanitarian, was born.
1955 Israel obtained 4 of the 7 Dead Sea scrolls.
1960 Black college students staged the first of the Nashville sit-ins at three lunch counters in Nashville, Tennessee.
1967 American researchers discovered the Madrid Codices by Leonardo da Vinci in the National Library of Spain.
1970 Black Sabbath, arguably the first heavy metal album, was released.
1978 Hilton bombing: a bomb exploded in a refuse truck outside the Hilton Hotel in Sydney, killing two refuse collectors and a policeman.
1982 Río Negro massacre in Guatemala.
1981 A series of sewer explosions destroyed more than two miles of streets in Louisville, Kentucky.
1986 – Hamish Bond, New Zealand rower, was born.
1990 German reunification: An agreement was reached on a two-stage plan to reunite Germany.
2001 An earthquake measuring 6.6 on the Richter Scale hit El Salvador, killing at least 400.
2004 The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics announced the discovery of the universe’s largest known diamond white dwarf star BPM 37093. Astronomers named this star “Lucy” after The Beatles’ song “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds”.
2011 – For the first time in more than 100 years the Umatilla, an American Indian tribe, were able to hunt and harvest a bison just outside Yellowstone National Park, restoring a centuries-old tradition guaranteed by a treaty signed in 1855.
2013 – A plane crash killed five people and injured nine others in Donetsk, Ukraine.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia.