42 BC – Tiberius, Roman emperor, was born (d. 37).
1272 – While travelling during the Ninth Crusade, Prince Edward became King of England upon Henry III’s death, but he will not return to England for nearly two years to assume the throne.
1491 – An auto de fé, held in the Brasero de la Dehesa outside Ávila, concluded the case of the Holy Child of La Guardia with the public execution of several Jewish and converso suspects.
1532 – Francisco Pizarro and his men captured Inca Emperor Atahualpa.
1643 – Jean Chardin, French-English jeweler and explorer, was born (d. 1703).
1776 – American Revolution: The United Provinces (Low Countries) recognised the independence of the United States.
1805 – Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Schöngrabern – Russian forces under Pyotr Bagration delayed the pursuit by French troops under Murat.
1806 – Mary Tyler Peabody Mann, American author and educator, was born (d. 1887).
1821 – Missouri trader William Becknell arrived in Santa Fe, New Mexico over a route that became known as the Santa Fe Trail.
1840 – New Zealand officially became a separate colony of Britain, severing its link to New South Wales.
1849 – A Russian court sentenced Fyodor Dostoevsky to death for anti-government activities linked to a radical intellectual group; his sentence is later commuted to hard labour.
1852 – The English astronomer John Russell Hind discovered the asteroid22 Kalliope.
1857 – Second relief of Lucknow. Twenty-four Victoria Crosses were awarded, the most in a single day.
1863 – Battle of Campbell’s Station near Knoxville, Tennessee. Confederate troops unsuccessfully attacked Union forces.
1869 – Hamiora Pere was executed for treason.
1885 – Canadian rebel leader of the Métis and “Father of Manitoba”, Louis Riel was executed for treason.
1896 – Joan Lindsay, Australian novelist, was born (d. 1984).
1897 – Choudhry Rahmat Ali, Indian-Pakistani academic, created the name for Pakistan, was born (d. 1951).
1907 – Indian Territory and Oklahoma Territory became Oklahoma and was admitted as the 46th U.S. state.
1907 – Cunard Line’s RMS Mauretania, sister ship of RMS Lusitania, set sail on her maiden voyage from Liverpool to New York City.
1914 – Eddie Chapman, British World War II spy and double agent, akaAgent Zigzag, was born (d. 1997)
1914 – The Federal Reserve Bank of the United States officially opened.
1916 – Harold Baigent, New Zealand actor, was born (d. 1996).
1938 – LSD was first synthesized by Swiss chemist Dr. Albert Hofmann at the Sandoz Laboratories in Basel.
1940 – The Royal Air Force bombed Hamburg.
1940 – The Nazis closed off the Warsaw Ghetto from the outside world.
1943 – American bombers struck a hydro-electric power facility and heavy water factory in German-controlled Vemork, Norway.
1944 – Operation Queen, the Allied thrust to the Rur, was launched.
1944 – Dueren, Germany was destroyed by Allied bombers.
1945 – Operation Paperclip: The United States Army secretly admitted 88 German scientists and engineers to help in the development of rocket technology.
1945 – UNESCO was founded.
1953 Griff Rhys Jones, Welsh comedian, writer and actor, was born.
1965 – The Soviet Union launched the Venera 3 space probe toward Venus, the first spacecraft to reach the surface of another planet.
1973 – NASA launched Skylab 4 with a crew of three astronauts for an 84-day mission.
1973 – U.S. President Richard Nixon signed the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorisation Act into law.
1979 – The first line of Bucharest Metro (Line M1) was opened from Timpuri Noi to Semanatoarea in Bucharest.
1988 – The Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR declared that Estonia was “sovereign” but stopped short of declaring independence.
1988 – In the first open election in more than a decade, voters in Pakistan elected populist candidate Benazir Bhutto to be Prime Minister.
1989 – A death squad composed of El Salvadoran army troops killed six Jesuit priests and two others at Jose Simeon Canas University.
1989 – UNESCO adopted the Seville Statement on Violence at the twenty-fifth session of its General Conference.
1997 – After nearly 18 years of incarceration, China released Wei Jingsheng, a pro-democracy dissident, for medical reasons.
2000 – Bill Clinton became the first U.S. President to visit Vietnam since the end of the Vietnam War.
2010– Prince William and the Kate Middleton announced their engagement at Clarence House.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia