539 BC – The army of Cyrus the Great of Persia took Babylon.
1216 King John of England lost his crown jewels in The Wash.
1279 Nichiren, a Japanese Buddhist monk founder of Nichiren Buddhism, inscribed the Dai-Gohonzon.
1398 The Treaty of Salynas was signed between Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas the Great and the Teutonic Knights, who received Samogitia.
1492 Christopher Columbus‘s expedition landed on The Bahamas. The explorer believed he has reached South Asia.
1654 The Delft Explosion devastated the city, killing more than 100 people.
1692 The Salem Witch Trials were ended by a letter from Massachusetts Governor William Phips.
1773 America’s first insane asylum opened for ‘Persons of Insane and Disordered Minds’ in Virginia
1792 First celebration of Columbus Day in the USA held in New York
1793 The cornerstone of Old East, the oldest state university building in the United States, was laid on the campus of the University of North Carolina.
1810 First Oktoberfest: Bavarian royalty invited the citizens of Munich to join the celebration of the marriage of Crown Prince Ludwig of Bavaria to Princess Therese von Sachsen-Hildburghausen.
1822 Pedro I of Brazil was proclaimed the emperor of the Brazil.
1823 Charles Macintosh, of Scotland, sold the first raincoat.
1866 Ramsay MacDonald, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom,was born (d. 1937).
1871 Criminal Tribes Act (CTA) enacted by British rule in India, which named over 160 local communities ‘Criminal Tribes’, i.e. hereditary criminals.
1872 Ralph Vaughan Williams, English composer, was born (d. 1958).
1891 – Edith Stein, German nun, philosopher, and saint was born (d. 1942).
1892 The Pledge of Allegiance was first recited by students in many US public schools, as part of a celebration marking the 400th anniversary of Columbus’s voyage.
18893 – Velvalee Dickinson, American spy was born (d. 1980).
1901 President Theodore Roosevelt officially renamed the “Executive Mansion” the White House.
1915 World War I: British nurse Edith Cavell was executed by a German firing squad for helping Allied soldiers escape from Belgium.
1917 World War I: The First Battle of Passchendaele resulted in thelargest single day loss of life in New Zealand history.
1918 The arrival of the Niagra was blamed for introducing a deadly new influenza to New Zealand.
1918 A massive forest fire killed 453 people in Minnesota.
1920 – Christopher Soames, Baron Soames, English politician, Governor of Southern Rhodesia was born (d. 1987).
1921 – Logie Bruce Lockhart, Scottish rugby player and journalist was born.
1928 An iron lung respirator was used for the first time at Children’s Hospital, Boston.
1933 The United States Army Disciplinary Barracks on Alcatraz Island, was acquired by the United States Department of Justice.
1935 Luciano Pavarotti, Italian tenor, was born (d. 2007).
1942 Melvin Franklin, American singer (The Temptations), was born (d. 1995).
1942 World War II: Japanese ships retreated after their defeat in the Battle of Cape Esperance with the Japanese commander, Aritomo Gotōdying from wounds suffered in the battle and two Japanese destroyers sunk by Allied air attack.
1945 World War II: Desmond Doss was the first conscientious objector to receive the U.S. Medal of Honor.
1948 Rick Parfitt, British musician (Status Quo), was born.
1949 – Carlos the Jackal, Venezuelan terrorist and murderer, was born.
1953 “The Caine Mutiny Court Martial” opened at Plymouth Theatre, New York.
1960 Cold War: Nikita Khrushchev pounded his shoe on a desk at United Nationa General Assembly meeting to protest a Philippine assertion of Soviet Union colonial policy being conducted in Eastern Europe.
1962 Columbus Day Storm struck the U.S. Pacific Northwest with record wind velocities; 46 dead and at least U.S. $230 million in damages.
1964 The Soviet Union launched the Voskhod 1 into Earth orbit as the first spacecraft with a multi-person crew and the first flight without space suits.
1968 – Hugh Jackman, Australian actor and producer, was born.
1968 Equatorial Guinea became independent from Spain.
1976 China announced that Hua Guofeng was the successor to the late Mao Zedong as chairman of Communist Party of China.
1979 The first in the Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy comedy science fiction series by Douglas Adams was published.
1979 The lowest recorded non-tornadic atmospheric pressure, 87.0 kPa (870 mbar or 25.69 inHg), occurred in the Western Pacific duringTyphoon Tip.
1983 Japan’s former Prime Minister Tanaka Kakuei was found guilty of taking a $2 million bribe from Lockheed and was sentenced to 4 years in jail.
1984 Brighton hotel bombing: The Provisional Irish Republican Army attempted to assassinate Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and her cabinet. Thatcher escaped but the bomb kills five people and wounded 31.
1988 Jaffna University Helidrop: Commandos of Indian Peace Keeping Force raided the Jaffna University campus to capture the LTTE chief and walked into a trap.
1988 Two officers of the Victoria Police were gunned down executional style in the Walsh Street police shootings.
1991 Askar Akayev, previously chosen President of Kyrgyzstan by republic’s Supreme Soviet was confirmed president in an uncontested poll.
1997 Sidi Daoud massacre in Algeria; 43 killed at a fake roadblock.
1999 – The Day of Six Billion: The proclaimed 6 billionth living human in the world is born.
2000 The USS Cole was badly damaged in Aden, Yemen, by two suicide bombers, killing 17 crew members and wounding at least 39.
2002 Terrorists detonated bombs in Paddy’s Pub and the Sari Club in Kuta, Bali, killing 202 and wounding over 300.
2005 The second Chinese human spaceflight Shenzhou 6 launched carrying Fèi Jùnlóng and Niè Hǎishèng for five days in orbit.
2013 – 51 people were killed after a truck veered off a cliff in La Convencion Province in Peru.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia