717 – Siege of Constantinople: The Muslim armada with 1,800 ships, was defeated by the Byzantine navy through the use of Greek fire.
1270 – King Stephen V of Hungary wrote of his walk to the antiquum castellum near Miholjanec, where the Sword of Attila was recently discovered.
1355 Tvrtko I wrote in castro nostro Vizoka vocatum from old town Visoki.
1644 Battle of Tippermuir: Montrose defeated Elcho’s Covenanters, reviving the Royalist cause.
1653 Johann Pachelbel, German composer, was born (d. 1706).
1715 King Louis XIV of France died after a reign of 72 years—the longest of any major European monarch.
1772 Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa founded in San Luis Obispo, California.
1804 Juno, one of the largest main belt asteroids, was discovered by German astronomer Karl Ludwig Harding.
1818 José María Castro Madriz, first President of Costa Rica and founder of the republic, was born (d. 1892).
1836 Narcissa Whitman, one of the first English-speaking white women to settle west of the Rocky Mountains, arrived at Walla Walla, Washington.
1854 Engelbert Humperdinck, German composer, was born (d. 1921).
1862 American Civil War: Battle of Chantilly – Confederate forces attacked retreating Union troops.
1870 Franco-Prussian War: Battle of Sedan resulted in a decisive Prussian victory.
1873 Cetshwayo ascended to the throne as king of the Zulu nation following the death of his father Mpande.
1875 A murder conviction effectively forced the violent Irish anti-owner coal miners, the “Molly Maguires“, to disband.
1876 Taranaki farmer Harry Atkinson became New Zealand’s Premier, succeeding Sir Julius Vogel.
1876 – Harriet Shaw Weaver, English journalist and activist, was born (d. 1961).
1878 Emma Nutt became the world’s first female telephone operator when she was recruited by Alexander Graham Bell to the Boston Telephone Dispatch Company.
1894 More than 400 people died in the Great Hinckley Fire, a forest fire in Hinckley, Minnesota.
1896 A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Founder-Acarya of ISKCON, the Hare Krishna Movement, was born (d. 1977).
1897 The Boston subway opened, becoming the first underground rapid transit system in North America.
1902 A Trip to the Moon, considered one of the first science fiction films, was released in France.
1906 Eleanor Burford Hibertt (Jean Plaidy, Victoria Holt, Philippa Carr…), English writer, was born (d. 1993).
1906 The International Federation of Intellectual Property Attorneys was established.
1911 The armored cruiser Georgios Averof was commissioned into the Greek Navy.
1913 – Dan Davin, New Zealand author, was born (d. 1990).
1914 St. Petersburg, Russia, changed its name to Petrograd.
1914 The last passenger pigeon, a female named Martha, died in captivity in the Cincinnati Zoo.
1920 The Fountain of Time opened as a tribute to the 100 years of peace between the United States and Great Britain following the Treaty of Ghent.
1923 The Great Kantō earthquake devastated Tokyo and Yokohama, killing about 105,000 people.
1928 Ahmet Zogu declared Albania to be a monarchy and proclaimed himself king.
1933 Conway Twitty, American singer, was born (d. 1993).
1934 SMJK Sam Tet was founded by Father Fourgs from the St. Michael Church, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.
1939 World War II: Nazi Germany invaded Poland, beginning the war in Europe.
1939 Lily Tomlin, American actress and comedian, was born.
1939 The Wound Badge for Wehrmacht, SS, Kriegsmarine, and Luftwaffe soldiers; and the final version of the Iron Cross were instituted.
1939 Switzerland mobilised its forces and the Swiss Parliament electedHenri Guisan to head the Swiss Army (an event that can happen only during war or mobilisation).
1946 Barry Gibb, English singer (Bee Gees), was born.
1951 The United States, Australia and New Zealand signed a mutual defense pact – the ANZUS Treaty.
1957 – Gloria Estefan, Cuban-American singer-songwriter and actress, was born.
1961 The Eritrean War of Independence officially began with the shooting of the Ethiopian police by Hamid Idris Awate.
1962 Channel Television reached 54,000 households in the Channel Islands.
1964 The Indian Oil Corporation formed after the merger of the Indian Oil Refineries and the Indian Oil Company.
1964 – Holly Golightly, American author and illustrator, was born.
1969 A revolution in Libya brought Muammar al-Gaddafi to power.
1969 – Tran Thien Khiem became Prime Minister of South Vietnam under President Nguyen Van Thieu.
1970 Attempted assassination of King Hussein of Jordan by Palestinian guerrillas, who attacked his motorcade.
1972 American Bobby Fischer beat Russian Boris Spassky and became the world chess champion.
1973 J. D. Fortune, Canadian singer (INXS), was born.
1974 The SR-71 Blackbird set (and holds) the record for flying from New York to London in the time of 1 hour, 54 minutes and 56.4 seconds.
1979 The American space probe Pioneer 11 became the first spacecraft to visit Saturn when it passed the planet at a distance of 21,000 km.
1980 Terry Fox‘s Marathon of Hope ended in Thunder Bay, Ontario.
1980 Major General Chun Doo-hwan became president of South Korea, following the resignation of Choi Kyu-hah.
1981 A coup d’état in the Central African Republic overthrewPresidentDavid Dacko.
1982 Canada adopted the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms as part of its Constitution.
1982 The United States Air Force Space Command was founded.
1987 Dann Hume, New Zealand musician (Evermore), was born.
1983 Cold War: Korean Air Flight 007 was shot down by a Soviet Union jet fighter when the commercial aircraft enters Soviet airspace. All 269 on board died, including Congressman Lawrence McDonald.
1985 A joint American–French expedition located the wreckage of theRMSTitanic.
1987 Lorraine Cohen was sentenced to death by a Malaysian judge for heroin trafficking.
1991 Uzbekistan declared its independence from the Soviet Union.
2004 Beslan school hostage crisis started when armed terrorists took children and adults hostage.
2014 – Leigh Cleveland and Peggy Noble, were shot and killed and another staff member was wounded at the Ashburton WINZ office where they worked.
Sourced from NZ History Online, NZ Herald, Te Ara, Encyclopaedia of NZ, Wikipedia