472 After being besieged in Rome by his own generals, Western Roman Emperor Anthemius was captured in the Old St. Peter’s Basilica and put to death.
911 Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple and Rollo of Normandy.
1274 Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland, was born (d. 1329).
1302 Battle of the Golden Spurs (Guldensporenslag in Dutch) – a coalition around the Flemish cities defeats the king of France’s royal army.
1346 Charles IV of Luxembourg was elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
1405 Ming admiral Zheng He set sail to explore the world for the first time.
1476 Giuliano della Rovere was appointed bishop of Coutances.
1576 Martin Frobisher sighted Greenland.
1616 Samuel de Champlain returned to Quebec.
1735 Mathematical calculations suggested that on this day that dwarf planet Pluto moved inside the orbit of Neptune for the last time before 1979.
1740 Jews were expelled from Little Russia.
1750 Halifax, Nova Scotia was almost completely destroyed by fire.
1767 John Quincy Adams, President of the United States, was born (d. 1848).
1776 Captain James Cook began his third voyage.
1789 Jacques Necker was dismissed as France’s Finance Minister sparking the Storming of the Bastille.
1796 The United States took possession of Detroit from Great Britain under terms of the Jay Treaty.
1798 The United States Marine Corps was re-established.
1801 French astronomer Jean-Louis Pons made his first comet discovery.
1804 Vice President of the United States Aaron Burr mortally wounded former Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton in a duel.
1833 Noongar Australian aboriginal warrior Yagan, wanted for leading attacks on white colonists in Western Australia, was killed.
1848 Waterloo railway station in London opened.
1859 A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens was published.
1864 American Civil War: Battle of Fort Stevens; Confederate forces attempted to invade Washington, D.C..
1877 Kate Edgar became the first woman in New Zealand to gain a university degree and the first woman in the British Empire to earn a BA.
1882 The British Mediterranean fleet began the Bombardment of Alexandria in Egypt as part of the 1882 Anglo-Egyptian War.
1888 Carl Schmitt, German philosopher and political theorist, was born (d. 1985).
1889 Tijuana, Mexico, was founded.
1893 The first cultured pearl was obtained by Kokichi Mikimoto.
1893 A revolution led by the liberal general and politician, José Santos Zelaya, takes over state power in Nicaragua.
1897 Salomon August Andrée left Spitsbergen to attempt to reach the North pole by balloon.
1899 E. B. White, American writer, was born (d. 1985).
1906 The Gillette-Brown murder inspired Theodore Dreiser’s An American Tragedy.
1914 Babe Ruth made his debut in Major league baseball.
1916 – Reg Varney, English actor, was born (d. 2008).
1916 – Gough Whitlam, 21st Prime Minister of Australia, was born.
1919 The eight-hour working day and free Sunday became law in the Netherlands.
1920 Yul Brynner, Russian-born actor, was born (d. 1985).
1920 In the East Prussian plebiscite the local populace decided to remain with Weimar Germany
1921 A truce was called in the Irish War of Independence.
1921 – Former U.S. President William Howard Taft was sworn in as 10th Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, becoming the only person to ever be both President and Chief Justice.
1921 – The Red Army captured Mongolia from the White Army and establishes the Mongolian People’s Republic.
1922 The Hollywood Bowl opened.
1929 David Kelly, Irish actor, was born.
1929 The Gillingham Fair fire disaster killed 15 in England.
1932 Bob McGrath, American actor, was born.
1936 The Triborough Bridge in New York City was opened to traffic.
1940 World War II: Vichy France regime was formally established. Henri Philippe Pétain became Prime Minister of France.
1943 Massacres of Poles in Volhynia.
1943 – World War II: Allied invasion of Sicily – German and Italian troops launched a counter-attack on Allied forces in Sicily.
1947 The Exodus 1947 headed to Palestine from France.
1950 Bonnie Pointer, American singer (Pointer Sisters), was born.
1955 The phrase In God We Trust was added to all U.S. currency.
1957 Prince Karim Husseini Aga Khan IV inherited the office of Imamat as the 49th Imam of Shia Imami Ismaili worldwide, after the death of Sir Sultan Mahommed Shah Aga Khan III.
1959 Richie Sambora, American musician (Bon Jovi), was born.
1960 Independence of Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger.
1960 To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee was first published.
1962 Pauline McLynn, Irish actress, was born.
1962 First transatlantic satellite television transmission.
1971 Copper mines in Chile were nationalised.
1973 A Brazilian Boeing 707 crashed near Paris on approach to Orly Airport, killing 123 of the 134 on-board.
1977 Martin Luther King Jr. was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
1978 Los Alfaques Disaster: A truck carrying liquid gas crashed and exploded at a coastal campsite in Tarragona, Spain killing 216 tourists.
1979 America’s first space station, Skylab, was destroyed as it re-entered the Earth’s atmosphere over the Indian Ocean.
1983 A Boeing 727 crashed into hilly terrain after a tail strike in Cuenca, Ecuador, claiming 119 lives.
1987 According to the United Nations, the world population crossed the 5,000,000,000 mark.
1990 Oka Crisis: First Nations land dispute in Quebec began.
1991 A Nationair DC-8 crashed during an emergency landing at Jeddah, killing 261.
1995 A Cubana de Aviacion Antonov An-24 crashed into the Caribbean off southeast Cuba killing 44 people.
1995 Over 8000 Bosnian men and children (mostly Bosniaks) were killed by Serbian troops commanded by Ratko Mladic.
2006 – 209 people were killed in a series of bomb attacks in Mumbi.
2012 – Astronomers announced the discovery of Styx, the fifth moon of Pluto.