Calumny – the making of false and defamatory statements about someone in order to damage their reputation; slander; act of uttering false charges maliciously or a misrepresentation intended to harm another’s reputation.
My father smoked when he was serving in the army but he was a Scot and gave up when he had to pay retail prices for cigarettes.
That was long before I was born and I grew up knowing my parents as non-smokers.
In spite of that they had an ashtray in the sitting room. In those days smokers wouldn’t have thought of asking permission to smoke and non-smokers wouldn’t have thought of refusing them had they asked.
That slowly changed but even though I hated the smell that clung to clothes and furniture it took me a while to realise that I had the right to send smokers outside.
Thankfully now I don’t know any smokers who’d light up in other people’s houses and they aren’t permitted to smoke in inside public places.
Today I’m grateful that I don’t have to put up with other people’s smoke.
Thanks Andrei and J Bloggs for posing the questions.
I think Teletext has once again answered them all, but should some of those answers be wrong you can claim a bunch of precious platinum roses by leaving the answers below.
Each of us must confront our own fears, must come face to face with them. How we handle our fears will determine where we go with the rest of our lives. To experience adventure or to be limited by the fear of it. ― Judy Blume who was born on this day in 1938.
1429 English forces under Sir John Fastolf defended a supply convoy carrying rations to the army besieging Orleans from attack by the Comte de Clermont and John Stuart in the Battle of Rouvray (also known as theBattle of the Herrings).
1502 Vasco da Gama set sail from Lisbon on his second voyage to India.
1554 A year after claiming the throne of England for nine days, Lady Jane Grey was beheaded for treason.
1567 Thomas Campion, English composer and poet, was born (d. 1620).
1700 The Great Northern War began in Northern Europe.
1719 The Onderlinge van 1719 u.a., the oldest existing life insurance company in the Netherlands was founded.
1771 Gustav III became the King of Sweden.
1809 Charles Darwin, English naturalist, was born (d. 1882).
1809 Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States, was born (d. 1865).
1816 The Teatro di San Carlo, the oldest working opera house in Europe, was destroyed by fire.
1817 An Argentine/Chilean patriotic army, after crossing the Andes, defeated Spanish troops on the Battle of Chacabuco.
1825 The Muscogee (Creek )ceded the last of their lands in Georgia to the United States government, and migrate west.
1828 George Meredith, English writer, was born (d. 1909).
1832 Ecuador annexed the Galápagos Islands.
1855 Michigan State University was established.
1879 The first artificial ice rink in North America opened at Gilmore’s Park in New York City.
1881 Anna Pavlova, Russian ballerina, was born (d. 1931).
1894 Anarchist Émile Henry hurled a bomb into Paris’s Cafe Terminus, killing one and wounding 20.
1909 SS Penguin was wrecked in Cook Strait.
1909 The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People(NAACP) was founded.
1911 Stephen H. Sholes, American recording executive, was born (d. 1968).
1914 The first stone of the Lincoln Memorial was put into place.
1915 Lorne Greene, Canadian actor, was born (d. 1987).
1923 – Franco Zeffirelli, Italian film and opera director and designer, was born.
1924 Calvin Coolidge became the first President of the United States to deliver a political speech on radio.
1934 The Austrian Civil War began.
1934 In Spain the national council of Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista was inaugurated.
1938 Judy Blume, American author, was born.
1945 David Friedman, American economist, was born.
52 surrendered U-boats moored at HMS Ferret,Lisahally, Northern Ireland
1948 Raymond Kurzweil, American inventor and author, was born.
1949 – Joaquín Sabina, Spanish singer and songwriter, was born.
1950 Steve Hackett, English guitarist (Genesis), was born.
1961 U.S.S.R. launched Venera 1 towards Venus.
1973 The first United States prisoners of war were released by the Viet Cong.
1974 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, winner of the Nobel Prize in literature was exiled from the Soviet Union.
2002 – The trial of former President of Federal Republic of YugoslaviaSlobodan Milošević began.
2004 The city of San Francisco, began issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples in response to a directive from Mayor Gavin Newsom.
2006 A powerful winter storm blanketed the Northeastern United States dumping 1 to 2 feet of snow from Washington D.C. to Boston, and a record 26.9 inches of snow in New York City.
2007 A gunman opens fire in a mall in Salt Lake City killing 5 people wounding 4 others in the Trolley Square shooting.
2009 Colgan Air Flight 3407 crashed into a house near Buffalo, New York killing 50 people.
2014 – A massive winter storm across states in the southern United States causes widespread power outages, travel disruptions and dangerous road conditions.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia.