1095 – On the last day of the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II appointed Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy and Count Raymond IV of Toulouse to lead theFirst Crusade to the Holy Land.
1443 – Skanderbeg and his forces liberated Kruja in Middle Albania.
1520 – After navigating through the South American strait, three ships under the command of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan reached the Pacific Ocean, becoming the first Europeans to sail from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific.
1582 – William Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway paid a £40 bond for their marriage licence.
1628 John Bunyan, English cleric and author. was born (d. 1688).
1632 Jean-Baptiste Lully, French composer, was born (d. 1687).
1660 – At Gresham College, 12 men, including Christopher Wren, Robert Boyle, John Wilkins, and Sir Robert Moray decided to found what became the Royal Society.
1729 – Natchez Indians massacred 138 Frenchmen, 35 French women, and 56 children at Fort Rosalie.
1757 – William Blake, British poet, was born (d. 1827).
1785 – The Treaty of Hopewell was signed.
1811 – Beethoven Piano Concerto No. 5 in E-flat major, Op. 73, was premiered at the Gewandhaus in Leipzig.
1814 – The Times in London was for the first time printed by automatic, steam powered presses built by German inventors Friedrich Koenig andAndreas Friedrich Bauer, signalling the beginning of the availability of newspapers to a mass audience.
1820 Friedrich Engels, German philosopher, was born (d. 1895).
1821 – Panama Independence Day: Panama separated from Spain and joined Gran Colombia.
1829 Anton Rubinstein, Russian composer, was born (d. 1894).
1843 – Ka Lā Hui: Hawaiian Independence Day – The Kingdom of Hawaiiwas officially recognised by the United Kingdom and France as an independent nation.
1862 – American Civil War: In the Battle of Cane Hill, Union troops under General John Blunt defeated General John Marmaduke’s Confederates.
1893 – Women voted in a national election for the first time in the New Zealand general election.
1895 – The first American automobile race took place over the 54 miles from Chicago’s Jackson Park to Evanston, Illinois. Frank Duryea won in approximately 10 hours.
1904 Nancy Mitford, British essayist, was born (d. 1973).
1905 – Irish nationalist Arthur Griffith founded Sinn Féin as a political party with the main aim of establishing a dual monarchy in Ireland.
1907 – In Haverhill, Massachusetts, scrap-metal dealer Louis B. Mayeropened his first movie theatre.
1910 – Eleftherios Venizelos, leader of the Liberal Party, won the Greek election again.
1912 – Albania declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire.
1914 – World War I: Following a war-induced closure in July, the New York Stock Exchange re-opened for bond trading.
1918 – Bucovina voted for the union with the Kingdom of Romania.
1919 – Lady Astor was elected as a Member of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the first woman to sit in the House of Commons. (Countess Markiewicz, the first to be elected, refused to sit.)
1920 – Irish War of Independence: Kilmichael Ambush – The Irish Republican Army ambush a convoy of British Auxiliaries and kill seventeen.
1929 – Ernie Nevers of the then Chicago Cardinals scores all of the Cardinals’ points in this game as the Cardinals defeat the Chicago Bears40-6.
1933 Hope Lange, American actress, was born (d. 2003).
1942 Manolo Blahnik, Spanish shoe designer, was born.
1942 – In Boston a fire in the Cocoanut Grove nightclub killed 491 people.
1943 – World War II: Tehran Conference – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin met in Tehran, Iran to discuss war strategy.
1948 Beeb Birtles, Dutch-Australian musician/singer-songwriter; co-founding member of Little River Band, was born.
1958 – Chad, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon became autonomous republics within the French Community.
1960 – Mauritania became independent of France.
1961 Martin Clunes, British actor, was born.
1962 Matt Cameron, American drummer (Soundgarden, Pearl Jam), was born.
1964 – NASA launched the Mariner 4 probe toward Mars.
1972 – Last executions in Paris, of the Clairvaux Mutineers, Roger Bontems and Claude Buffet, guillotined at La Sante Prison.
1975 – East Timor declared its independence from Portugal.
1975 – As the World Turns and The Edge of Night, the final two American soap operas that had resisted going to pre-taped broadcasts, aired their last live episodes.
1979 – Flight TE901, an Air New Zealand sightseeing flight over Antarctica,crashed into the lower slopes of Mt Erebus, near Scott Base, killing all 257 passengers and crew on board.
1984 – More than 250 years after their deaths, William Penn and his wifeHannah Callowhill Penn were made Honorary Citizens of the United States.
1987 – South African Airways flight 295 crashed into the Indian Ocean, killing all 159 people on-board.
1989 – Velvet Revolution – In the face of protests, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia announced it would give up its monopoly on political power.
1991 – South Ossetia declared independence from Georgia.
2008 An Air NZ Airbus A320 crashed off the coast of France.
2013 – A 5.6 earthquake in Iran killed seven people and injured 45.
2014 – Gunmen set off three bombs at the central mosque in the northern city of Kano killing at least 120 people.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia