42 BC Roman Republican civil wars: Second Battle of Philippi – Mark Antony and Octavian decisively defeated Brutus’s army. Brutus committed suicide.
425 Valentinian III became Roman Emperor, at the age of 6.
1086 At the Battle of az-Zallaqah, the army of Yusuf ibn Tashfin defeated the forces of Castilian King Alfonso VI.
1295 The first treaty forming the Auld Alliance between Scotland and France against England was signed in Paris.
1503 Isabella of Portugal, queen of Spain and empress of Germany was born (d. 1539)
1641 Outbreak of the Irish Rebellion of 1641.
1642 Battle of Edgehill: First major battle of the First English Civil War.
1694 British/American colonial forces, led by Sir William Phipps, fail to seize Quebec from the French.
1707 The first Parliament of Great Britain met.
1812 Claude François de Malet, a French general, began a conspiracy to overthrow Napoleon Bonaparte, claiming that the Emperor died in Russia and that he was now the commandant of Paris.
1844 Robert Bridges, English poet, was born (d. 1930).
1850 The first National Women’s Rights Convention began in Worcester, Massachusetts.
1861 U.S. President Abraham Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpusin Washington, D.C., for all military-related cases.
1864 American Civil War: Battle of Westport – Union forced under General Samuel R. Curtis defeated Confederate troops led by General Sterling Price at Westport, near Kansas City.
1867 72 Senators were summoned by Royal Proclamation to serve as the first members of the Canadian Senate.
1870 Franco-Prussian War: the Siege of Metz concluded with a decisive Prussian victory.
1906 Alberto Santos-Dumont fliew a plane in the first heavier-than-air flight in Europe at Champs de Bagatelle, Paris.
1911 First use of aircraft in war: An Italian pilot took off from Libya to observe Turkish army lines during the Turco-Italian War.
1912 First Balkan War: The Battle of Kumanovo between the Serbian and Ottoman armies began.
1915 Among the fatalities when the transport Marquette sank in the Aegean Sea were 32 New Zealanders, including ten nurses – making 23 October the deadliest day in the history of this country’s military nursing.
1915 In New York City, 25,000-33,000 women march on Fifth Avenue to advocate their right to vote.
1917 Lenin called for the October Revolution.
1929 Great Depression: After a steady decline in stock market prices since a peak in September, the New York Stock Exchange began to show signs of panic.
1929 The first North American transcontinental air service began between New York City and Los Angeles, California.
1931 Diana Dors, British actress was bron (d. 1984).
1940 Pelé, Brazilian footballer, was born.
1941 Field Marshal Georgy Zhukov took command of Red Army operations to prevent the further advance into Russia of German forces and to prevent the Wehrmacht from capturing Moscow.
1942 World War II: Second Battle of El Alamein began.
1942 All 12 passengers and crewmen aboard an American Airlines DC-3 airliner were killed when it is struck by a U.S. Army Air Forces bomber near Palm Springs, California. Amongst the victims was award-winning composer and songwriter Ralph Rainger (“Thanks for the Memory”, “Love in Bloom”, “Blue Hawaii”).
1942 Michael Crichton, American writer, was born (d. 2008).
1942 The Battle for Henderson Field began during the Guadalcanal Campaign.
1944 : Battle of Leyte Gulf – The largest naval battle in history begins in the Philippines.
1946 The United Nations General Assembly convened for the first time.
1948 A plane crash on Mt Ruapehu killed 13 people.
1956 Thousands of Hungarians protest against the government and Soviet occupation.
1958 The Springhill Mine Bump – An earthquake trapped 174 miners in the No. 2 colliery at Springhill, Nova Scotia, the deepest coal mine in North America at the time.
1958 The Smurfs, a fictional race of blue dwarves, appeared for the first time in the story Le flute à six schtroumpfs, a Johan and Peewit adventure by Peyo which was serialized in the weekly comics magazine Spirou.
1972 Operation Linebacker, a US bombing campaign against North Vietnam ended after five months.
1973 A United Nations sanctioned cease-fire officially ended the Yom Kippur War between Israel and Syria.
1983 Lebanon Civil War: The U.S. Marines barracks in Beirut was hit by a truck bomb, killing 241 U.S. Marines. A French army barracks in Lebanon was also hit, killing 58 troops.
1989 Phillips Disaster in Pasadena, Texas killed 23 and injured 314.
1992 Emperor Akihito became the first Emperor of Japan to stand on Chinese soil.
1993 Shankill Road bombing: A Provisional IRA bomb prematurely detonates in the Shankill area of Belfast, killing the bomber and nine civilians.
1998 Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian Chairman Yasser Arafat reached a “land for peace” agreement.
2001 The Provisional IRA began disarmament after peace talks.
2001 Apple released the iPod.
2002 Moscow Theatre Siege began: Chechen terrorists seized the House of Culture theater in Moscow and took approximately 700 theatre-goers hostage.
2004 A powerful earthquake and its aftershocks hit Niigata prefecture, northern Japan, killing 35 people, injuring 2,200, and leaving 85,000 homeless or evacuated.
2007 A powerful cold front in the Bay of Campeche caused the UsumacintaJackup rig to collide with Kab 101, leading to the death and drowning of 22 people during rescue operations after evacuation of the rig.
2011 – A 7.2 magnitude earthquake struck Van Province, Turkey, killing 582 people and injuring thousands.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia