1284 Pisa was defeated in Battle of Meloria by Genoa, ruining its naval power.
1661 The Treaty of The Hague was signed by Portugal and the Dutch Republic.
1787 Sixty proof sheets of the Constitution of the United States were delivered to the Constitutional Convention.
1806 Francis II, the last Holy Roman Emperor, abdicated ending the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.
1809 Alfred Lord Tennyson, English poet, was born (d. 1892).
1819 Norwich University was founded in Vermont as the first private military school in the United States.
1825 Bolivia gained independence from Spain.
1845 The Russian Geographical Society was founded in Saint Petersburg.
1861 Edith Roosevelt, First Lady of the United States, was born (d. 1948).
1861 The United Kingdom annexed Lagos, Nigeria.
1862 American Civil War: the Confederate ironclad CSS Arkansas was scuttled on the Mississippi River after suffering damage in a battle with USS Essex.
1870 Franco-Prussian War: Battle of Wörth is fought, resulting in a decisive Prussian victory.
1881 Alexander Fleming, Scottish scientist, Nobel laureate, was born (d. 1955).
1890 At Auburn Prison in New York murderer William Kemmler became the first person to be executed by electric chair.
1909 Alice Ramsey and three friends became the first women to complete a transcontinental auto trip.
1911 Lucille Ball, American actress, was born (d. 1989).
1912 The Bull Moose Party met at the Chicago Coliseum.
1914 First Battle of the Atlantic – ten German U-boats left their base in Helgoland to attack Royal Navy warships in the North Sea.
1914 – World War I: Serbia declared war on Germany; Austria declared war on Russia.
1915 Battle of Sari Bair – the Allies mounted a diversionary attack timed to coincide with a major Allied landing of reinforcements at Suvla Bay.
1917 Battle of Mărăşeşti between the Romanian and German armies began.
1917 Robert Mitchum, American actor, was born (d. 1997).
1922 Sir Freddie Laker, English entrepreneur, was born (d. 2006).
1926 Gertrude Ederle became first woman to swim across the English Channel.
1926 Warner Brothers’ Vitaphone system premiered with the movie Don Juan starring John Barrymore.
1926 Harry Houdini performed his greatest feat, spending 91 minutes underwater in a sealed tank before escaping.
1928 Robert Mitchum, American artist, was born (d. 1987).
1934 Chris Bonington, British mountaineer, was born.
1936 Jack Lovelock won New Zealand’s first Olympic athletics gold medal when he ran the 1500-metres in a world record time of 3:47.8.at the 1936 Berlin Olympics.
1937 Barbara Windsor, English actress, was born.
1942 Queen Wilhelmina became the first reigning queen to address a joint session of the United States Congress.
1945 The atomic bomb “Little Boy” was dropped on Hiroshima by the United States B-29 Enola Gay. Around 70,000 people were killed instantly, and tens of thousands died in subsequent years from burns and radiation poisoning.
1952 Vinnie Vincent, American musician (Kiss), was born.
1960 Cuban Revolution: in response to a United States embargo, Cuba nationalised American and foreign-owned property in the nation.
1962 Jamaica became independent.
1964 Prometheus, a bristlecone pine and the world’s oldest tree, was cut down.
1965 US President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 into law.
1966 Braniff Airlines Flight 250 crashed in Falls City, NE killing all 42 on board.
1969 Simon Doull, New Zealand cricketer, was born.
1972 Geri Halliwell, British singer (Spice Girls), was born.
1986 A low-pressure system that redeveloped off the New South Wales coast dumped a record 328 millimeters (13 inches) of rain in a day on Sydney.
1990 The United Nations Security Council ordered a global trade embargo against Iraq in response to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait.
1991 Doi Takako, chair of the Social Democratic Party became Japan’s first female speaker of the House of Representatives.
1993 Heavy rains and debris killed 72 in the Kagoshima and Aira areas, of Kyūshū, Japan.
1996 NASA announced that the ALH 84001 meteorite, thought to originate from Mars, contained evidence of primitive life-forms.
1997 Korean Air Flight 801, a Boeing 747-300, crashed into the jungle on Guam on approach to airport, killing 228.
2008 A military junta led by Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz staged a coup d’état in Mauritania, overthrowing president Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi.
2011 – A helicopter containing members of Navy SEAL 6 was shot down in Afghanistan killing 38.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia