Voluptuate – to make luxurious or delightful; take luxurious pleasure in something; luxuriate.
I move, that a respectful address be presented to His Excellency the Governor-General in reply to His Excellency’s speech.
Mr Speaker, can I first congratulate you on your re-election as Speaker. I am sure you will continue to discharge the responsibilities of the office with skill and care. Can I also congratulate Deputy Speaker Hon Chester Borrows, and Assistant Speakers Lindsay Tisch and my opponent in the Hutt – my friend, the Hon Trevor Mallard.
It is an honour and privilege to have been elected as a Member of Parliament. I am here because the National Party has placed its faith in me to be an effective list MP. And ultimately of course I am here because over one million New Zealanders voted for National in the recent election. I thank the party, and I thank New Zealand, for honouring me with this important job.
I also thank the people of Hutt South. Lower Hutt was where I was born and raised and I am happy to be living there again.
I am proud to say I am from “the Hutt”, an area with which I have a long family connection.
On my mother’s side of the family I am descended from seven Dixon siblings that arrived on ships at Petone beach between 1838 and 1856. Edward Dixon was one of them and every summer when I go to the Basin Reserve I sit beneath his memorial clock in the old grandstand. My great, great Grandfather Joe Dixon walked the Hutt Road before it even existed and as a lay preacher held services on Petone Beach, a stone’s throw from where I now live.
From the days of Oswald Mazengarb QC’s famous report into delinquent youths at milk bars in the 1950s, Lower Hutt, I think it is fair to say, has had a somewhat mixed reputation. Stereotypes are hard to break, but let me say this: the Hutt is a wonderful place. We have fantastic high-tech businesses at the forefront of the new economy, excellent community facilities, a wonderful natural environment right on our doorstep, and most of all, we have innovative and spirited people.
I believe the Hutt Valley’s best days are ahead of it and I am looking forward to serving the people of the Hutt – from Wainuiomata to the Western Hills – as a list MP based in the area.
While I am saying thanks, I would like to put on the record my thanks to everyone who has helped me get to where I am today: my family, who have loved and supported me in ways too numerous to detail; my friends; my campaign committee in Hutt South, who ran such a high-energy campaign; the National Party leadership in particular Malcolm Plimmer, Glenda Hughes, and Roger Bridge; and the Young Nats who make it so much easier to stand by the side of the road at 6.30am doing human hoardings in the cold because of their infectious enthusiasm. Most importantly I want to thank my partner and campaign manager Jenna, who has been the rock in my life for the past six years.
As some members know, I have been lucky enough to work in roles behind the scenes for this government. I have worked directly for two very different, but exceptional Ministers: Hon Gerry Brownlee and Hon Steven Joyce.
It is a privilege, although I have to say somewhat surreal, to be joining them in a caucus led by a man I also greatly admire, the Rt Hon John Key. Thank you, Gerry and Steven, for your friendship, guidance, and wisdom. If I achieve half as much in politics as you have I will be doing pretty well.
I come to this House as someone who has always, for as long as I can recall, been interested in politics, history, public policy and the law. My parents – John Bishop and Rosemary Dixon – are to blame. From Dad I got my love of politics. Dad was in the press gallery from 1982 to 1987. He was chief parliamentary reporter for TVNZ during the momentous year of 1984. The political bug was transferred to me, or so the family joke goes, when he was told to talk to his new baby. Most people would choose the weather, or what was on TV tonight, something like that. His topic of choice was none other than “this man called Sir Robert Muldoon”, and I’ve had an enduring fascination with him and his politics ever since.
Growing up I would pepper Dad for stories about his time as a journalist – about the night of the snap election; the night of the Mt Erebus crash; about travelling with Geoffrey Palmer to try and save ANZUS. I drank it all in, and those stories and their lessons have shaped who I am today.
From Mum I got my love of the law, particularly public law. From both my parents I gained an interest in ideas; in current affairs; and the world around me. Our household growing up was one where everyone was expected to have a view; and not to be shy about expressing it. Indeed both my parents were champion debaters, and Mum was instrumental in establishing the New Zealand Schools’ Debating Council, which I was president of for four years much later. Almost every year since 1988 the grand final of the Russell McVeagh National Champs has been held where we were this morning, in the Legislative Council Chamber.
There are now four alumni of the Championships who have become MPs: Jacinda Ardern, Megan Woods, Holly Walker, and myself. I am pleased that our side of the House is now represented on that list. I am sure there will be many more in the years to come.
My Dad’s side of the family – although not necessarily my Dad, whose politics I have never known – is true blue. The Bishops were farmers at Hillend, outside Balclutha in south Otago. My Poppa Stuart joined Wright Stephenson in 1928 and worked for them until he retired, interrupted only by World War Two where he fought at Monte Cassino. Stuart and Cora Bishop almost certainly voted National their entire lives. They referred to National Superannuation as Rob’s lolly.
My mother’s side of the family could not be more different. They were Methodists in the great reforming progressive tradition and Labour voters to their toes. One great grandfather was a wharfie who won the honoured 151 day loyalty card during the 1951 strike.
My grandfather Haddon Dixon was a Methodist minister, director of CORSO, a social activist, and an inveterate follower of politics. The sort of man for whom Parliament TV was made. My Nana was a progressive socialist. In 1981 as a 61-year-old, sickened by apartheid in South Africa, she joined the Stop the Tour movement, helped organise a sit-down protest on the Hutt motorway during the Wellington test, refused to move, and was duly arrested. She happily did her 200 hours community service painting the Barnardos centre in Waterloo Road.
I think I get my social liberalism and reforming zeal from my grandparents – although I think it’s fair to say I didn’t inherit the Labour Party politics.
I come to this House as a 31-year-old – a representative of generation Y. Our generation doesn’t remember needing a doctor’s prescription to buy margarine, or permission from the Reserve Bank to subscribe to a foreign magazine, or any of the other absurdities of the Fortress New Zealand economy. It seems scarcely believable to us that from 1982 to 1984 all wages and prices were frozen by Prime Ministerial fiat.
For our generation, inflation has always been low. We’ve always been nuclear free, homosexuality has always been legal, and the Treaty Settlement process has always been underway.
New Zealand is a completely different country to what it was when I was born. I’ve always been profoundly fascinated by that transformation, and what its effects have been. For example, it intrigues me that while Bob Hawke and Paul Keating are regarded by the Labor movement in Australia as heroes, and receive standing ovations at Labor Party conferences still to this day, New Zealand’s own Labour reformers are essentially pariahs from their party.
I think it a significant portion of the Left in New Zealand has never made its peace with the economic reforms of the 80s and early 90s. And in some ways the debate inside the Labour Party today is the most visible manifestation of that lack of reconciliation. The battles of the 1980s are still being fought. That’s a shame.
A maiden speech is traditionally the time to put on the record your principles, philosophy, and beliefs. I will do so, with the caveat that I am not so arrogant as to think that my current views are immutable. Some of my political heroes said things in their maiden speeches they almost certainly would not have agreed with later in their careers. Roger Douglas’ maiden speech in 1969 is extremely sceptical of the benefits of foreign investment in New Zealand. In 1970, Paul Keating told the Australian Parliament that the Commonwealth government should set up a statutory authority to fix the prices of all goods and services, and bemoaned the number of young mothers who were entering the workforce.
I think good politicians listen, reflect, read, and think deeply about the world – and if necessary, change their minds. I hope to always be open to that in my time in this House.
Mr Speaker, I am an unashamed economic and social liberal. The classical enunciation of liberalism within National Party remains John Marshall’s maiden speech as the member for Mt Victoria in 1947.
I believe, as he did, that “the conditions of the good society are liberty, property, and security, and the greatest of these is liberty”.
I think individuals make better decisions about their own lives than governments do. A fundamental belief in the primacy of the individual over the collective should be the lodestar that guides all good governments. I think we should trust individuals more than we do, and be more sceptical about the ability of government to solve social problems.
I believe that the best way to deliver the prosperity New Zealanders deserve is through a globally competitive, market-based economy that rewards enterprise and innovation. The reforms of the 1980s and early 1990s were vitally important in transforming New Zealand from a sclerotic economic basket case to a modern, functioning, competitive economy, but there is more to be done.
I support a tolerant, multicultural New Zealand that is confident, proud, and open to the world. Our society is enriched greatly by migration. The periodic desire by some to scapegoat migrants I find deeply distasteful. I am proud of how New Zealand in only one generation has changed from an inward looking, insular economy and society, to one that is internationally connected and confident on the world stage.
I believe we can responsibly develop our natural resources, and improve our environment at the same time. We are blessed with abundant natural resources in New Zealand – both renewable and non-renewable – and we are not wealthy enough as a nation to not take advantage of them. What we know from history is that the wealthier a country is, the more able it is to take practical steps to improve the environment. Some of the most polluted places on earth were in the communist Soviet Union. Growing our economy through the responsible development of our resources gives us the ability to preserve things precious to New Zealand like our rivers, lakes, and national parks.
Mr Speaker, I come to this House with a long history in debating at school and university. I have a profound belief in free speech, the power of ideas and the importance of persuasion by those in public office. Fundamental, sustainable change in public policy is only ever achieved when the argument is won. That’s how marriage equality was achieved. It’s how Treaty settlements were started and how they have continued. It’s how we tore down the walls of the Fortress New Zealand economy and opened ourselves to the world. Because leaders in our Parliament made the case for those things and won the argument.
One of the proudest moments of my life was to debate in the Oxford Union, standing at the same despatch box that Lange stood at where he delivered his famous speech on the moral indefensibility of nuclear weapons. Lange was at his best when arguing.
Mr Speaker, I believe Bill English had it right in his maiden speech as the Member for Wallace in 1991: “What I bring to this job is a willingness to get into the argument rather than to avoid it. I owe it to my voters to present in Parliament what is best in them – a credible, constructive, and committed argument… Power without persuasion has no lasting place in a democracy.”
As long as I am an MP I will always try and present credible and constructive arguments – and I’ll always be willing to have one.
I am proud to be joining a government that is demonstrably making a difference for New Zealanders. I agree with the Prime Minister – we are on the cusp of something special as a nation. This National Government has an historic opportunity to be the kind of long-term government that doesn’t just administer the status quo, but one that can, through incremental, constant economic reform deliver ever growing living standards for all New Zealanders.
We have the economic opportunities right in front of us – globalisation, a rapidly growing Asian middle class, and technology ending the tyranny of distance. We have the right leadership through John Key, Bill English, and his Cabinet team. And we have the right policy framework in place: smaller government through better government, openness to foreign capital and labour, a tax system that rewards hard work and enterprise, and a growing culture of innovation. Most importantly, this government has a fundamental belief in the power of the New Zealand individual and civil society.
This is a government that is governing with a hard head and a soft heart. We are the first government in a long time which has a resolute focus on tackling some of the intractable social problems which have bedevilled New Zealand for too long, such as a persistent underclass; welfare dependency, Maori and Pasifika educational underachievement, and poor quality social housing.
We are not doing this by simply throwing more money at problems. Care for those most vulnerable is not, or should not, be measured by the amount of money spent, the number of bureaucratic agencies set up, or the number of people employed to deal with a problem. We should judge policy by results. Milton Friedman was right – “one of the great mistakes is to judge policies and programs by their intentions rather than their results”.
This is a results-driven government. Across the fields of welfare, housing, and education we are driving through quite remarkable and transformative change that is delivering results for the most needy in our society.
There is still more extremely important work to do. One thing that I am personally passionate about is our plan to reward excellent teachers and keep them in the classroom, doing what they do best – changing kids’ lives. Everyone remembers their amazing teachers growing up. It’s simply wrong that the classic career pathway for good teachers at the moment involves leaving the classroom to move into administration. I am proud to be part of a government that is changing that.
Mr Speaker, when people look back on this passage of New Zealand’s history, it’s my fervent hope that they will recognise that it was the Fifth National Government that put in place the reforms to raise the quality of teaching in our schools, that challenged the soft bigotry of low expectations, that made progress on tackling child abuse and family violence, that made social housing actually work for people, and that invested in people to support their aspirations for independence from the State.
This government’s signalled economic achievements are important, but I think and hope that this government will be known for much more than that.
In closing Mr Speaker let me just say finally that I come to this House with the desire to serve. To represent the people of the Hutt Valley, to apply my mind to the challenges facing New Zealand now and in the future, and to work hard each and every day for and on behalf of New Zealanders. Much faith has been placed in me by many people. Mr Speaker I intend to work hard to repay that faith.
National’s Taranaki-King Country MP Barbara Kuriger delivered her maiden speech last week:
Tena tatou katoa, te paremata hou
te kaikorero tena koe
te pirimia tena koe
Ko nga mea nui, nga wai, te whenua me nga tangata katoa o aotearoa
Na reira, tena koutou, tena koutou, tena tatou katoa
Mr Speaker, Prime Minister, Ministers, Members of Parliament, Party President, Mr Peter Goodfellow.
And welcome to my guests in the Gallery.
My husband Louis, you’ve been a fantastic support and friend to me. We will be celebrating our 35th wedding anniversary 12 days from now at an electorate event in Otorohanga, which in itself indicates the level of support you have given me during the campaign.
Craig, Rachel and Tony, dad and I are very proud of you all, and I appreciate that you have all made it here for this special occasion. Tony, I know you are watching. I want to mention your partners Kenneth and Zoe at home, and our four special grandchildren Zak, Max, Aislinn, and Theo.
Mum and dad, Leo and Leonie, thank you for coming. I would also like to acknowledge my grandmother Joan Jeffries in Opunake, who recently turned 98.
Peter Goodfellow, Peter Osborne, Leveson Gower, and National HQ staffers, Young Nats, and party members; from selection to election you have all welcomed me and supported me in my quest to become a Member of Parliament. Together we asked lots of questions and took good advice, and here we are. Thank you.
I was brought up on a Taranaki Dairy Farm and I had one goal – never to marry a Dairy Farmer. Louis, I’m very pleased I did because I learned the ropes, developed a passion and enjoyed my time on the farm, raising our family and developing an award-winning business which continues today.
This led to many of my industry roles, the longest of which I completed last week at DairyNZ. I would like to especially acknowledge DairyNZ Chair, friend, and colleague – John Luxton, who is in the House. John, you and I were elected to the Board on the same day in 2003. Over the past 11 years I have learned a lot from you, and respect the wisdom and knowledge you impart.
I’ve served on a range of boards over the past few years. Primary Industry Training Organisation, Taratahi, and Dairy Training have provided me with the skills needed for the training industry. I was a NZ Young Farmers’ Board Member, where I suspect I own the honour of being the only grannie to have been a board member. As an Industry Partner to this group I was able to enjoy working with young people having their first board experience, who I know will feature in many areas of leadership in New Zealand over the next 30 years.
In 2006, I was fortunate to travel as an Agricultural and Marketing Research and Development Trust Scholar on a food and agribusiness market experience to China, Japan, US, and Europe looking at supply chains and customers. This experience really highlighted the fact that New Zealand is favoured for its exports, indicating New Zealand’s standout place in the international trading arena.
In 2012, the Dairy Women’s Network awarded me the Inaugural Dairy Woman of the Year, which was one of my proudest moments to date. It was not a one person accolade, as it was a result of all the experiences I have had to this point in my life, and of all the people who I have met. The information learned on this course and friendships formed emphasises the rural and regional woman that I am, always looking to the future for ways the primary industry sector can grow. I was also a board member of the Venture Taranaki Trust. In recognition of my governance roles, I was recently awarded a Fellowship of the Institute of Directors.
Taranaki-King Country is a large electorate, which extends from Waingaro right down to Toko on the border of Stratford, thus including Waipa and parts of Waikato. Upon selection, one of my new constituents offered to buy this Naki girl a Waikato Rugby jersey. I told him I would wear it with pride. The respective mascots for the local teams, Mooloo the cow and Ferdinand the bull, always manage to create a great herd. And best of all, when Taranaki play Waikato, I can only win as the Taranaki-King Country MP. Minister Smith, we are looking forward to the Taranaki versus Tasman final this weekend.
While I have an interest in rugby, it is not necessarily my favourite sport. The excitement of V8 Supercar racing is another passion that I have to thank Louis for sharing with me. I have been a passenger at 260 km per hour on a racetrack with a professional driver, and I can categorically say that my own driving skills are not quite up to that standard. I’ll be honest and say that I’m happy to be a spectator; supporting Louis as he drives his Star Car, much like he supports me in my campaigning.
In the large electorate that is Taranaki-King Country, we have eight district councils, about 17 towns, and many little villages. Our largest town is Te Awamutu. Whangamomona is one of the smallest. I am the MP who will not forget about the Forgotten World Highway. I encourage you all to take the tour, an excellent tourism business set up on the old railway. I am the MP who will not forget the natural beauty of our electorate, which can be seen in the Waitomo Caves and the huge number of visitors that visit annually to experience the beauty of the glow worms and the history hidden in these caves. I am the MP who probably doesn’t have the willpower to drive past our famous whitebait fritters in our towns, including Mokau and Raglan, without stopping for that quintessential Kiwi lunch. Ultimately, I am the MP that is here to serve every one of our towns to ensure the future of Taranaki-King Country is bright.
Economic development in the regions is a key interest of mine. Getting the right incentives in place for businesses to thrive in rural locations is a must. Housing is not expensive, and the community is atmosphere supportive and embracing. The call for more skilled young people is coming from every community.
Coming from Taranaki I have been witness to the growth that comes from a region that has worked together over many years to create a vibrant region, that comes from having an open mind, a willingness to trust new ideas, and a will to work together. From this we can see that when communities actively work together, success can be achieved.
Trade and exports lead our region’s income. The dairy and beef and lamb industries are predominant throughout our electorate. Energy in itself is one of the integral parts of the Taranaki export economy. In Taranaki-King Country we also have dairy goats, Manuka honey, and a popcorn factory – something for everyone. But the young are not forgotten either, with the long established Fun Ho toy factory in Inglewood. Each of my grandchildren, the boys and the girl, all received a Fun Ho tractor and trailer for their 1st birthday, continuing the tradition of their parents receiving a similar tractor set for their 1st birthday.
Ultrafast broadband will provide a huge boost to our region. The productivity that comes with connectivity will help us attract people who want the benefits of working regionally. I look forward to working with Minister Amy Adams to ensure this rolls out across Taranaki-King Country.
Roading and infrastructure will continue to be a focus in Taranaki-King Country. I particularly look forward to the new roundabout at the intersection of State Highway 3 and State Highway 37 and the business case for the Mt Messenger/Awakino corridor. I also look forward to the development of various bridges across the electorate, which will further strengthen relationships between communities with improved accessibility and safety.
Mr Speaker, you recently came to visit Waitomo and Piopio. Louis in particular was extremely honoured by your visit, namely because it was his birthday. That day we saw some great examples of fledgling regional businesses. The new King Country Brewery and a small business in Piopio fitting out dinghies are indicative of the success that ensues when our regions work together, we thrive. We must make sure that red tape doesn’t get in the way of new and emerging businesses that will provide employment for our people. I’ve already seen some exciting technology businesses in Raglan and encouragement of more will be welcome.
Access to health, education, and community services are vitally important to rural and remote areas of regional New Zealand. Under a National-led Government over 17,000 more elective surgeries have been administered across our electorate’s two district health boards. This shows those in somewhat remote areas of New Zealand are still gaining access to those vital services and that location is not a barrier. Across our region, more children are attending ECE before starting primary school, which is impressive for rural communities considering the distance that’s often regarded as a barrier. In time we hope to improve these ECE rates even more, with a target of 98 per cent by 2016.
Volunteers connect our communities. From the Fire Service and Coast Guard, to those working in the prevention of family violence, I would like to thank all volunteers who do a wonderful job. Those who give up their time to take a neighbour to a doctor’s appointment, or those busy mums and dads who arrange play dates for the entire street; your support and continual commitment to the groups and individuals in our region is to be commended. These actions take away the vulnerability of people, knowing there is a volunteer support base to care for them.
Water will be a prominent topic, not just through the time that I spend in Parliament, but for years into the future. This is reflective of the fact we have an abundance of water in our beautiful country, and it is amongst my aspirations to ensure that we utilise our water wisely for our people, for our tourism, and for our industries. As a dairy industry leader, I appreciate how much work has been done in fencing, nutrient budgeting, and finding ways to improve water quality.
It will be a pleasure to join my first BlueGreens Caucus meeting. National’s Bluegreen’s approach has shown that successful economic and environmental policy can, and must, go hand in hand. The abundant forests, rivers, and marine reserves are of real value and importance to the National Government, who are committed to long term sustainability of these areas that New Zealanders hold dear.
On the completion of my time as Dairy Women of the Year, I set myself a target that by the year 2020, in New Zealand we will no longer be talking about the disconnect between the rural and urban. We have the collective knowledge, talent, and ability to work together to find answers. It is a big call, but one that I’m up for. I ask each and every one of you to join me in this project. We only have four and a half million people – we have to work collaboratively to take on the world.
Thank you to my colleagues for the support that you have shown over the past few months and particularly over the past four weeks. Maureen Pugh, the Class of 2014 enjoyed the two weeks we spent with you, we were sorry to see you go.
Samantha, Claire, Sharon, and Tracey welcome to my team. With your help, I know Taranaki-King Country will be well served. Penn and Doug, thanks for your help and preparation.
I am excited about joining the Primary Production and Health Committees where I can bring some of my existing knowledge with me, and embark on a new learning curve where new knowledge is required.
I commit to be a hard-working and loyal Member of Parliament.
Tena tatou katoa.
Labour Day is to celebrate workers’ rights, the eight-hour working day and unions, isn’t it?
Had I been asked about the day’s origins, that’s what I’d have answered but Rodney Hide points out the generally accepted explanation of Labour Day’s origins is built on a myth:
Tomorrow is Labour Day. Once again we will endure the annual claptrap that unions are great and won for us the eight-hour day. Without unions we would be working 24/7. It’s nonsense.
The Labour Day bunk dates from the start of European settlement. Carpenter Samuel Parnell arrived at what we now call Petone aboard the Duke of Roxburgh.
The Duke was just the third migrant ship to Wellington. Parnell was newly married, 30 years old and had travelled from London in search of a better life.
He found it.
On-board was shipping agent George Hunter, who asked Parnell to build him a store. Parnell agreed but on the condition that he work only eight hours a day. Hunter wasn’t happy. Eight-hour days weren’t the custom in London, but he had little choice: there were only three carpenters in Wellington.
Hence was born the eight-hour day. The practice caught on. For more than 100 years we have celebrated the eight-hour day as a victory for trade unionism. We know it as Labour Day which, on the fourth Monday of every October, is a public holiday.
We hear every year of the union movement’s long, hard struggle. It wasn’t easy winning the eight-hour day, we are repetitively told.
Without unions, greedy employers would have us working every hour, every day.
It’s a myth. The so-called victory had nothing to do with unions. It was simple supply and demand. The demand for skilled labour was high in the new and growing settlement. The supply was low.
Parnell could have negotiated more pay. But he chose fewer hours. That was his choice. That was the free market.
Every Labour Day we should be remembering how the eight-hour day was “won”: it was by two men negotiating, no third party involved. There were no unions. There was no labour legislation.
The good-faith bargain was sealed with a simple handshake. And the two men prospered. Parnell soon had enough to buy land in Karori and establish himself as a farmer. Hunter proved a successful merchant and was Wellington’s first Mayor. Auckland’s Parnell is named after Samuel.
Both men did well because they were free to negotiate what was best. They weren’t locked into antiquated work practices.
It was the free market that delivered. Parnell was fortunate he could bargain on his own behalf. That’s what delivered the eight-hour day. . . .
Unions have played a part in working for, and gaining, workers’ rights and they still have a role to play.
But neither workers nor employers are well-served by the old-fashioned confrontational employment relations and rigid rules we had to endure in the past.
Flexible rules which give workers necessary protections and choice while also making it easier for businesses to employ people are better for business and their staff.
Every Waitangi Day there are calls for it to be renamed New Zealand Day or for us to have another holiday to celebrate as New Zealand Day.
Given the accepted story about Labour Day is a myth, it could be time to change the name, let it become New Zealand Day and provide the opportunity to celebrate the nation.
306 Maxentius was proclaimed Roman Emperor.
312 Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine I defeated Maxentius, becoming the sole Roman Emperor.
1466 Desiderius Erasmus, Dutch humanist and theologian, was born (d. 1536).
1510 Francis Borgia, Spanish duke and Jesuit priest, was born (d. 1572).
1516 Battle of Yaunis Khan: Turkish forces under the Grand Vizier Sinan Pasha defeated the Mameluks near Gaza.
1531 Battle of Amba Sel: Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi again defeated the army of Lebna Dengel, Emperor of Ethiopia.
1538 The first university in the New World, the Universidad Santo Tomás de Aquino, was established.
1628 The 14-month Siege of La Rochelle ended with the surrender of the Huguenots.
1636 A vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony established the first college in what became the United States, today known as Harvard University.
1664 The Duke of York and Albany’s Maritime Regiment of Foot, later to be known as the Royal Marines, was established.
1707 The 1707 Hōei earthquake caused more than 5,000 deaths in Honshu, Shikoku and Kyūshū.
1776 American Revolutionary War: Battle of White Plains – British Army forces arrived at White Plains, attacked and captured Chatterton Hill from the Americans.
1834 The Battle of Pinjarra in the Swan River Colony – between 14 and 40 Aborigines were killed by British colonists.
1848 The first railway in Spain – between Barcelona and Mataró – was opened.
1885 Thomas Twyford built the first porcelain toilet.
1886 President Grover Cleveland dedicated the Statue of Liberty.
1890 – New Zealand’s first Labour Day celebrations were held.
1891 The Mino-Owari Earthquake, the largest earthquake in Japan’s history, struck Gifu Prefecture.
1903 Evelyn Waugh, English writer, was born (d. 1966)
1918 Czechoslovakia was granted independence from Austria-Hungary marking the beginning of independent Czechoslovak state, after 300 years.
1918 – New Polish government in Western Galicia was established.
1919 The U.S. Congress passed the Volstead Act over President Woodrow Wilson’s veto, paving the way for Prohibition to begin the following January.
1922 March on Rome: Italian fascists led by Benito Mussolini marched on Rome and take over the Italian government.
1929 Black Monday, major stock market upheaval during the Wall Street Crash of 1929.
1936 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt rededicated the Statue of Liberty on its 50th anniversary.
1940 World War II: Greece rejected Italy’s ultimatum. Italy invaded Greece through Albania, marking Greece’s entry into World War II.
1941 Hank Marvin, English guitarist (The Shadows) was born.
1942 The Alaska Highway (Alcan Highway) is completed through Canada to Fairbanks.
1948 Swiss chemist Paul Müller was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the insecticidal properties of DDT.
1954 The modern Kingdom of the Netherlands is re-founded as a federal monarchy.
1955 Bill Gates, American software executive, was born.
1960 Landon Curt Noll, Astronomer, Cryptographer and Mathematician: youngest to hold the world record for the largest known prime 3 times, was born.
1962 Cuban Missile Crisis: Soviet Union leader Nikita Khrushchev announced he had ordered the removal of Soviet missile bases in Cuba.
1965 Nostra Aetate, the “Declaration on the Relation of the Church with Non-Christian Religions” of the Second Vatican Council, was promulgated by Pope Paul VI; it absolved the Jews of responsibility for the death of Jesus, reversing Innocent III’s 760 year-old declaration.
1965 – Construction on the St. Louis Arch was completed.
1967 Julia Roberts, American actress, was born.
1971 Britain launched its first satellite, Prospero, into low Earth orbit atop a Black Arrow carrier rocket.
1982 Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party won elections, leading to first Socialist government in Spain after death of Franco. Felipe Gonzalez became Prime Minister-elect.
1985 Sandinista Daniel Ortega became president of Nicaragua.
1995 289 people were killed and 265 injured in Baku Metro fire.
1998 An Air China jetliner was hijacked by disgruntled pilot Yuan Bin and flown to Taiwan.
2006 Funeral service for those executed at Bykivnia forest, outside Kiev, Ukraine. 817 Ukrainian civilians (out of some 100,000) executed by Bolsheviks at Bykivnia in 1930s – early 1940s were reburied.
2009 The 28 October 2009 Peshawar bombing killed 117 and wounds 213.
2009 – NASA successfully launched the Ares I-X mission, the only rocket launch for its later-cancelled Constellation programme.
2013 – 5 people were killed and 38 injured after a car crashed into barriers just outside the Forbidden City in Tiananmen Square, Beijing.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia