43 BC – The Second Triumvirate alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (“Octavian”, later “Caesar Augustus”), Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, and Mark Antony was formed.
783 – The Asturian queen Adosinda was put up in a monastery to prevent her kin from retaking the throne from Mauregatus.
1731 William Cowper, English poet, was born (d. 1800).
1778 – Captain James Cook became the first European to visit Maui.
1789 – A national Thanksgiving Day was observed in the United States.
1805 – Official opening of Thomas Telford’s Pontcysyllte Aqueduct.
1842 – The University of Notre Dame was founded.
1863 – American Civil War: Mine Run – Union forces under General George Meade positioned against troops led by Confederate General Robert E. Lee.
1865 – Battle of Papudo: The Spanish navy engaged a combined Peruvian-Chilean fleet north of Valparaiso, Chile.
1876 Willis Carrier, American engineer and inventor (air conditioning), was born (d. 1950).
1895 Bill Wilson, American co-founder of Alcoholics Anonymous, was born (d. 1971).
1918 – The Podgorica Assembly voted for “union of the people”, declaring assimilation into the Kingdom of Serbia.
1922 Charles M. Schulz, American cartoonist, was born (d. 2000).
1923 Pat Phoenix, English actress, was born.
1924 – George Segal, American Pop Sculptor, was born (d. 2000).
1939 – Shelling of Mainila: The Soviet Army orchestrated the incident which was used to justify the start of the Winter War with Finland four days later.
1939 – Tina Turner, American singer and actress, was born (d. 1986).
1942 – World War II: Yugoslav Partisans convened the first meeting of the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia.
1944 – World War II: A German V-2 rocket hit a Woolworth’s shop on New Cross High Street killing 168 shoppers.
1950 – Korean War: Troops from China launch a massive counterattacked against South Korean and United Nations forces (Battle of the Ch’ongch’on River and Battle of Chosin Reservoir), ending any hopes of a quick end to the conflict.
1960 – The National Party, led by Keith Holyoake, defeated Walter Nash’s one-term Labour government. Holyoake went on to become the longest-serving post-war Prime Minister.
1965 – In the Hammaguir launch facility in the Sahara Desert, France launched a Diamant-A rocket with its first satellite, Asterix-1 on board, becoming the third country to enter outer space.
1968 – Vietnam War: United States Air Force helicopter pilot James P. Fleming rescued an Army Special Forces unit pinned down by Viet Cong fire and was later awarded the Medal of Honor.
1970 – In Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, 1.5 inches (38.1 mm) of rain fell in a minute, the heaviest rainfall ever recorded.
1977 – ‘Vrillon’, claiming to be the representative of the ‘Ashtar Galactic Command’, took over Britain’s Southern Television for six minutes.
1983 – Brink’s-MAT robbery: In London, 6,800 gold bars worth nearly £26 million were stolen from the Brink’s-MAT vault at Heathrow Airport.
1990 – The Delta II rocket made its maiden flight.
1998 – Tony Blair became the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom to address the Republic of Ireland’s parliament.
2003 – Concorde made its final flight, over Bristol.
2004 – Ruzhou School massacre: a man stabbed and killed eight people and seriously wounded another four in a school dormitory in Ruzhou, China.
2004 – Male Po’ouli (Black-faced honeycreeper) died of Avian malaria in the Maui Bird Conservation Center in Olinda, Hawaii before it could breed, making the species in all probability extinct.
2008 – The first of 10 co-ordinated attacks on Mumbai by Pakistan-based terrorists were fired.
2011 – NATO forces in Afghanistan attacked a Pakistani checkpost in a friendly fire incident, killing 24 soldiers and wounding 13 others.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia