1215 – The Fourth Lateran Council met, defining the doctrine of transubstantiation, the process by which bread and wine are, by that doctrine, said to transform into the body and blood of Christ.
1620 – The Mayflower Compact was signed in what is now Provincetown Harbor near Cape Cod.
1634 – Following pressure from Anglican bishop John Atherton, the Irish House of Commons passed An Act for the Punishment for the Vice of Buggery.
1673 – Second Battle of Khotyn in Ukraine: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth forces under the command of Jan Sobieski defeated the Ottoman army. In this battle, rockets made by Kazimierz Siemienowicz were successfully used.
1675 – Gottfried Leibniz demonstrated integral calculus for the first time to find the area under the graph of y = ƒ(x).
1724 – Joseph Blake, alias Blueskin, a highwayman was hanged.
1748 – Charles IV of Spain was born (d. 1819)
1778 – Cherry Valley Massacre: Loyalists and Seneca Indian forces attacked a fort and village in eastern New York killing more than forty civilians and soldiers.
1805 – Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Dürenstein – 8000 French troops attempted to slow the retreat of a vastly superior Russian and Austrian force.
1813 – War of 1812: Battle of Crysler’s Farm – British and Canadian forces defeated a larger American force, causing the Americans to abandon their Saint Lawrence campaign.
1839 – The Virginia Military Institute was founded in Lexington.
1854 – The Ballarat Reform League Charter adopted “At a Meeting held on Bakery Hill in the presence of about ten thousand men”
1865 – Treaty of Sinchula was signed: Bhutan ceded areas east of the Teesta River to the British East India Company.
1869 – The Victorian Aboriginal Protection Act was enacted, giving the government control of indigenous people’s wages, their terms of employment, where they could live, and of their children, effectively leading to the Stolen Generations.
1880 – Australian bushranger Ned Kelly was hanged at Melbourne Gaol.
1885 – George S. Patton, American general, was born (d. 1945)
1887 – Construction of the Manchester Ship Canal began at Eastham.
1911 – Many cities in the Midwestern United States broke their record highs and lows on the same day as a strong cold front rolled through.
1918 – The signing of the Armistice between the Allies and Germany was celebrated in many cities and towns around New Zealand. Enthusiasm was dampened, though, by the ongoing impact of the influenza pandemic then ravaging the country. Germany signed an armistice agreement with the Allies in a railroad car outside Compiègne in France. The war officially ended at 11:00 (The eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month).
1918 – Józef Piłsudski came to Warsaw and assumed supreme military power in Poland. Poland regained its independence.
1918 – Emperor Charles I of Austria relinquished power.
1919 – The Centralia Massacre resulted in the deaths of four members of the American Legion and the lynching of a local leader of the Industrial Workers of the World.
1921 – The Tomb of the Unknowns was dedicated by US President Warren G. Harding at Arlington National Cemetery.
1922 Kurt Vonnegut, American novelist, was born (d. 2007).
1926 – U.S. Route 66 was established.
1928 Carlos Fuentes, Mexican writer, was born.
1934 – The Shrine of Remembrance in Melbourne was opened.
1940 – Battle of Taranto – The Royal Navy launched the first aircraft carrier strike in history, on the Italian fleet at Taranto.
1940 – The German cruiser Atlantis captured top secret British mail, and sent it to Japan.
1940 – Armistice Day Blizzard: An unexpected blizzard killed 144 in the U.S. Midwest.
1942 Trans tasman liner Awatea was attacked by swarms of German and Italian bombers. Although its gunners shot down several planes, the Awatea was set on fire and holed by torpedoes. Remarkably, everyone on board got off safely (except for the ship’s cat, which was apparently killed by a bomb blast).
1944 – Dr. jur. Erich Göstl, a member of the Waffen SS, was awarded the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross, to recognise extreme battlefield bravery, after losing his face and eyes during the Battle of Normandy.
1945 Daniel Ortega, President of Nicaragua, was born.
1945 – Chris Dreja, British musician (The Yardbirds), was born.
1960 – A military coup against President Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam was crushed.
1962 – Kuwait’s National Assembly ratified the Constitution of Kuwait.
1962 – Demi Moore, American actress, was born.
1966 – NASA launched Gemini 12.
1968 – Vietnam War: Operation Commando Hunt initiated.
1968 – A second republic was declared in the Maldives.
1974 Leonardo DiCaprio, American actor, was born.
1975 – Australian constitutional crisis of 1975: Australian Governor-General Sir John Kerr dismissed the government of Gough Whitlam, appointed Malcolm Fraser as caretaker Prime Minister and announced a general election to be held in early December.
1992 – The General Synod of the Church of England voted to allow women to become priests.
1999 – The House of Lords Act was given Royal Assent, restricting membership of the British House of Lords by virtue of a hereditary peerage.
2000 – In Kaprun, Austria, 155 skiers and snowboarders died when a cable car caught fire in an alpine tunnel.
2006 – Queen Elizabeth II unveiled the New Zealand War Memorial in London, commemorating the loss of soldiers from the New Zealand and British Armies.
#gigatownoamaru is working to make history as the southern hemisphere’s first gigatown.