479 BC Persian forces led by Mardonius were routed by Pausanias, the Spartan commander of the Greek army in the Battle of Plataea.
410 The sacking of Rome by the Visigoths ended after three days.
663 Battle of Baekgang: Remnants of the Korean Baekje Kingdom and their Yamato Japanese allies engaged the combined naval forces of the Tang Chinese and Silla Koreans on the Geum River.
1232 The Formulary of Adjudications was promulgated by Regent Hōjō Yasutoki.
1689 The Treaty of Nerchinsk was signed by Russia and the Qing empire.
1776 The Battle of Long Island: British forces under General William Howe defeated Americans under General George Washington.
1793 French counter-revolution: the port of Toulon revolted and admitted the British fleet, which landed troops and seized the port leading to Siege of Toulon.
1798 Wolfe Tone’s United Irish and French forces clashed with the British Army in the Battle of Castlebar.
1803 Edward Beecher, American theologian, was born (d. 1895).
1810 Napoleonic Wars: The French Navy defeated the British Royal Navy, preventing them from taking the harbour of Grand Port on Île de France.
1813 French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte defeated a larger force of Austrians, Russians, and Prussians at the Battle of Dresden.
1828 Uruguay was formally proclaimed independent at preliminary peace talks brokered by Great Britain between Brazil and Argentina during the Argentina-Brazil War.
1859 Petroleum was discovered in Titusville, Pennsylvania leading to the world’s first commercially successful oil well.
1875 Katharine McCormick, American women’s rights activist, was born (d. 1967).
1877 Charles Rolls, British co-founder of Rolls-Royce, was born (d. 1910).
1896 Anglo-Zanzibar War: the shortest war in world history (09:00 to 09:45) between the United Kingdom and Zanzibar.
1899 C. S. Forester, British author, was born (d. 1966).
1904 The foundation stone for Victoria College (now Victoria University of Wellington), was laid.
1904 Norah Lofts, British author, was born (d. 1983).
1908 Sir Donald Bradman, Australian cricketer, was born (d. 2001).
1908 Lyndon B. Johnson, 36th President of the United States, was born (d. 1973).
1911 Joseph Pawelka escaped from Wellington’s Terrace Gaol – the last in a series of bold but seemingly effortless prison escapes Pawelka made over an 18-month period.
1922 The Turkish army took the Aegean city of Afyonkarahisar from the Greeks.
1928 The Kellogg-Briand Pact outlawing war was signed by the first fifteen nations.
1932 Antonia Fraser, British author, was born.
1939 First flight of the turbojet-powered Heinkel He 178, the world’s first jet aircraft.
1942 Daryl Dragon, American keyboardist (Captain & Tennille), was born.
1947 John Morrison, New Zealand cricketer, was born.
1962 The Mariner 2 unmanned space mission was launched to Venus by NASA.
1982 Turkish military diplomat Colonel Atilla Altıkat was shot and killed in Ottawa. Justice Commandos Against Armenian Genocide claimed responsibility, saying they were avenging the massacre of 1.5 million Armenians in the 1915 Armenian Genocide.
1991 – Moldova declared independence from the USSR.
1993 The Rainbow Bridge, connecting Tokyo’s Shibaura and the island of Odaiba, was completed.
2000 The 540-metre (1,772 ft)-tall Ostankino Tower in Moscow caught fire, killing three people.
2003 Mars made its closest approach to Earth in nearly 60,000 years, passing 34,646,418 miles (55,758,005 km) distant.
2006 Comair Flight 5191 crashed on takeoff from Blue Grass Airport in Lexington, Kentucky killing 49 of the 50 passengers and crew.
2009 – The Burmese military junta and ethnic armies began three days of violent clashes in the Kokang Special Region.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia