1095 – The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land, began.
1600 King Charles I of England was born (d. 1649).
1794 – The United States and Great Britain signed Jay’s Treaty, which attempts to resolve some of the lingering problems left over from the American Revolutionary War.
1816 – Warsaw University was established.
1847 – The Montreal and Lachine Railway, was opened.
1863 – American Civil War: U.S. President Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address at the dedication of the military cemetery ceremony at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
1881 – A meteorite landed near the village of Grossliebenthal, southwest of Odessa, Ukraine.
1905 Tommy Dorsey, American bandleader, was born (d. 1956).
1916 – Samuel Goldwyn and Edgar Selwyn established Goldwyn Pictures.
1917 Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India was born (d. 1984).
1930 – Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow committed their first of a large series of robberies and other criminal acts.
1933 Larry King, American TV personality, was born.
1941 – World War II: Battle between HMAS Sydney and HSK Kormoran. The two ships sank each other off the coast of Western Australia, with the loss of 645 Australians and about 77 German seamen.
1942 – World War II: Battle of Stalingrad – Soviet Union forces under General Georgy Zhukov launched the Operation Uranus counterattacks at Stalingrad, turning the tide of the battle in the USSR’s favor.
1943 – Holocaust: Nazis liquidated Janowska concentration camp in Lemberg (Lviv), western Ukraine, murdering at least 6,000 Jews after a failed uprising and mass escape attempt.
1944 – World War II: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt announced the 6th War Loan Drive, aimed at selling $14 billion USD in war bonds to help pay for the war effort.
1954 – Télé Monte Carlo, Europe’s oldest private television channel, was launched by Prince Rainier III.
1955 – National Review published its first issue.
1959 – The Ford Motor Company announced the discontinuation of the unpopular Edsel.
1961 Meg Ryan, American actress, was born.
1962 Jodie Foster, American actress, was born.
1967 – The establishment of TVB, the first wireless commercial television station in Hong Kong.
1969 – Apollo 12 astronauts Pete Conrad and Alan Bean landed at Oceanus Procellarum (the “Ocean of Storms”) and become the third and fourth humans to walk on the Moon.
1969 – Football player Pelé scored his 1,000th goal.
1977 – Egyptian President Anwar Sadat became the first Arab leader to officially visit Israel.
1977 – Transportes Aéreos Portugueses Boeing 727 crashed in Madeira Islands, killing 130.
1979 – Iran hostage crisis: Iranian leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini ordered the release of 13 female and black American hostages being held at the US Embassy in Tehran.
1984 – San Juanico Disaster: A series of explosions at the PEMEX petroleum storage facility at San Juan Ixhuatepec in Mexico City started a major fire and killed about 500 people.
1985 – Pennzoil won a $10.53 billion USD judgment against Texaco, in the largest civil verdict in the history of the United States, stemming from Texaco executing a contract to buy Getty Oil after Pennzoil had entered into an unsigned, yet still binding, buyout contract with Getty.
1988 – Serbian communist representative and future Serbian and Yugoslav president Slobodan Milosevic publicly declared that Serbia was under attack from Albanian separatists in Kosovoas well as internal treachery within Yugoslavia and a foreign conspiracy to destroy Serbia and Yugoslavia.
1990 – Pop group Milli Vanilli was stripped of its Grammy Award because the duo did not sing at all on the Girl You Know It’s True album. Session musicians had provided all the vocals.
1992 The Fred Hollows Foundation was established in New Zealand.
1994 – In Great Britain, the first National Lottery draw was held. A £1 ticket gave a one-in-14-million chance of correctly guessing the winning six out of 49 numbers.
1996 – Lt. Gen. Maurice Baril of Canada arrived in Africa to lead a multi-national policing force in Zaire.
1998 – Lewinsky scandal: The United States House of Representatives Judiciary Committee began impeachment hearings against U.S. President Bill Clinton.
1998 – Vincent van Gogh‘s Portrait of the Artist Without Beard sells at auction for $US71.5 million.
2010 – An explosion in the Pike River mine trapped 29 men.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia