694 – Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accused Jews of aiding Muslims, sentencing all Jews to slavery.
1282 – Pope Martin IV excommunicated King Peter III of Aragon.
1313 – Louis the Bavarian defeated his cousin Frederick I of Austria at the Battle of Gamelsdorf.
1330 – Battle of Posada, Wallachian Voievode Basarab I defeated the Hungarian army in an ambush.
1456 – Ulrich II of Celje last prince of Celje principality, was assassinated in Belgrade.
1492 – Peace of Etaples between Henry VII and Charles VIII.
1494 – The Family de’ Medici were expelled from Florence.
1620 – Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower sighted land at Cape Cod, Massachusetts.
1688 – The Glorious Revolution: William of Orange captured Exeter.
1720 – The synagogue of Yehudah he-Hasid was burned down by Arab creditors, leading to the expulsion of the Ashkenazim from Jerusalem.
1729 – Spain, France and Great Britain signed the Treaty of Seville.
1764 – Mary Campbell, a captive of the Lenape during the French and Indian War, was turned over to forces commanded by Colonel Henry Bouquet.
1769 – Captain Cook and astronomer Charles Green observed the transit of Mercury at Te Whanganui-a-hei (Mercury Bay) on the Coromandel Peninsula.
1791 – Foundation of the Dublin Society of United Irishmen.
1799 – Napoleon Bonaparte led the Coup d’état of 18 Brumaire ending the Directory government, and becoming one of its three Consuls (Consulate Government).
1841 King Edward VII was born (d. 1910).
1851 – Kentucky marshals abducted abolitionist minister Calvin Fairbank from Jeffersonville, Indiana, and took him to Kentucky to stand trial for helping a slave escape.
1857 – The Atlantic was founded in Boston.
1862 – American Civil War: Union General Ambrose Burnside assumed command of the Army of the Potomac, after George B. McClellan was removed.
1867 – Tokugawa Shogunate handed power back to the Emperor of Japan, starting the Meiji Restoration.
1868 Marie Dressler, Canadian actress, was born (d 1934) .
1872 – The Great Boston Fire of 1872.
1887 – The United States received rights to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
1888 – Jack the Ripper killed Mary Jane Kelly, his last known victim.
1902 Anthony Asquith, British film director, was born (d 1968).
1906 – Theodore Roosevelt was the first sitting USA president to make an official trip outside the country. He did so to inspect progress on the Panama Canal.
1907 – The Cullinan Diamond was presented to King Edward VII on his birthday.
1913 – The Great Lakes Storm of 1913, the most destructive natural disaster ever to hit the lakes, destroyed 19 ships and killed more than 250 people.
1914 – SMS Emden was sunk by HMAS Sydney in the Battle of Cocos.
1917 – Joseph Stalin entered the provisional government of Bolshevik Russia.
1918 – Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany abdicated after the German Revolution, and Germany was proclaimed a Republic.
1918 Spiro Agnew, 39th Vice President of the United States, was born (d1996).
1920 The Immigration Restriction Amendment Act 1920 made it necessary for immigrants to apply for a permanent residence permit before they arrived in New Zealand, which in effect introduced a white New Zealand policy.
1921 – Albert Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work with the photoelectric effect.
1923 – In Munich, Germany, police and government troops crushed the Beer Hall Putsch in Bavaria.
1932 – Riots between conservative and socialist supporters in Switzerland killed 12 and injured 60.
1936 Mary Travers , singer, (Peter, Paul & Mary), was born (d 2009).
1937 Roger McGough, English poet, was born.
1937 – Japanese troops took control of Shanghai.
1938 – Nazi German diplomat Ernst vom Rath died from the fatal gunshot wounds of Jewish resistance fighter Herschel Grynszpan, an act which the Nazis used as an excuse to instigate the 1938 national pogrom, Kristallnacht.
1940 – Warsaw was awarded the Virtuti Militari.
1953 – Cambodia gained independence from France.
1955 – Karen Dotrice, British actress, was born.
1960 – Robert McNamara was named president of Ford Motor Co., the first non-Ford to serve in that post.
1963 – At Miike coal mine, Japan, an explosion killed 458, and hospitalised 839 with carbon monoxide poisoning.
1963 – A three-train disaster in Yokohama, killed more than 160 people.
1965 – Several U.S. states and parts of Canada were hit by a series of blackouts lasting up to 13 hours in the Northeast Blackout of 1965.
1965 – Catholic Worker member Roger Allen LaPorte, protesting against the Vietnam War, set himself on fire in front of the United Nations building.
1967 – Apollo program: NASA launches the unmanned Apollo 4 test spacecraft atop the first Saturn V rocket from Cape Kennedy, Florida.
1967 – First issue of Rolling Stone Magazine was published.
1970 – Vietnam War: The Supreme Court of the United States voted 6 to 3 against hearing a case to allow Massachusetts to enforce its law granting residents the right to refuse military service in an undeclared war.
1979 – Nuclear false alarm: the NORAD computers and the Alternate National Military Command Center in Fort Ritchie, Maryland detected purported massive Soviet nuclear strike. After reviewing the raw data from satellites and checking the early warning radars, the alert is cancelled.
1985 – Garry Kasparov 22, of the Soviet Union became the youngest World Chess Champion by beating Anatoly Karpov, also of the Soviet Union.
1989 – Fall of the Berlin Wall. Communist-controlled East Germany opened checkpoints in the Berlin Wall allowing its citizens to travel to West Germany.
1990 – New democratic constitution was issued in Nepal.
1993 – Stari most, the “old bridge” in Bosnian Mostar built in 1566, collapsed after several days of bombing.
1994 – The chemical element Darmstadtium was discovered.
1998 – Brokerage houses were ordered to pay $US1.03 billion to cheated NASDAQ investors to compensate for their price-fixing. This is the largest civil settlement in United States history.
1998 – Capital punishment in the United Kingdom, already abolished for murder, was completely abolished for all remaining capital offences.
2005 – The Venus Express mission of the European Space Agency was launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.
2005 – Suicide bombers attacked three hotels in Amman, Jordan, killing at least 60 people.
2007 – The German Bundestag passed the controversial data retention bill mandating storage of citizens’ telecommunications traffic data for six months without probable cause.
Sourced from NZ History Online & Wikipedia